Classification of Types of Research Methods – Discussion of research methods will certainly not be far from students who, in the course of their lectures, will be taught about the implementation of this research. Yep, research activities are the most reliable way to train students to think critically and act systematically. For Sinaumed’s who is a student, have you ever conducted research activities in your course?
This research activity can be carried out in all fields of study and is one of the responsibilities of the students. Theses and theses are also some forms of a research activity. Although research activities can be carried out in all fields of study, the research methods may vary, depending on how the data the researcher wants to collect.
Then, what are the types of research methods? What types of data are usually found in research activities? So, so that Sinaumed’s isn’t confused about discussing this research method, let’s look at the following review!
Classification of Types of Research Methods
It should be noted that the research method is a method or effort to obtain data. This data will later be described, proven, developed, and it will be found that there is a definite theory from the data. A research activity is generally carried out to understand, solve, as well as anticipate problems that arise in human life.
The classification of the types of research methods is based on various things, starting from the type and analysis, based on the use of the technique, based on the purpose, based on the nature of the problem, based on the level of explanation, and many more. Well, here is the explanation!
Research Methods Based on Types and Analysis
1. Quantitative Research
According to Robert Donmoyer (in Norjanah: 2014), quantitative research is approaches to empirical studies to collect, analyze, and display data in numerical form (numbers) rather than narrative. This research is usually done when you want to get accurate results because it relies on calculations.
An example is research conducted to determine differences in the effectiveness of conventional learning models in an effort to improve learning achievement in mathematics in a school.
2. Qualitative Research
A qualitative research is usually conducted to provide an explanation of a phenomenon and will later construct a theory related to this phenomenon. This research method is mostly in the form of narrative.
An example is research on the values contained in a novel and its feasibility as a medium for learning literature at a school level.
Most people find it difficult to differentiate between quantitative and qualitative research. So, so that Sinaumed’s doesn’t get confused, here are the differences between the two research methods!
|Explain, control, and predict a phenomenon through data collection that focuses on numerical data (numbers).
|Understanding social phenomena through a holistic picture and increasing understanding in depth.
|Structured, formal, determined in advance, not flexible, described in detail before the research is ready to be carried out.
|Historical, ethnographic, and case studies.
|The discovery of social facts does not come from subjective perception and is separate from context.
|Attempts to generalize are unknown because human behavior is always bound by context and must be interpreted case by case.
|Using a random sample
|Narrative, descriptive, in the form of a narrative (explanation of words) regarding the phenomenon to be studied, based on personal documents, field notes, official documents, and others.
|Deductively and statistically; mainly to produce numerical data that is usually analyzed statistically.
Raw data usually consists of numbers and analysis is done at the end of the study.
|Inductive, using concept theory models, and fixed comparison methods.
Usually the data will be analyzed descriptively, most of which come from interviews and observation notes.
3. Joint Research
Combined research is a research method by combining quantitative research with qualitative research. An example is research in the form of numbers (quantitative), then elaborated using a narrative form (qualitative) in the form of interviews with informants.
Research Methods Based on the Techniques Used
1. Survey Research
This survey research method is research conducted on a large or small population. The data studied later is a sample of the population, which will then find relative events, distribution, and relationships between variables, both sociologically and psychologically.
An example is research on the level of student achievement in a school.
2. Historical Research
This historical research is related to logical analysis of events that took place in the past. The sources of data vary, ranging from people or informants who were directly involved in past events to documentation relating to these events.
The purpose of this research method is to reconstruct past events in a systematic and objective manner. An example is a reconstruction study of spelling teaching in the United States over the last 50 years.
3. Experimental Research
The experimental research method is a study that seeks to find the effect of certain variables on other variables, under tightly controlled conditions. An example is research to compare mathematics learning outcomes in superior classes with ordinary classes using certain learning models.
Research Methods Based on Objectives
1 . Basic Research ( Basic Research )
In this research method, it is usually intended for the development of a science and is directed at developing a theory to find a new theory. This research focuses more on efforts to identify, explain, and predict phenomena that occur in human life, both natural and social.
An example is basic research related to the fields of psychology and education, namely research on the factors that influence human attitudes and behavior. Later, the results of this research will be used as a basis for developing attitudes to change behavior through the educational process.
2. Applied Research
Applied research method is a type of research whose results can be directly applied to solve the problems being faced. This research generally examines the merits of scientific theories as well as knowledge of empirical relationships and analysis and a particular field of study. Examples of applied research related to education, namely about how to increase students’ interest in reading and test scientific theories about the factors that influence students’ motivation to learn.
3. Evaluative Research
Actually, this research method is part of applied research, but is more focused on measuring the success of a particular program, product or activity. Usually, this research is carried out by a particular unit or institution. For example, research on teacher quality before and after joining a professional program.
Research Methods Based on the Nature of the Problem
- Descriptive Research
In this research method, later the researchers will try to provide a systematic and careful about the actual facts and the characteristics of a particular population. As the name implies, the method of delivery is in a descriptive form. An example is descriptive research conducted to find out how much the level of skills education needs is in an area.
- Developmental Research
This research method will later investigate the pattern and process of growth or change of a thing as a function of time. An example is research in the form of developing a new admissions system in a school to increase its quantity and quality.
- Case Research and Field Research ( Case Study and Field Research )
This research method focuses on a case in an incentive and detailed manner regarding the background of the situation at issue. The purpose of this research is to study intensively about the background, circumstances, and environmental interactions in social units, namely individuals, groups, institutions, or society.
An example is a case study on consumption patterns in urban life.
Research Methods Based on Explanation Levels
As the name implies, this research was conducted in the form of a description. The purpose of this descriptive research is to determine the value of the independent variable, either one variable
or more without making comparisons with other variables. For example, research on the use of computer technology in schools in certain areas.
As the name implies, the research is comparative. The variables are still the same as the independent variable research, but the samples must be more than one at different times. An example is research on the quality of student achievement in rural areas compared to the quality of student achievement in urban areas.
This study aims to determine whether there is a relationship between two or more variables in it. Associative research can be built with a theory that later functions to explain, predict, to control a phenomenon. An example is research on the relationship between the completeness of learning media and student learning motivation in a school.
Research Methods Based on Data Types
This research requires researchers to collect data from the first source, which is usually obtained by using the questionnaire method or interview method. In primary research, several methods can also be used, namely:
- case studies (using individuals or groups as study material that is longitudinal or at a certain time that is relatively long),
- surveys (quantitative studies to examine the symptoms of a group or individual behavior),
- experimental research (using two or more groups as research objects and then comparing the results)
An example is primary research using the case study method regarding student learning patterns in class X Language in a school.
This study uses data material that is not from the first source, so it tends to use library research. In literature studies, it is usually for qualitative research, in which data is collected from a survey institution (which has been done before), libraries, to state institutions that have similar data libraries.
An example is research on the ability of students in a class to understand the concept of geometry.
Research Methods Based on Place
As the name implies, this type of research will be carried out in a laboratory, which is usually done in the exact sciences. Especially in the majors of medicine, electrical, civil, biology, food nutrition, and others.
An example is research in the field of Biology regarding the breathing apparatus for several types of animals.
The field in question is not a large area in the field, but this research was carried out at the target location directly. Usually, this research is carried out by social and economic scientists by entering directly into the community or group of people who are the object of their research.
An example is research on literacy levels in a remote village in West Java. So, researchers must enter and mingle directly in the community in the village.
This research is of course carried out in the library, which usually reviews the literature, especially on research that has been done before, journals, and other sources available in the library. An example is research on journal content related to learning models commonly used in learning.
Research Methods Based on the Fields Researched
Social research is research specifically devoted to social fields, such as economics, law, education, sociology, and others. An example is research on the influence of social status on the tolerance attitude of people in a region.
This exact research is research that is specifically intended for exact fields, such as chemistry, physics, biology, electrical engineering, mathematics, and others. An example is research in the field of Biology regarding the reproduction of reptiles.
Research Methods Based on Scientific
As the name implies, this research is scientific in nature by taking into account scientific principles. That is, the main ideas put forward in the research must be arranged systematically and use convincing evidence.
In contrast to scientific research, this type of research does not use or pay attention to scientific principles.
Research Methods Based on Field (Science)
As the name implies, research of course will discuss matters in the business field, ranging from accounting, management, marketing, finance, and others. The following is an example of his research:
- Accounting : research on budget control procedures, practices and systems, methods of financing, inventories, depreciation and so on.
- Finance : research on the operations of financial institutions, financial ratios, mergers and acquisitions and so on.
- Management : research on employee attitudes and behavior, HR management, production/operations management, strategy formulation, information systems and so on.
- Marketing : research on product image, advertising, distribution, pricing, packaging, consumer preferences, new product development and so on.
Legal research is of course a research that discusses matters in the field of law. An example is research on civil law, criminal law, constitutional law, and international law that applies to society.
This research will of course discuss matters related to the field of communication. Examples are research on mass communication, business communication, public relations and advertising.
This research will of course be carried out by discussing material or phenomena related to the economic field. Usually in this study a lot to discuss about microeconomics, macroeconomics and development economics.
This research was carried out by discussing material or phenomena that occur in agriculture, starting from agribusiness, plant cultivation, plant pests, and agronomy.
So, that’s a review of the types of research methods that can be carried out by adjusting the field of study that you want to pursue. Considering that most types of research are scientific research, the data compiled must also be valid, right?