Research Design: Definition, Function, Classification, and Shape

Research Design – Does Sinaumed’s know that before we do research in any field, be it literature, linguistics, science, to law, we also need a research design. Similar to working on a work of art, research must also be preceded by compiling a research design first. This was done so that the research results did not deviate and were in accordance with existing guidelines.

All types of research must have their own research design, so Sinaumed’s cannot and should not just pick one research design to use in other types of research. However, it should also be noted that to implement a research design one must also pay attention to its compatibility with the research variables. So what exactly is research design? What are the types of research designs that can be used for a study?

So, so that Sinaumed’s can carry out research properly and correctly, let’s look at the description of the definition of research design and matters relating to it.

Definition of Research Design

Before discussing what research design is, it would be better if Sinaumed’s understood the meaning of one word at a time. According to KBBI (Big Indonesian Dictionary) the word ” design ” itself means ” framework ” or ” design “. While the word ” research ” means “activities of collecting, processing, analyzing, and presenting data that are carried out systematically and objectively to solve a problem or test a hypothesis to develop general principles” .

So, from the translation of the meaning of each word, it can be concluded that the research design is the design of activities for collecting, processing, analyzing, and presenting data that is carried out systematically and objectively; to solve a problem or test a hypothesis. In short, the definition of this research design is a form of research design that is structured in such a way as to guide researchers in their efforts to obtain answers to their research questions. The design of this research is not the same as trying to determine the results of the research, but is more directed at efforts to narrow down the possible results.

These research questions cover many things, starting from an explanation of what the problem will be researched, why the problem must be researched, to how the problem can be researched in order to get results that are useful for society.

Questions that Assist the Preparation of Research Design

In an effort to develop a research design, it is better to use guidelines for questions related to research variables. Not only that, the division of chapters in the research can also be used as a guide for the questions. So here are some examples of questions that can help Sinaumed’s in compiling a research design:

Matters Relating to the Problem Formulation Chapter

  • What are the main problems that require research?
  • What is the purpose of conducting research?
  • Can data be obtained and how?
  • Was the researcher able to carry out the research in terms of cost, effort, time, and theoretical background?
  • Is it easy to obtain research permits, especially from related parties?
  • Do you still need to do a preliminary study?

Matters Relating to The Theoretical Review Chapter

  • What theories can support the research?
  • Where do these supporting theories come from?
  • Is there any previous research that is relevant to this research?
  • What is the form of the framework of this research?

Matters Relating to Hypothesis Formulation

  • Does this research require a hypothesis?
  • What is the basis used in formulating the hypothesis?
  • What form of hypothesis will be formulated?
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Matters Relating to Determination of Variables and Data Sources

  • What variables will be examined?
  • Where will the data source be obtained?

Matters Relating to the Data Collection Chapter

  • What data must be collected?
  • What form of instrument to collect data?
  • Who will collect the data?
  • What is the total cost in the data collection process?
  • How much labor is required to collect data?
  • What are the procedures that must be met in an effort to collect data?

Matters Relating to Data Analysis and Interpretation

  • What is the format for data tabulation?
  • Who will do the data tabulation?
  • How long does the data tabulation process take?
  • What analysis tools will be used?
  • What software will be used for the data analysis process?

Matters Relating to Conclusions and Suggestions

  • How do you convey the conclusion?
  • For whom will the advice be given?
  • Is the delivery of advice in a general or specific form?

Matters Relating to Research Design

  • What is the design problem formulation?
  • What is the theoretical basis of the design?
  • How is the design of the formulation of the hypothesis?
  • What is the scale of measurement?

Research Design Function

1. Testing the Research Hypothesis

In this case, the research design is more directed at appropriate statistical analysis techniques to test hypotheses as well as answer the problems discussed in the study. Not only that, the research design also serves to determine the conclusion.

2. Controlling VS (Secondary Variables)

The research design will later direct about how to minimize the variables outside the secondary variables.

3. As a Handbook for Researchers

In this case, the research design can provide clearer guidelines or guidelines, especially for researchers when conducting a study. Like building a house, we certainly need a design that includes the shape, size, materials, time of execution, and the costs that will be required. So, when you want to do a research, you have to be prepared in such a way.

When preparing a research design, there are several things that researchers must pay attention to, namely:

  • Target population
  • Selected sampling method
  • Sampling size
  • Data collection procedures
  • How to analyze data after the data is collected
  • Whether or not to use statistics
  • How to draw conclusions

4. To Determine Research Boundaries

Research design can also serve to define research boundaries that are closely related to objectives. If the objectives are not formulated clearly, then the research also seems to have no end. Now, with the formulation of clear objectives, the preparation of research designs will also be easier because researchers can focus their attention towards more effective goals.

5. As an illustration of the difficulties that may be encountered

Research design can also serve to provide an idea of ​​what difficulties researchers might face. So, through this research design, the researcher will be able to think of ways to overcome the difficulties or problems that will be encountered.

Research Design Classification

The grouping or classification of the research design varies when viewed from various perspectives, starting from the method of data collection, according to its purpose, to the point of view of controlling the variables carried out by the researcher.

So, here is the classification of the research design.

Based on the problem formulation

  1. Explorative Research
  2. Hypothesis Testing Research

Based on Data Collection Method

  1. Observational Research
  2. Survey Research

Based On Variable Control

  1. Experimental Research
  2. Ex Post Facto Research

Based on Purpose

  1. Descriptive Research
  2. Comparative Research
  3. Associative Research

Based on the Time Dimension

  1. Time Series Research
  2. Cross Sectional Research

Based On Study Environment

  1. Field Study
  2. Field Experiments
  3. Laboratory Experiments

Based on Number of Contacts

  1. Cross-Sectional Research
  2. Research Before and After
  3. Longitudinal Research

Based on Referral Time

  1. Retrospective Research
  2. Prospective Research
  3. Mixed Research

Based on Investigation Characteristics

  1. Experimental Research
  2. Non-Experimental Research
  3. Semi-Experimental Research

Forms of Research Design

The form of this research design is almost related to the classification of research designs. So here are some explanations about the forms of research design based on their classification.

1. Survey Research Design

Survey research is conducted for the purpose of gathering information about a large population of people, by conducting interviews with a small number of the population. This survey research can be used in an exploratory, descriptive, or experimental research. In order to obtain information or answers regarding the issues to be discussed in this study, not only interview techniques can be used, but also questionnaires, observation, or a combination of several existing techniques.

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The following are the strengths and weaknesses of the survey research design.

No. Advantages of Survey Research Design Disadvantages of Survey Research Design
1. Involve a large number of people if using the right data collection techniques, the results will be accountable. The answers from the target population are often not in-depth.
2. Explorative nature Opinions expressed by this population of people can change in a short time.
3. Having official “evidence” for the answers of a large number of people. There is no guarantee that the entire population will answer the questionnaire, because it is only a sample.
4. If the data collection technique uses an online questionnaire, the cost range is much cheaper.

2. Cross-Sectional Research Design

This research design is often also known as a one-shot study or case study, which is mostly used in research in the social field. This cross-sectional research design aims to find an occurrence of a phenomenon, situation, problem, behavior, or social issue that occurs in a population.

The research design is very simple, because the researcher only determines what to find in the problem, identifies the population, selects the sample, and makes contact with the respondents in order to obtain the required information at a certain time. Unfortunately, this research design has the disadvantage of not having the ability to explain the possibility of changes in conditions or the relationship of the population being investigated in different time periods. Since this research design cannot measure or explain changes in the population, so if you want to do this, you need at least two points in time for the same population.

3. Research Design Before and After ( Pre-Test and Post-Test Design )

In this research design, it can be described as data collection on the existence of a set of cross-sectional studies of the same population in order to obtain answers to changes in phenomena that occur between two points in time. This change is measured by comparing the differences in phenomena or variables that occur before and after the intervention treatment.

This research design also has advantages and disadvantages. In terms of advantages, it can be used to measure changes in situations, phenomena, issues, behaviors, and problems that occur within a community group at two different points. This before and after research design is usually used in research related to the effectiveness of a program in society.

The drawbacks in this study design varied, ranging from the possibility of expensive research costs, the existence of changes in the population at these two points in time, to the existence of reactive effects and regression effects on the answers given by the population.

4. Longitudinal Research Design

If the research design before and after that cannot explain the pattern of changes that have occurred, then this longitudinal research design can be used to determine the pattern of these changes, especially those related to time. In this research design, population studies are carried out repeatedly or periodically, especially at certain time intervals.

The drawback of this longitudinal research design is the occurrence of a conditioning effect, which describes a situation where the same respondent will be surveyed repeatedly, so that the respondent already knows the answer and the expectation of the answer from the researcher, which in turn causes the respondent to respond to questions without thinking and potentially will give an answer. which is always the same.

Even so, this research design also has the advantage of enabling researchers to determine patterns of change and obtain factual information on an ongoing basis.

5. Retrospective Research Design

In this research design will tend to observe or investigate a phenomenon, problem, or issue that occurred in the past. Usually in this study, researchers will ask respondents to answer questions (interviews) to explore the events or phenomena that occur. This research design is suitable for research in the fields of history or sociology.

6. Prospective Research Design

This research design is more inclined to research on the occurrence of a phenomenon, situation, problem, behavior, or the impact of a phenomenon in the future. In contrast to the retrospective research design that…

Since the phenomenon to be studied occurs in the future, this research must wait for a treatment that has an impact or influence on a population.

7. Mixed Research Design

The mix in this research design is a combination of retrospective and prospective which focuses on studying the pattern of a phenomenon in the past and observing it for the future.

So, that’s a review of what research design is and its forms that Sinaumed’s can apply in research. However, it should be noted that before compiling this research design, it must first be matched with existing research variables.

 

Source: 

Hamdani, Mohammad Ir. Research Design . www.istn.ac.id

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