Understanding Conflict: Types, Causal Factors, and Examples

Definition of Conflict – In our daily life, of course we will never be free from what is called conflict. This happens because humans themselves are social creatures who will always interact with each other. Conflict here is a social process where one party will try to get rid of the other party by destroying it.

The problem could happen between individuals with individuals, individuals with a group, or groups with other groups. Generally, conflict can occur because of differences in an interaction that causes opposition. In essence, the conflict will not only have a negative impact, but sometimes it will also bring a positive impact. Well, in order not to be confused, in this article we will discuss in more depth the meaning of conflict and some causes and examples in everyday life. What do you think? Let’s see the discussion below.

What Is Conflict?

Before discussing conflict in more depth, let’s first discuss the meaning of conflict. Do any of you already know what conflict is? So, etymologically, the word conflict comes from the Latin “con” and “figere”. Where the word “con” has the meaning of together, while “figere” has the meaning of hitting. In KBBI, the entry “conflict” is interpreted as a quarrel, dispute, and opposition. So that the city can conclude that conflict is a condition when there are two or more views, beliefs, desires, interests, different needs, values, inconsistencies, opposites, and not in line.

In Sociology material that discusses conflict, the word is more interpreted as a social process that occurs between two people or groups that try to get rid of each other by making someone or another group helpless or even by destroying another person or group.

Generally, conflicts will arise from differences in everyday life such as differences in culture, physicality, interests, values, needs, emotions, and behavioral patterns between individuals and groups in society. These differences can culminate into a social conflict when the social system of the community cannot accommodate the differences that exist within the community itself.

As usually happens around us, conflict cannot be avoided from the dynamics of social life. In the conflict theory, the condition of a plural society will indeed lead to an imbalance in the distribution of power or authority. So that there will always be social groups that compete with each other in seizing influence in a society. From the existence of the competition, the most powerful group will emerge over the other groups. Usually, the group that feels the most powerful is the elite group. So that he can make a rule that defends the interests of his own group.

The rules made by the powerful group can be in the form of laws that bind other social groups to remain obedient. The competition that occurs between two or more groups is what will later cause social conflict in society.

Definition of Conflict According to Experts

So that you can better understand the material of the conflict. The following are some definitions of conflict according to experts:

a. Hello Liliweri

Conflict is a form of natural opposition that originates from individuals or groups because those involved have different beliefs, attitudes, needs, and values.

b. De Moor

In a social system, it can be said that there is conflict if the inhabitants of the system allow themselves or their groups to be guided by opposing goals or values ​​and this happens on a large scale.

c. Dean G. Pruitt and Jeffrey Z. Rubin

The term “conflict” in its original language means a fight, war, and struggle in the form of physical confrontation between several parties.

d. Lewis A. Coser

Conflict is a struggle about values ​​or claims over status, power, aimed at neutralizing, injuring, and eliminating the opponent.

e. MZ Lawang

Conflict is a form of struggle to gain status, value, and even power when the goal of the conflicting parties is not only to gain profit, but also to subjugate their rivals.

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f. Robert MZ Lawang

Conflict is a struggle to obtain rare things such as status, value, power, etc. The purpose of the conflict is not only to win, but also to subjugate the competitor or opponent.

g. Soerjono Soekanto

Conflict as one of the social processes of individuals per individual or group of people who try to meet their needs by opposing the opponent accompanied by violence or threats.

Factors Causing Conflict

Below are some factors that cause conflict, among others:

1. Individual differences

The individual differences in question include differences in feelings and attitudes. Where every human being is a unique individual. This means that each person has a stance and feelings that are different from each other. The difference in stance and feeling is still a matter or a real area that has become one of the factors that cause social conflict. Because, in going through a social relationship, a person is not always in line with the group. For example, when there is a music stage in a residential area, of course everyone’s feelings will be different. There are those who feel disturbed by the noise, but there are also those who feel entertained.

2. Differences in Cultural Background Create Different Individuals

Some people may be influenced by the group’s thinking and stance. Those different thoughts and positions can eventually trigger conflict.

3. Differences in Interest Between Individuals and Groups

Everyone must have different feelings, attitudes or cultural backgrounds. Therefore, at the same time, each person or group has different interests. Sometimes, people do similar things, but have different goals.

For example, related to differences in interests in the utilization of forests. Where the community leaders consider the forest as cultural wealth that is part of their culture. So that its sustainability must be maintained and cannot be cut down indiscriminately. As for the farmers, they actually choose to cut down trees because they consider the trees to be an obstacle for them in making gardens and farms.

For timber operators, they cut down trees and then export them to earn money and create jobs. As for environmentalists, forests are part of the environment that must be preserved. From here we can see that there are differences in interests between one group and another. Until that will bring social conflict in the community.

3. Express and Sudden Value Changes in the Population

Change is something that should happen. But if the change takes place quickly and suddenly, then the change can trigger social conflict. For example, in rural communities that experience a process of industrialization that is quite sudden, then that will certainly give rise to social conflict. Because, the old values ​​that already exist in the traditional society which generally has an agricultural pattern suddenly changed into the values ​​of the industrial society.

Where the values ​​that have changed are among others the value of mutual aid that has changed into the value of a work contract with a salary that is adjusted based on the type of their job. Then the kinship relationship changes into a structural relationship arranged in a formal organization of the company. The changes that occur suddenly, will certainly create a shock in the social process in the community. There will even be an effort to reject the form of change, because it is judged to disrupt the order of life that already existed before.

Types of Conflict

The following are some types of conflicts that we commonly find in social life.

1. Personal Conflict

The first type of conflict is personal conflict. Where personal conflict is one type of conflict that occurs between individuals and individuals or with community groups. One of the causes of personal conflict is due to differences in the way of looking between individuals related to similar issues. This type of conflict very often occurs in friendships, families, the world of work, and so on. One example of personal conflict is when a family has an argument about the division of inheritance rights.

2. Religious Conflict

The next type of conflict is religious conflict. Religious conflict is a conflict that occurs between groups that have different religions and beliefs. The majority of society considers that religion as one of the guidelines and also guidelines for life that must be followed absolutely. So that anything that is different and not in accordance with the religion they follow, will be considered as a problem and that will trigger a conflict.

An example of a religious conflict is the conflict that occurred in Poso. Where the conflict between the two religions has occurred for many years. The conflict occurred because Poso at that time was filled with Muslim residents. However, as time went on, many people who believed in Christianity entered the Poso region and became dominant. But in the end, the conflict can be resolved through mediation.

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3. Racial Conflict

Racial conflict is a type of conflict that occurs between different races. Where racial conflict will occur when each race feels superior and prioritizes the interests of its own group. For an example of racial conflict, such as the conflict between white youth and black youth. Surely that is very unsettling and causes division. This type of racial conflict often occurs in Indonesia.

4. Conflict Between Social Classes

The next type of conflict is conflict between social classes. Where this type of conflict is known as vertical conflict, which can appear because of a difference in interests between classes in society. An example of this type of conflict is a demonstration that occurs between employees and the company, where the employees demand a salary increase.

5. Social Conflict

The existence of class groups in a society will have the potential to trigger conflict. Struggle and also efforts to defend the status and role in the community often lead to conflict. An example of this one conflict is between the rich group and the poor group who fight each other for power in the political seat.

6. Political Conflict

Political conflict is one type of conflict that occurs due to differences of opinion in political life. The conflict occurs because each group wants to be in power in a government system. Examples of this conflict are the PKI rebellion in Madiun, the 30S/PKI Rebellion, and the DI/TII rebellion. In fact, there are still many political conflicts that occur in the run-up to the election.

7. International conflict

International conflict is a type of conflict that involves various groups of countries due to differences in the interests of each country. One of the examples of international conflict is between North Korea and South Korea, ISIS, as well as other countries that wage war.

8. Causes of Conflict

Conflict can occur because of a cause. So that will cause a conflict. There are several causes of conflict as a whole including:

-Individual differences

The first cause of conflict is due to individual differences and different feelings. Where there is usually a difference of feeling and stance towards a real thing or environment. This can be one of the causes of social conflict.

– Differences in interests between individuals or groups

The next cause of conflict is the difference in interests between individuals and a group. This happens because not everyone has the same interests.

-Differences in cultural background

Some people will be influenced by the ownership pattern and also the stance of the group. Those different thoughts and positions will eventually trigger differences that can cause a conflict.

– Rapid and sudden value changes in society

As explained above, sudden changes in a society have the potential to trigger conflict. Because, it happened because of the unpreparedness of society in facing a drastic change.

How to Overcome Conflict

Below are some ways you can do to overcome a conflict.

1. Competition

Conflict resolution in the form of competition is usually known as win-lose orientation. Where this settlement process describes one party sacrificing the other party.

2. Accommodation

The resolution of this type of conflict will depict a mirror image competition that will give the entire solution to the other party without any effort to fight for its own goals. The process is commonly known as reconciliation tactics.

3. Sharing

In this type of conflict resolution process, one party will give and the other party will receive something. Both have a moderate mind, incomplete, but satisfactory.

4. Collaboration

This is one form of conflict resolution that can satisfy both parties. The effort is a problem-solving approach that requires integration from both sides.

5. Avoidance

The resolution of this conflict usually involves the indifference of the two groups concerned. The condition reflects the withdrawal of the interests of other groups.

Examples of Conflict

An example of a conflict that we often find in everyday life is the conflict about children who drop out of school because they have to help their parents work. This condition should be one of the government’s concerns because children who are of compulsory school age need to complete their education until the end. . Based on a survey of children aged 10 to 17 who are already working, as reported by the Central Statistics Agency in 2006.

It is recorded that 2.8 million children have become workers. From the results of the study, it was found that children aged 9 to 15 years are already involved in various types of work. Where it has resulted in their mental, emotional, and physical health. At first maybe they only intended to help his parents. But as time goes by, they then get stuck being a permanent employee.

Eventually they often skip school and decide to quit school. For poor children, School Operational Assistance or BOS alone is not enough. The government and schools should consider giving additional scholarships to buy uniforms and stationery. So that children who are less able are not burdened with the cost of education.