Kinds of Primary Colors – Life will be more enjoyable if you have colors. The color of life can be in the form of daily activities. Through the colors seen or the color of the clothes worn.
The colors that we often see or wear have an impact on the body. It can also describe our personality. The black color in clothes gives off an elegant impression and can mislead others about your body shape. Someone who wears black clothes will not look too thin or fat.
Likewise, bright colors give a cheerful and lively effect to anyone who sees it. Bright colors can transmit happiness from one person to another. Just by looking at it.
The variety of colors that Sinaumed’s sees don’t just appear out of nowhere. They are created by mixing primary colors. So, what do primary colors actually mean? Come on, Sinaumed’s can listen to the following explanation.
Definition of Color
According to Prawira, color is one of the elements of beauty in art and design apart from other visual elements. Meanwhile, Sanyoto defines color objectively/physically as the nature of the light emitted or subjectively/psychologically as part of the experience of the sense of sight.
Nugraha defines color as the impression the eye gets from the light reflected by familiar objects. Meanwhile, Laksono defines color as part of the light that is transmitted or reflected.
From several expert opinions it can be concluded that there are three important elements in the meaning of color, namely objects, elements of light, and eyes. Thus, conclusions can be drawn regarding the definition of color as an object that reflects the elements of light and is interpreted by the eye based on the light that hits the object.
According to Santoyo, colors are grouped into two groups, namely additive and subtractive colors. Additive color itself is a color that comes from light, usually called a spectrum. The subtractive color is the color that comes from the material, usually called a pigment.
Nugraha explained further about color which can be viewed from two perspectives, namely from the principles of physics and the principles of materials science. This opinion was strengthened by Newton’s findings which revealed that color is a natural phenomenon in the form of light containing spectrum or rainbow colors and pigments.
In 1831, Brewster grouped colors that exist in nature. According to him, colors can be grouped into three kinds, namely primary, secondary, tertiary, and neutral colors. These colors are arranged in the “Brewster” color circle.
Sinaumed’s can observe the color circles grouped by Brewster in the following image.
Definition of Primary Colors
Primary colors are the basic colors that are not created by mixing other colors. According to Brewster’s theory, the primary colors are the basic colors. Cannot be formed by mixing. Meanwhile, other colors are formed from a combination of primary colors.
Nugraha explained more about primary colors. According to him, at first, humans thought that the primary colors were composed of red, green, and yellow. However, based on his research, the primary colors consist of red (such as blood), blue (such as the sky or sea), and yellow (such as egg yolk).
But technically, red, yellow, and blue are not primary pigment colors. Primary pigment colors consist of yellow, magenta, and cyan. Therefore, it is not accurate to say that red, yellow, and blue are the primary pigment colors.
Calling red with magenta would be a less accurate way. The same goes for calling blue using cyan.
The Meaning of the Three Primary Colors
Primary colors have meaning in everyday life. The following are the meanings contained in the three primary colors.
Red is often associated with fire, war, violence, passion or love. Someone who sees the color red will have a physical impact in the form of an increase in blood pressure, metabolic rate, and breathing.
In China, red is a symbol of prosperity and happiness. In addition, red can also be used as a color that can attract good luck. This can be seen from eastern cultures which tend to use red on the bride’s dress on the wedding day.
Often times, the color blue is associated with sadness. He also describes the nature of calm and responsibility. Blue can also be associated with peace as well as spiritual or religious messages that exist in various cultures.
Blue color is also suitable for use in design. This is because, the color blue gives the meaning of relaxing and calming. Meanwhile, the bright blue color can provide energy and a refreshing feeling. Meanwhile, the dark blue color is widely used for making websites or in company designs to describe strength and reliability.
Yellow is closely related to calm, energy, and light. Not infrequently, this color is often associated with symbols of happiness and sunshine.
It can also be interpreted as hope. This can be seen in several countries implementing or using yellow ribbons on people who are at war.
Yellow can also be used as a sign of danger, although not as strong as red. Each country has a different meaning of yellow. As in Egypt, the color yellow is interpreted as sorrow or mourning. Meanwhile, in Japan, yellow is the color that shows courage.
Biological Basis for the Formation of Primary Colors
Primary colors are formed due to the physiological response of the human eye to light. Light itself is a continuous spectrum of wavelengths, meaning that there are an infinite number of colors.
However, normally it only has three types of receptors or receptors called cone cells (located in the retina). Cone cells respond to specific wavelengths of light. Species that have three kinds of receptors including humans are called trichormat creatures.
Creatures with four color receptors that can see the four primary colors are called terrachromats. Humans themselves can only see up to 400 nanometers. Meanwhile, tetrachromat creatures are able to see ultraviolet colors up to 300 nanometers.
The existence of the fourth primary warrant may be located at a lower wavelength. Pure spectral magenta is probably more than just a mixed color of red and blue. The terrachormat creatures themselves consist of several species of birds and marsupials (marsupials).
Primary Color Type
Primary colors have meaning in everyday life. The following are the meanings contained in the three primary colors.
1. Additive Primary Color
The additive primary colors come from the primary colors of light. An additive color system is implemented by combining light rays to create a color sensation using tools or media. One of the most widely used is television.
The additive primary colors consist of red, green, and blue. When red and green light colors are mixed, they produce yellow or orange tones. Mixing blue and green makes cyan. Meanwhile, a mixture of red and blue produces shades of magenta and purple.
Shades of gray are produced from a mixture of primary additive colors in balanced proportions. When the three additive primary colors are fully saturated, they produce white. The resulting color space or color model is called red, green, blue (RGB).
RGB is usually used in fine arts (painting). The RGB color space forms a triad of primary colors within a standard color circle. At the same time forming secondary colors consisting of violet, orange/orange, and green. The color triad is arranged equidistantly (equally spaced) in a color circle.
2. Subtractive Primary Colors
Subtractive primary colors are formed from the primary colors of light reflection. The subtractive color mixing method is used by media by reflecting light to produce color. RGB is also part of the subtractive primary colors, but is not used in the printing industry.
The printing industry applies subtractive primary colors (magenta, yellow, and cyan) with varying sizes. Mixing yellow and cyan produces shades of green. Mixing yellow with magenta produces shades of red. Mixing magenta and cyan produces shades of blue.
Shades of gray are theoretically produced by mixing these three color pigments. Black appears when all three of these colors are fully saturated. However, in practice it instead produces a dirty brownish color.
Therefore, a fourth color is often used, namely black in addition to cyan, magenta, and yellow. The color space created is called cyan , magenta, yellow, black (CMYK). The mention of “K” for the key is taken from the term key plate which is black in color. These colors are used in printing in the form of printing plates that create artistic details in the image.
History of the Discovery of Color
In 1660, Isaac Newton conducted color experiments with a glass prism. He assumed that white light is composed of the colors of the rainbow (spectrum colors). Then, in 1790, Hermann von Helmholzt and James Clerk Maxwell based color on sunlight in relation to physical laws.
In 1810, Juhan Wolfgang von Goethe classified colors into two main color groups, namely yellow (related to brightness) and blue (related to darkness). Research on color continues. Until 1824, Michel Eugene Cvevreul sparked a color theory on textiles, the law of simultaneous contrast of color.
In 1831, Sir David Brewster formulated color theory, namely the grouping of colors in nature into 4, namely primary, secondary, tertiary and neutral. In the color circle Brewster was able to explain the theory of color contrast (complementary), complementary split, triad and tetrad.
In 1879, Ogden Rood developed the color circle theory based on the colors red, green, blue, and in the center is white. Color theories keep coming up. One of them was coined by Albert H. Munsel in 1898. His color theories were published in a color notation in 1965.
Albert H. Munsel also used the color scheme proposed by physicists in the form of a three-dimensional color circle ( hue, value, chroma ). In 1900, Herbet E. Ives proposed mixing colors, namely red from magenta mixed with cyan, blue from a mixture of magenta and turquoise. The result is a color circle with the primary colors magenta, cyan, and yellow.
In 1934, Farber Biren made an experiment to create a chart based on the traditional colors (red, yellow, blue). Next, he creates a color circle whose center is off-center. Because, for him hot colors are more dominant than cool colors.
The Function of Color in Life
Color is one that can stimulate the brain in alternative psychotherapy. China and Egypt have applied color to the healing process, which is known as color therapy. The colors are chosen to help the body function better.
For example, green can calm the nerves. People who often feel tense can do therapy with green. The green color of the leaves, which contains chlorophyll, has cleansing properties for the body, stimulates the hormone glands to control other glands, and smoothes blood that tends to freeze.
However, in some cases, color does not have effectiveness in someone who is doing therapy. This is caused by different emotions on the color that is owned by a person. So, the universal meaning of color may not work in this case.
Color is utilized based on years of observation and experience of how color affects the brain. Here are the benefits of color in the world of psychology.
- Red stands for strength, power, lust, love, danger, aggression, warmth and passion.
- Yellow stands for optimism, philosophy, hope, dishonesty/cheating, betrayal, and cowardice.
- Blue stands for trust, conservative, technology, order, cleanliness and security.
Color schemes are grouped into several categories as follows.
In general, monochromatic schemes use variations of the same hue. This wipe is very simple and capable of producing a very elegant look. Monochrome color is a degradation of the tone of a basic color that does not mix with other basic colors.
Therefore, monochrome colors are not only black and white. The other colors also consist of one monochrome color tone .
Analog is a mixture of primary and secondary colors. This color scheme is very calming and comfortable to work with. Usually use colors that are next to each other on the color wheel. This color scheme, found in nature. Their characteristics are harmonious and pleasing to the eye.
The colors included in the analog group, namely green, yellowish green, and yellow; purplish red, purple, and indigo; and orange, reddish orange, and orange.
In the business world, analog schemes are not only pleasing to the eye, but also able to attract consumers to buy products or use services.
Complementary colors are colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. This complementary color scheme has very strong color contrasts. These colors are suitable for background and text colors. For example purple and yellow, blue and orange, red and green, and so on.
The triadic color scheme uses three colors from the three color spaces of the colors used. these three colors are spread evenly across the color wheel. The colors used tend to be less vibrant, but this scheme maintains high contrast.
This scheme is popular among artists and designers because it provides colors with a strong visual contrast. However, it remains harmonious when combined.
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