Implementation: Definition, Purpose, and Types

Definition of Implementation – Sinaumed’s friends , have you ever heard the word implementation? yaps, it’s true we must have heard the word implementation. This term is often used to refer to the means to achieve or make something happen. So what’s the proper implementation? Here’s the full explanation.

More and more discussions were conducted with many experts who gave ideas about implementation. Implementation is important to realize an idea.

One has to implement the idea to reach the goal. Implementation is a process that is applied without any restrictions in various fields, ranging from education, society, politics, technology, health, information and others.

Its implementation is quite widely understood in various fields. To achieve a goal, at least you need to know some basic things, such as definitions and implementation examples.

Definition of Implementation

Etymologically, the concept of Implementation according to Webster’s dictionary comes from English, namely Implement. In the dictionary, Implements means to provide the means to do something and have an actual effect.

Meanwhile, in the Big Indonesian Dictionary, implementation is implementation or implementation. Another definition of implementation is providing the means to do something that has an effect or influence on something. Definition Implications or implementation may also vary according to experts.

Therefore, it will give you an idea of ​​how you should behave towards your goals. Apart from that, here is information about Implementation made by experts

Definition of Implementation According to Experts

1. Nurman Usman

Implementation is the existence of an activity, action, action or system mechanism that leads to the existence of not only an activity, but an activity planned and an activity carried out to achieve a goal.

2. Purwanto and Sulistyastuti

According to Purwanto and Sulistyastuti, implementation is essentially the activity of distributing the output of a policy implemented by an implementer (to deliver policy output) to a target group in an effort to achieve the policy.

3. Sudarsono

According to Sudarsono in his book “Public Policy Analysis”, implementation is an activity related to the completion of a job, through the use of means (tools) to obtain the desired end result.

4. Solichin Abdul Wahab

According to Solichin, implementation is an action taken by an individual or by an official, government or private group to achieve the goals outlined in a policy decision.

5. Widodo

Implementation means providing the means to carry out a policy and possibly having an impact or influence on something.

6. According to Mazmanian and Sabatier

Mazmanian and Sabatier understand that implementation is the implementation of basic legal policies, also in the form of orders or decisions or, or court decisions.

The enforcement process occurs after going through several stages, such as going through legal stages, then issuing several enforcement policy decisions, and so on, until corrective policies are involved.

7. Daniel A. Mazmanian and Paul Sabatier (1979)

According to Daniel A. Mazmanian and Paul Sabatier, the concept of implementation is an understanding that occurs after the preparation of a plan that is the focus of implementing government-designed policies.

There are also those who say that implementation is an event that occurs after the formulation and ratification of national policy guidelines.

8. Hanifah Harsono

According to Hanifah Harsono, implementation is the process of implementing a policy into policy action from politics to administration. Develop policies to improve programs.

9. Prof. H. Tachjan (2006: 25)

Professor H. Tachjan defines implementation as public policy, the process of administrative activities after the policy is established/approved. This activity falls between policy development and policy implementation. Policy evaluation contains top-down logic, which implies lower/alternative interpretations.

10. Van Meter and Van Horn

Implementation, as defined by Van Meter and Van Horn, is an action taken by individuals, officials, government agencies, or private groups to achieve the goals outlined in several decisions. These agencies perform governmental tasks affecting citizens.

11. Frederick

Implementation is a policy that refers to the actions of individuals, groups or governments in a certain environment, in relation to certain obstacles, while looking for opportunities to achieve goals or achieve desired goals, thereby achieving goals.

Implementation Goals

As previously mentioned, implementation is an activity that is carried out systematically and connected by mechanisms to achieve certain goals. Referring to the notion of implementation, several implementation objectives are:

  • The main objective of implementation is to achieve a mature plan, both individually and as a team.
  • Examine and document procedures in implementing plans or policies.
  • Achieve the goals to be achieved in the plans or policies designed.
  • To determine the capacity of the community to implement the policy or plan as intended.
  • To determine how successful a policy or plan has been designed to improve or enhance quality.

Types of Implementation

1. Policy Implementation

Policy implementation is in principle a means by which a policy can achieve its goals. Lester and Stewart (Winarno, 2012: 101-102) explain that policy enforcement is a legal management tool where various actors, organizations, procedures and techniques work together to implement policies to achieve the desired effect or goal.

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Therefore, implementation is according to the steps taken by the government to achieve the goals set in the political decisions. However, the government in making policies must also first consider whether the policy can have a negative impact on society.

The goal is a policy that will not conflict with society, so it will not cause harm to society.

According to Nugroho (2003: 158), there are two choices of policy implementation, namely direct implementation in the form of programs and through the formulation of policies that originate or are derived from these policies.

Therefore, the implementation of the policy outlined by Nugroho has two options where the first is implemented directly in the form of a program and the second is through policy formulation.

According to Edward (in Winarno, 2002: 125), policy implementation is the stage of policy making between policy formulation and the consequences of the policy for the people it influences.

If a policy is inappropriate or does not reduce the problem that is the goal of the policy, then the policy can fail, although a brilliant policy can also fail if the policy is not implemented by the people who implement it.

Implementation is the most important stage in the formulation of public policy. A political program must be implemented to have the desired impact and goals.

According to William. N. Dun (2000:2-25) recommends that at every stage of the public policy formulation process, including the stages of policy implementation, it is important to carry out an analysis. The analysis in question is not the same as the evaluation because from the stage of setting the agenda to evaluating the policy, an analysis must be carried out.

2. Implementation of Information Systems or Technology

System implementation are the steps or procedures taken to complete the approved system design, install, test, and start up a new or upgraded system. The objectives of implementing this system are:

  1. Completing the pre-approved system design.
  2. Make sure users can use the new system
  3. Check if the new system is suitable for users.
  4. Make sure the transition to the new system goes well by planning, monitoring, and executing the new installation.

Main Components in System Implementation

In order for the design system that we are working on to run well, it is necessary to test the system that we are working on. For this reason, several key components are required, including hardware hardware , software software , and human brainware .

Hardware Hardware

Hardware is a number of components that are visible physically, which work together in inputting data. Computer equipment used includes:

  1. Screen
  2. CPU central processing unit
  3. The hard disk is the place to run the system and storage media
  4. Minimum memory of 128 MG e. Keyboard and Mouse Software.

Software Software

Software is a set of instructions or computer programs that can be used by a computer to provide the desired function and appearance. In this case the software used by the author for web design applications are:

  1. Windows XP operating system.
  2. MySQL as a programming language for databases in SQL language.
  3. Macromedia Dreamweaver 8 as a design editor.
  4. PHP as a server side programming language.
  5. Web server as a local server to test web pages.
  6. Browser as a medium for viewing web pages. Such as: Mozilla.

Elements of Human Brainware

Brain software is the human element that manages existing computer facilities. The human factor is mentioned as a party that plays a role in system management, and human factors include:

  1. System analyst, namely the person who establishes and builds facilities or designs system programs.
  2. Programmers, namely people who understand the programming language used to create and build a program.
  3. Operations administrator, i.e. the person who operates the system, such as computer-operated data entry to generate information, etc.
  4. Public users, namely those who use the system designed to obtain the necessary information.

3. Implementation of Education

The term implementation is not new in the world of education or in the world of management, every teacher after designing certain programs and plans will try his best to carry out these plans to achieve success and achieve the desired goals. with the rules in force.

Implementation of education means everything that is carried out and implemented in accordance with a program designed to be fully implemented in accordance with predetermined regulations.

Thus, program implementation also needs to fully carry out what is planned in the program. Problems will arise if what is done deviates from what was planned or not designed, then there will be futility between design and implementation.

Main Activities of Education Implementation

  • Program Development

Curriculum development includes developing an annual syllabus (general syllabus for each subject), semester syllabus (containing items to be delivered during the semester), modular syllabus, modules/subjects (sheets, courses, questions and answers), weekly programs and daily programs ( for student progress and difficulties), enrichment and tutoring programs, and Guidance and Counseling programs

  • Implementation of Learning

In learning, the main task of a teacher is to create an environment that supports changes in student behavior. In general, the implementation of KTSP-based learning and the 2013 curriculum consists of three contents, namely introduction, basic activities, and closing section.

  • Evaluation of Learning Outcomes

Evaluation is a process of collecting data to determine how, how, and how educational goals are achieved, where the results of this assessment can be used as a reference in making decisions. Included in this assessment are ways to overcome problems encountered when they arise in learning.

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Implementation is not limited to implementing a program (curriculum, learning) but before implementation, the teacher has designed a lesson plan in accordance with the applicable program, the next task is the implementation of work and finally evaluation.

From the results of the evaluation a decision will be made whether the design meets the objectives or requires re-planning.

4. Strategy Implementation

Strategy implementation is the fourth step in the strategy management process and is where you turn strategic plans into action. From implementing a new marketing plan to increase sales to implementing new task management software to increase the efficiency of internal teams.

Having a strategic plan is good. However, if you don’t have the bandwidth, resources, and support to execute, a strategic plan isn’t going to make any real change in the organization.

We’ll cover the key steps for implementing a strategy, including the potential risks and how to avoid them, and introduce some frameworks to help you successfully implement the strategy you’re currently using.

Steps to Implement Business Strategy

Strategy execution is very important to ensure that all plans that have been prepared can be executed properly. There are six steps you can take to make the strategy implementation process easier. Whatever?

a. Define a Strategic Framework

on the one hand, strategy must be integrated into all aspects of your business. Strategy must be in the DNA of the organization and its creators. However, if you don’t try to explain it clearly, it will be very difficult for you to focus on achieving it.

Start by creating a simple framework that someone can easily understand. When someone questions the purpose of the strategy, everyone must be on the same page for the process to work smoothly.

b. Build Your Plan

Now that you’ve created a plan, it’s time to start making actual strategic plans. There are several steps in developing a plan that you can follow:

  • Bring all stakeholders together in a meeting. In the meeting, start writing down the values ​​that the company upholds.
  • Represents Score 3- an area of ​​focus that your team thinks needs to work on to achieve their vision
  • Have all team members contribute independently on strategic objective items
  • Discuss together what parts will be pursued and included in the strategy implementation process.

c. Define KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)

The third step you need to take is to define your KPIs or Key Performance Indicators. This is a tool that has been around for a long time but is still used today. With KPIs, it’s easier to measure your achievements and focus on the results you want to achieve.

d. Apply a Strategy Rhythm

The next thing you need to do to ensure that strategy execution can go according to plan is to follow your strategy. Often, company employees are so focused on their daily tasks that they forget what the main goal of moving the business forward is. This is what makes many strategies unworkable.

How to appease this strategy? You can start with monthly meetings to check the progress of strategy implementation. Involve everyone to share their opinion on the whole process.

If something needs fixing, please update immediately. It is important to ensure that everyone has the same views and goals.

e. Implement Strategy Reporting

After holding the meeting, you need to find a way to consistently report on the status of implementing the company-led strategy. The main objectives of this report are:

  • Consistency. Everyone knows what to expect and what needs to be updated prior to the Sample meeting
  • Simple. The report should provide an overview of the progress of strategy implementation
  • Accountability. Make sure the report lists the names of each person and their duties and who actually gets the job done
  • Informative. These reports provide not only an overview of the current state of strategy implementation, but also its evolution over time. Try to include comparable time periods using charts to clearly see changes and ensure the pace is being maintained as planned.

5. Implementation of Nursing

According to Gordon (1994), nursing practice is a series of activities carried out by nurses to help clients move from problems with their health status to a state of good health that describes the expected results, expectations.

The purpose of implementation is to help clients achieve the goals that have been set, including:

  • Improve health
  • Prevent disease
  • Restore health
  • Facilitate treatment deputy

6. Implementation of Public Policy

The basic concept of public policy implementation refers to the actions taken to achieve the goals set in a decision. Public policy implementation is an important stage in the entire public policy cycle.

For this reason, several comments appear below regarding the implementation of public policy. According to Nugroho (2014: 657), “the implementation of a policy is in principle a means by which a policy achieves its goals”.

According to Huntington (Mulyadi, 2015: 24), the most important difference between one country and another lies not in form or ideology, but in the level of leadership. This level of competition can be seen from the ability to carry out every decision or policy of a political office, cabinet or president of the country.

Grindle (Waluyo, 2007: 49) states: “Practical implementation is not only about the mechanism of making policy decisions according to normal procedures through bureaucratic channels, but more than that, it’s about conflict, whose decision do you get from a policy.

Author: Ziaggi Fadhil Zahran

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