4 Main Personality Theories, Here’s the Full Explanation

Personality Theory – Is Sinaumed’s looking for references on personality theory? That’s right, everyone would want someone who has someone’s personality. Knowing and knowing someone’s personality can be not an easy thing because basically every individual has their own personality characteristics. 

That is why many experts research a person’s personality because this can affect the way and pattern of a person in carrying out daily activities or surviving as a social being. If Sinaumed’s wants to study personality theory, then you can see the following explanation: 

Definition of Personality and Self-Concept

The definition of personality according to Philip Kotler is an innate characteristic of human psychology or different human psychological traits and produces responses that are relatively consistent and can last a long time in certain environmental stimuli. Personality is usually described in terms of behavioral characteristics such as self-confidence, sociability, dominance, self-preservation, adaptability, autonomy, and aggressiveness. 

That is why personality is related to self-concept which is the essence of individual personality. This core plays an important role in directing and determining the development of a person’s personality and positive behavior. The basis of self-concept thinking is what a person has can contribute and be a reflection of their identity. Thus “we are what is ours”. 

That is why to understand consumer behavior, as marketers we need to understand the relationship between consumer self-concept and ownership. This personality is then related to the existence of different forms of the deepest characteristics of a person or it is called the human inner psychology . These physical differences can show the unique characteristics possessed by each individual as a social being. 

The different forms of these characteristics can affect a person’s response to their environment or stimulus consistently. So personality became one of the psychology studies which was born because of the thoughts, studies, and findings (results of case handling practices) by experts, where the object of study is human behavior. Finally, the discussion of human behavior relates to the presence, why, and how of the individual’s behavior. 

So that human personality can show inner or psychological traits, namely the quality of innate abilities that can influence individuals and temperament, especially to distinguish one individual from another individual. 

Book Description

This book explains that humans are unique individuals, it will never run out to review how unique they are, in this book it discusses in depth how humans with a background in human life are unique, adaptive and creative individuals.

Personality Theory

In practice, personality phenomena show many theories, where there are four main personality theories that Sinaumed’s needs to know about in relation to the development of psychology. The four personality theories are considered widely used in the theoretical basis of various studies of personality and consumer behavior. Here are four major personality theories in psychology:

1. Freud’s Personality Theory

This personality theory was put forward by Sigmund Freud in a psychoanalytic theory of personality or Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality which was then considered the foundation of modern psychology. Freud’s personality theory states that needs are unconscious or unconscious needs and drives from within humans or drives in the form of sex drives and other biological needs. 

These needs are the core of a person’s motivation and personality which according to Freud consists of three elements, namely Id, Superego, and ego. The following are the elements in Freud’s personality theory: 

a. id

The id element is a biological aspect in an individual that has existed since birth and can lead to the emergence of physiological needs, such as hunger, sexuality, thirst, cold, and so on. The element of Id in personality describes the form of human instincts that biologically need food, sex, and drink. The human will naturally try to fulfill that need to avoid tension and seek satisfaction as quickly and as soon as possible. 

That is why the element of Id is considered to carry out the principle of satisfaction or pleasure or immediate satisfaction in a person. This id element then becomes the basis and will influence other elements to form a personality that is more specific to the individual. 

b. Superego

The superego element is one of the psychological aspects of the individual self which shows human nature to obey and comply with ethical, social norms, and community values. This element can be a cause for humans to stop what is good and what is considered bad in a society so that their behavior will be adjusted to what is good according to their social environment. 

The superego element in personality theory is a form of a person’s tendency to always want to do good according to how norms and ethics, as well as the rules apply in a certain social environment. This element can be considered as an element that functions to suppress or reduce biological desires or originates from the element of Id within a person. 

When someone makes a mistake, they usually don’t realize they will feel guilty or ashamed for their wrongdoing. Such a thing is an example of how the superego element works in suppressing the id element in a person. As a result, a person tends not to repeat the wrongdoing again. Id and superego elements are considered as a form of encouragement that is not directly realized by a person. 

c. ego

The third element in personality theory is that the ego is an element that can be realized and controlled by the individual himself. The ego element functions as a mediator between the id and superego elements in one’s personality. The ego element seeks to balance what the id element wants to fulfill and what the superego element wants to comply with the social norms prevailing in its environment. 

The Ego element then works within the principle of reality or reality principle which is a human effort to be able to fulfill their physiological needs but still comply with the rules and norms of good and bad values ​​based on their social environment. According to Schiffman and Kanuk (2010) who cite the opinion of researchers on Freud’s personality theory that in the study of consumer behavior by saying this shows the existence of human motivation or human drive that is largely unconscious. 

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That is why consumers often do not realize or even know what their real reason is for deciding to buy a particular product. So what is bought and what is consumed by the consumer is a picture of how the consumer’s personality controls himself. So it can be seen from the clothes, vehicles, accessories that a person wears can show how the personality of the individual is.

Book Description

At the beginning of the 20th century, psychoanalysis and behaviorism developed rapidly. Psychoanalysis suggests that observable symptoms are only surface manifestations of unconscious drives. Meanwhile, behaviorism views that behavior is only a symptom that can be observed, which is related to mental processes. Over time, there was a group of psychologists who disagreed with the two theories who then attempted to develop a new theoretical viewpoint, namely humanism (a humanistic view). Humanistic personality theory is a psychological approach that focuses on the study of the whole person. The psychologists of this theory view human behavior not only through the eyes of those who observe the behavior, but also through the eyes of the behaving person.

The humanistic approach is often called the “Third School” in psychology after psychoanalysis and behaviorism. However, these three schools of psychology are not in conflict with or in competition with one another because each of these branches of psychology has enriched our understanding of human thought and behavior. This book discusses in detail several views of humanistic personality and its pioneers, namely Personal Construct Psychology from George A. Kelly, Person-Centered Theory from Carl R. Rogers, Dynamic-Holistic Theory from Abraham H. Maslow, and Existential Psychology from Rollo May. Thus, it is hoped that the presence of this book will be able to add insight to readers regarding various matters that prompted the emergence of the humanistic personality theory and the views of its pioneers.

 

2. Neo-Freud’s Personality Theory (Psychological Social Theory)

Experts who are also Sigmund Freud’s colleagues have helped develop a theory of personality known as Social Psychological Theory or Neo-Freud Theory. This theory is different from the theory that Freud developed with two main differences, namely in the social environment that will influence the formation of a person’s personality, no longer from instinct or the human subconscious, and the form of behavioral motivation that is directed to meet one’s needs. 

Neo-Freud’s theory of personality is a combination of social science and psychology studies. This theory then prioritizes and emphasizes that humans will try to fulfill what is needed in the community environment. Then the community component will help that person to meet his needs and goals in that environment. Neo-Freud’s theory explains that social relations are the most dominant factor in shaping and developing one’s personality. 

Based on this theory, the human personality model consists of three categories as follows:

  • Compliant is a form of personality with the characteristics of an individual’s dependence on others. This individual then wants other people to be able to give affection, appreciate him, and need his existence. Someone who has a compliant personality tends to always approach the people around him and forms closeness to one another. 
  •  Aggressive is a form of personality that tends to have the motivation to gain power in certain conditions and environment. Individuals who have this personality tend to be often in conflict with others. He also always wants to be praised and tends to separate or distance himself from other people. 
  • Detached is a form of a person’s personality characterized by wanting to have freedom, being independent, being able to rely on oneself, and feeling like they want to be free from various obligations immediately. This individual also has a tendency to avoid other people and focus more on himself.

 

Book Description

Treatment and prevention of various diseases cannot be separated from drug therapy, although drugs are not only used in the treatment and prevention of disease but can also be carried out through surgery, radiotherapy, physiotherapy and others. Drugs are a very important component in health services. This book discusses various aspects of pharmacology starting from definitions, terminology of pharmacology, history of pharmacology, general armacology which includes the branches of pharmacology, pharmacodynamics and drug pharmacokinetics. This book also discusses individual responses to drugs, drug interactions, dosage science (posology), and the principles of prescribing accompanied by an attachment to Latin terms that are often used in prescribing.

3. Trait Theory

Trait Theory or Trait Theory explains that humans are classified according to their most prominent characteristics or characteristics. Characteristics or traits are characteristics of a person in a special psychological study. The definition of a trait is any way that distinguishes a person and is relatively enduring in which each individual is different from other individuals.

Another understanding of this theory is to show a trait or characteristic in the form of characteristics where one individual will differ from another in a relatively permanent and consistent form. From these two functions it can be concluded that traits or traits are traits or characteristics that distinguish a person and are permanent and consistent within the individual. 

Loudon and Della Bitta (1993) revealed that this trait theory is based on three assumptions, namely that individuals have relatively stable behavior, individuals have different forms of behavioral tendencies, and these differences can be identified and measured which will describe a person’s personality.  

Based on the opinion of Mowen and Minor (1998) there are 16 personality traits based on the personality theory put forward by R. Cattel, H. Eber, and M. Tatsuoka in 1970 as follows:

  • Reserved vs. Friendly (Outgoing)
  • Trusting vs. Suspicious
  • Dull (Dull) vs. Smart (Bright)
  • Practical (Practical) vs. Abstract (Imaginative)
  • Labile (Unstable) vs. Stable
  • Unpretentious vs. Polished
  • Submissive (Docile) vs. Aggressive
  • Self-assured vs. Self Reproaching
  •  Serious (Serious) vs. Relax (Happy go lucky)
  • Conservatives vs. experimenting
  • Expedient vs. Conscientious
  • Group dependent vs. Self Sufficient
  • Shy (Shy) vs. Easy to get along with (Uninhibited)
  • Undisciplined vs. controlled
  • Teguh (Tough-minded) vs. Weak (Tender-minded)
  •  Relaxed vs. Tense
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4. Self-Concept Theory

Self-concept theory shows that humans have a view or conception of themselves, namely in the form of an assessment of themselves. So each individual will function as a subject and object of perception in his own right. Based on Mowen’s opinion that self-concept is a form of totality in the thoughts and feelings of an individual that can be a reference for himself as an object.

Self-concept can also be defined as a form of self-image or self-perception that is closely related to self-personality. Self-concept theory in personality views that each individual has a form of concept about himself. This shows that this self-concept is based on who he or he really is or actual self and the form of the concept of seeing who he wants to be like, namely how he is ideal or ideal self .

 This theory is also closely related to the two key concepts of psychoanalytic personality theory, namely the ego and superego elements. The ego element is a form of reflection of objective reality within a person, so this element is almost the same as the actual self . Meanwhile, the superego element is formed by something that is supposed to be a form of reflection of the ideal self in certain conditions and places.

 

Book Description

Personality is the main study of the science of human behavior. The study of personality has been carried out as early as the emergence of science itself. The frame of mind of the personality theory that developed since Hippocrates, Plato, and Aristotle as philosophers who thought of the beginning of the birth of behavioral science, developed in the form of analysis and clinical view processes. The development of knowledge about humans also develops thoughts and views about personality. The division of the realm of views on behavior based on the thoughts and characters that are expressed in the book Introduction to Theory of Personality with several editions published is also discussed in this book.

This book consists of five chapters, namely, Chapter I Introduction to Personality Theory a Framework for Comparison; Chapter II Psychodynamic Oriented Theories (Clinical in Mind) This school includes Freud’s Classical Psychoanalytic Theory; Carl Gustav Jung; Social Psychology Alfred Adler; Erich Fromm; Karen Horney, and Harry Stack Sullivan. Chapter Ill Holistic (Phenomenological) Oriented Theories include Henry Murray’s Personology; The humanistic theory of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, the Existential Theory of Ludwig Binswanger and Medan Boss; Eastern Psychology and Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory. Chapter IV Trait Theories include Individual Psychology Gordon Allport; Constitutional Psychology William Sheldon and Raymond Cattell’s Factor Theory.

Personality Characteristics

A characteristic in psychology is a unique form that can cause relatively consistent and long-lasting responses in a person. These personality indicators are then distinguished into adaptability, self-confidence, and sociability. These three indicators are forms of personality that form traits or characteristics of a person in certain conditions and places. 

In this case marketers need to have the ability to understand the personality indicators of their consumers because by understanding these personality dimensions, marketers can categorize their target market in these consumer personality indicators. So companies can create products that match the personality of their consumers so that they can generate maximum profits. 

In practice, a person’s personality also has characteristics or traits attached to it, which are as follows:

1. Personality Describes Individual Differences

The personality of a person describes the deepest characteristics of humans and is a combination of many unique things in him. That is why there will not be two human beings who are exactly alike in personality. The possibility that can happen is that there are two humans who have similarities in one particular characteristic, but in other characteristics it could be very different.

A person’s personality is a useful form of self-concept because it allows others to classify certain individuals into different groups, for example on the basis of the category of one or several traits indicating a particular field.

2. Personality Shows Consistent and Long Lasting

Forms of personality are usually seen since someone entered the age of children. This shows their tendency to consistently shape one’s personality when they grow up. Even though marketers cannot actually change the personality of their consumers, in order to match their products, they can identify and try to attract the attention of consumer groups by making them the target of relevant traits.  

Although a person’s personality may be consistent, their behavior often varies greatly due to a variety of psychological, sociocultural, environmental and situational causes and factors that will influence their behavior. So it is possible that under certain conditions and at certain times a person’s personality can change, even 180 degrees difference. 

3. Personality Can Change

As previously mentioned, a person’s personality may change under certain circumstances. This happens because of various circumstances and events in human life, such as birth, death, and so on. A person’s personality can change not only because of a response to various events that occur suddenly, but can also occur as part of the process towards one’s maturity gradually.

Well, that’s an explanation of personality theory in the study of psychology. Can Sinaumed’s understand it? The shape of a person’s personality is of course very many forms and types, even each individual has his own personality form. That is why if Sinaumed’s wants to learn a lot about personality theory, he needs a lot of references too. sinaumedia can visit sinaumedia’s book collection at www.sinaumedia.com , such as the following personality theory book recommendations: Enjoy studying. #Friends Without Limits.