Examples of Fine Art – The types of works of art that Sinaumed’s can encounter everyday in homes, museums, art galleries, and public spaces are very diverse. So, what kinds of works of art do Sinaumed’s know?
Fine art is all forms of expression of aesthetic experience that are consciously carried out by humans through the media of dots, lines, shapes, colors, textures and spaces.
Various Indonesian Art Works
The following are examples of the various kinds of works of art that can be found in Indonesian regions, namely:
1. Art painting
Painting is a two-dimensional art which is also the oldest type of art in the world. Painting in each region has its own painting characteristics. Regional paintings generally symbolize the beliefs of the local community. Examples of painting in Indonesia are:
- Kamasan painting from Bali
- Wayang Semar painting from Yogyakarta
- Kalimantan Dayak Painting
- Glass painting from Cirebon
- Khombow painting from Papua
- Painting of Leang-Leang from Central Java
- Lampang painting from Borneo
According to Mikke Susanto in the book Diction of Fine Arts, Collection of Terms and Fine Arts Movement (2011), sculpture is a three-dimensional work that has a shape and is made by subtractive methods (reducing materials such as carving and cutting) or additive (adding such as printing and casting). . Examples of the variety of sculpture in Indonesia are:
- Sculpture of the Asmat Tribe of Papua
- Batak Sculpture Art (Batak Toba, Simalungun, Pakpak Dairi, and Karo)
- Batak mask art (Simalungun, Tapanuli, Pakpak Dairi, and Karo)
- Reog mask from East Java
- Nias sculpture
- Carving from Toraja
- Asmat Carving Art
- Miniature from South Sulawesi
3. Craft art
Craft art is art that has functional properties or has uses in human life. Crafts in every region of Indonesia are made by hand and also simple tools in accordance with the customs and culture prevailing in that area. Examples of craft art in Indonesia are:
- Batik from Yogyakarta
- Batik from Toraja
- South Sulawesi woven fabrics
- Batik Buketan from Bali
- Kris motifs from Yogyakarta
- Sasirangan fabric of the Banjar people of South Kalimantan
- Tanggui Woven from South Kalimantan
- Woven Bingga Central Sulawesi
Definition of Fine Arts
According to the book Basic Knowledge of Fine Arts (2015) by Sofyan Salam, and friends, fine art is a branch of art that forms works of art with media that can be captured by the eye and felt by touch.
The style of this fine art is created by processing the concepts of line, area, shape, volume, color, texture, and lighting with aesthetic references.
Broadly speaking, the translation of fine arts into English is fine art . However, in accordance with the development of the modern art world, the term fine art has become more specific for the notion of pure art.
The difference with other types of art, fine art is a work that emphasizes aesthetic values or beauty. In this context, fine art has a function as a medium that aims to beautify a place or object.
Practically, fine art is used to show the side of beauty. However, this fine art is also very influential in the way of assessing, processing, and enjoying a work.
Elements of Fine Arts
There are several elements in fine arts, namely:
Line is the most basic element as well as the most important to create a work of art. The embodiment of a work of art generally begins with a scribbled line on the design.
Lines have 2 longitudinal dimensions and have specific directions and properties. For example long, short, horizontal, vertical, curved, straight, wavy and so on have their respective meanings.
The shape is the appearance of the piece or shape of an object. Where patterns can be formed from lines that cover a certain area size and form fields.
Then, expression can also mean the embodiment of an object or what is often referred to as a shape or field.
Buildings or fields, namely elements that always have a relationship with objects, both artificial objects and natural objects.
On the other hand, a plane can be a regular shape i.e. circle, quadrilateral, triangle or irregular. Apart from being solid, objects also have a plastic shape.
Space is an element of a work of art that shows the dimensions of the work of art itself. That is, a two-dimensional space can only show size and dimensions of length and width. Meanwhile, space in works of art has a three-dimensional shape, because there is volume that can give a deep impression.
Texture elements or what is often called baric are the tactile qualities of a surface. Tactile means that it can be touched or has something to do with the sense of touch.
In addition, texture can also be interpreted as a description of the structure of the surface of an object, both rough and smooth.
Color is an element that is basically an impression and is caused as a result of the reflection of light hitting the surface of an object.
In fine art, color can take the form of lines, spaces, planes, and dark or light tones.
Types of Fine Art Works
Types of works of art are divided into a number of categories, as quoted from the book ‘Basic Knowledge of Fine Arts’ by Sofyan Salam, Sukarman B., Hasnawati, and Muh. Muhaemin.
1. Types of works of art according to their forms
Based on its form, art can be divided into three, namely:
1. Two-Dimensional Artwork
Two-dimensional works of art or also known as two-dimensional works. Two-dimensional works are works that can only be enjoyed from one direction, namely the front. Because, this work only has dimensions of length and width. Examples of two-dimensional works are photographs, drawings, paintings, weavings and batik.
2. Three Dimensional Art Works
Types of three-dimensional works of art or also known as three-dimensional works. Three-dimensional works are works that have dimensions of length, width and height. Three-dimensional works have volume, so that their form can be enjoyed from various directions. Examples of three-dimensional works are buildings, sculptures, dolls, and various types of product designs.
3. Four Dimensional Art Works
This type of four-dimensional art work is also known as time-based art. These works include video art that can be projected onto walls, happening/performing art that involves art makers acting and being videotaped to become a work of art themselves, and new media art that has interactive characteristics.
Interactive new media art includes computer animation, digital art, robotics, and others that are intended by art makers to explore the potential of the latest technology.
2. Types of Fine Art Works According to Their Functions
Based on its function, art can be divided into two, namely:
1. Works of Fine Art
Fine Art Works are works of art made solely for the purpose of fulfilling needs and expressing an aesthetic or beautiful sense, without the intention of fulfilling a practical function or use. Examples of works of pure art are paintings, sculptures, tapestry, and other works of art intended solely for the expression of aesthetic feelings.
2. Applied Art
Types of works of applied art are works of art made with the main aim of fulfilling functions and uses that have a practical nature. Examples of works of applied art are types of design and craft works, such as posters, book cover designs, banners, logos, furniture, vehicles, and architectural works.
3. Types of Art Works According to Manufacturing Techniques
Based on the manufacturing technique, fine art can be divided into twelve, namely:
1. Fine Artwork with Color Stroke/Sweep Techniques
a. Picture Art
Drawing art is generally dominated by linear strokes produced from pencils, pens, or markers. However, this technical characteristic is less and less absolute because drawings can also be dominated by painting, like a painting. Drawing art or what is also known as drawing consists of several types according to its specific characteristics, namely as follows:
- Shape image
- Models image
- Illustration image
- Projection and perspective drawing
- Decoration picture
- Sketch drawing
- Imagination picture
b. Art painting
Technically, painting is dominated by color painting done in the medium. However, this feature is also increasingly not absolute, just like the art of drawing. Painting traditionally can be divided based on the field of painting into easel painting which can be supported by the easel and mural painting on the surface of the building.
Painting is also commonly categorized based on the coloring matter, such as acrylic painting, oil paint, gouache, watercolor, ink, pastel, tempera, mixed-media, and encaustic.
c. Calligraphy Arts
The art of calligraphy is a beautiful writing art that is used as a container for ideas and has an aesthetic function.
2. Fine Art Works with Printing Techniques
This type of work of art with printing techniques is usually referred to as graphic art or printmaking. The process of creating a work of graphic art begins by creating an image called a cliché, then printing is done. Based on the type of cliche, printmaking is distinguished by high or embossed print, translucent print, and deep print.
3. Fine Art Works with Carving Techniques
This type of work of art using measuring techniques is formed by incising or sculpting the part to be removed from the material to create the desired shape. Two-dimensional carvings are called reliefs, while three-dimensional carvings are called sculptures.
4. Fine Art Works with Woven, Weaving and Knitting Techniques
This type of work of art using woven and weaving techniques is a work technique by crossing over between the materials used. The art of weaving in Indonesia is a hereditary activity in tradition.
5. Fine Art Works with Embroidery Techniques
Embroidered works of art are made by sewing using decorative threads, sequins, ribbons, and various other materials.
6. Fine Art Works with Pasting Techniques
a. Mosaic Art
This type of mosaic artwork is a work of art made by gluing together pieces of material using the default color of the material to form an object as desired.
b. Collage Art
Collage art is a type of work of art that is made by sticking together pieces, pieces, or pieces of material such as glass, paper, shells, tiles, bark, and so on to become part of the shape to be depicted.
c. Montage Art
Montage art is a type of work of art that is made by gluing paper or sticky material containing photos or drawings.
7. Art Works with Shaping and Constructing Techniques
a. Sculpture Art
Sculpture is a type of three-dimensional work of art that is shaped according to the type of material used, such as clay, stone, wood, gypsum, cement, metal and fiber.
b. Ceramic Art
Ceramic art is a type of work of art in which the object embodiment uses non-metallic and inorganic materials in a solid form through a high-temperature combustion process.
c. Architectural Arts
Architectural art can be seen as a three-dimensional work of art in a large or gigantic size, because under certain conditions it can accommodate many people. Examples are airports, stadiums, bridges, and also houses of worship.
8. Artwork with Stringing and Knotting Techniques
a. Meronce Art
The art of meronce is the art of making handicraft objects by assembling or arranging hollow objects to make objects in new forms, such as bracelets, necklaces, and so on.
b. Macrame Art
Macrame art is an art that uses the technique of knotting objects such as ropes. Examples of macrame art are bracelets, key chains, necklaces, interior decorations, and fashion decorations.
c. Ikebana Art
The art of ikebana is the art of flower arrangement from Japan by paying attention to flower composition, type of flower, place, branches and placement.
9. Fine Art Works with Batik Techniques
This type of batik artwork is generally a type of work of art made from drawing techniques on cloth using canting and wax to cover areas where you don’t want to be colored. The art of batik then also includes batik with tie techniques and stamped batik.
10. Fine Art Works with Folding Techniques
The art of paper folding is a branch of fine art that uses folding techniques to create three-dimensional shapes such as animals, plants, houses, hats, and so on.
11. Computer Processed Art Works
Computer art refers to the use of computers to produce works of art. Computer art, among others, is related to multimedia art, digital art, and new media art.
12. Fine Art Works Arranged or Performed
a. Installation Art
Installation art includes the efforts of art makers to convey ideas by arranging objects and works on the ground, floor, walls, or hanging them up.
b. Happening Arts / Performing Arts
Happening art or what is also known as happening is a form of spontaneous improvisation by art makers in a designed environment.
4. Types of Art Works According to the Artist’s Inner Attitude
Based on the artist’s inner attitude, fine art can be divided into three, namely:
1. Traditional Fine Art Works
Traditional works of art are works of art whose way of making has been a tradition. The characteristics of traditional art are following the rules and forms that have been in the tradition, in the form of functional objects, and not attaching importance to the name of the creator. An example is the Toraja shroud, Javanese leather puppets, and so on.
2. Modern Art Works
Modern works of art are not attached to traditional norms and forms. The characteristics of modern works of art are that they highlight the creativity of ideas, ideas, techniques, have a future orientation, are universal, emphasize individuality, which makes the name of the creator important.
3. Postmodern Art Works
Postmodern works of art are works of art that emphasize contextual artistic expression, have a spirit of pluralism, eclecticism and contextualism. Postmodern art works do not distinguish pure art which is considered high art and applied art which is considered low art.
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