Effective Communication – Sinaumed’s must have experienced clashes in a conversation. Maybe differences of opinion or disputes are things that are considered normal as long as humans apply social life. However, this can also be a sign that we lack effective communication.
An ineffective communication process makes the message conveyed difficult to understand by the recipient of the message. Not infrequently misunderstandings occur during the communication process and even trigger conflicts between the sender of the message and the recipient of the message so that later communication becomes hampered. Then, how to overcome this?
Definition of Effective Communication
Effective communication is the process of transmitting ideas, thoughts or information from the sender of the message (communicator) to the recipient of the message (communicant) which results in a positive relationship or reciprocity for both parties. Effective communication is characterized by the achievement of goals through the communication process carried out. In addition, understanding the information received and feedback is an important indicator of effective communication.
Effective communication combines a range of skills including nonverbal communication, attentive listening, the ability to manage stress during communication, and the capacity to recognize and understand emotions in oneself and those with whom we communicate.
For this reason, effective communication requires a communicator who is able to convey information naturally and a communicant who receives information actively. Both of these things seem to be done spontaneously but are actually based on effective communication methods.
Benefits of Effective Communication
Effective communication can improve the quality of relationships at home, at work, and in social situations by deepening our bonds with others. Effective communication also strengthens teamwork, decision making, and problem solving abilities. This allows us to communicate negative or difficult messages without creating conflict or breaking trust.
Various studies show that effective communication is the foundation that must be built by every organization regardless of its size and structure. Effective communication is also very important to achieve an organizational goal.
Effective communication that is right on target and effective will certainly support the sustainability of an organization. By supporting the creation of effective communication between individuals in an organization, work productivity or professionalism can increase.
The following are some of the benefits that can be obtained if an organization or company can implement effective communication.
1. Increase job satisfaction
Effective communication that continues to be supported in the workplace can help build loyalty and trust which ultimately contributes to greater job satisfaction. Surveys also show that organizations that encourage open communication between superiors and subordinates can reduce employee turnover cycles.
2. Increasing work productivity
When workers in an organization are able to implement effective communication, the potential for conflict will be reduced. Effective communication at work can also help clarify information. This greatly affects a person’s performance at work.
3. Professional advancement
Effective communication encourages conflicts that occur during the communication process to be resolved openly and as soon as possible. This positive effort leads to individual growth to become a professional person.
Principles in Effective Communication
In realizing effective communication, both communicators and communicants must remember and apply several principles. The following are the principles from Mangal in the book Essentials of Educational Technology which play a very important role in determining the success of effective communication.
- The principle of readiness and motivation . This principle requires that communicators and recipients must be ready and remain motivated during the communication process so that effective communication can take place. Lack of interest, enthusiasm and enthusiasm from one of the parties involved in communication can affect the process and product of communication.
- The principle of having competent communication skills . This principle emphasizes that both the communicator and the recipient must be competent and efficient enough in terms of communicating both giving and receiving the desired information or message. Having the necessary communication skills is very important, so that the communication process, in terms of transmission and reception, can be carried out by both parties effectively.
- The principle of sharing and interaction . In principle, communication is not just giving and receiving information. Communication is a two-way process so that the success of effective communication lies in allowing as much exchange of ideas as possible and maintaining mutual interaction between the giver and receiver of information.
- The principle of conformity of the content of communication . Effective communication is greatly influenced by the content of the message. The content of what will be communicated must be easy to understand and in accordance with the communicator and recipient.
- Principles of proper media and channels . The effectiveness of the communication process will depend on the type of media or communication channel used. Therefore, both communicators and communicants must agree on the media and channels to be used during the effective communication process by considering the contents of the message to be conveyed.
- The principle of proper feedback . Effective communication can be said to be successful if during the communication process the communicator receives the desired feedback from the recipient and vice versa.
- The principle of the facilitator and communication barriers . Realizing effective communication is not an easy matter. Misunderstandings between communicators and communicants during the communication process often occur. There are many variables that intervene between the source and receiver of information during the communication process. The influence of these variables on both positive and negative senders and recipients of messages is a determining factor for the success or failure of effective communication.
Factors Inhibiting Effective Communication
There are several factors that become obstacles in effective communication. The main problem in effective communication lies in the ability of the communicator and communicant when conveying and absorbing messages. In the journal Importance of Effective Communication Strategies to Improve Workplace Communication , Shruti Shrivastava and Vineeta Prasad describe several factors inhibiting effective communication.
- Use of abstract words/phrases . One of the main factors contributing to a lack of effective communication is the use of abstract words. Abstraction in expressions creates confusion and ambiguity in conversation.
- Lack of use of specific words . This factor is also an important obstacle in communicating effectively and leads to confusion in speech.
- Lack of using the right tone when conveying the message. One word can be pronounced in various tones that give rise to various meanings. Tones that are not in accordance with the context of the conversation we mean can cause misunderstandings and make communication ineffective.
- Repetitive use of vocabulary when speaking. This factor is a common problem for most speakers that can interfere with effective communication. In this case, communicators do not use all the words from their own vocabulary bank in communication, causing the quality of the resulting information to be poor.
- Weak pronunciation is also a big factor affecting fluency. The influence of local accents, regional speech styles, and tongue stiffness can be several factors that hinder effective communication.
- Inability to clarify information . During meetings and discussions, it is important to understand the complete information being discussed. We need to dig again or probe to make sure the information we receive from the speaker is not distorted. This clarifying technique is one of the keys to successful effective communication that can help the communicant understand the message correctly.
- Inability to paraphrase . Paraphrasing is a very important strategy used in discussions to achieve effective communication. This is the ability to clearly convey back the information we receive from the speaker during the interaction. The inability to paraphrase the message and confirm it with the speaker is one of the main problems in effective communication.
The paraphrasing technique will enable the listener to understand the key issues better and the speaker to understand whether the message has been fully received or not. When listening to the communicant paraphrase, speakers can always fill in missing information and achieve greater clarity in communication with each other.
- Lack of confidence . Low self-confidence in speaking fluently is a key factor affecting effective communication. This is mainly due to a lack of practice in talking about different issues.
Referring to the journal The Role of Effective Communication in Strategic Management of Organizations , there are several other factors which are said to be obstacles to effective communication.
- Noise or other sounds outside of conversation are a serious barrier to effective communication. Noise can come from the environment around us such as when people try to repair tools or other loud noises that are commonly made by people.
- The credibility of the source allows information to be doubted when the source of the sender is ambiguous, which hinders effective communication. The level of trust or credibility that the recipient has towards the source will certainly affect the recipient’s perception of the message.
- Information overload is another reason that hinders effective communication. Generally in competitive business dealings, the available data is complex because managerial ranks need all sources and types of information for decision making. This very large data causes information to become overloaded so that managers cannot easily interpret and understand the messages received.
- Perception is one factor that often hinders the process of effective communication. Perception makes the recipient filter and interpret the information he receives in a way that makes sense to him or according to his personal understanding. This situation creates misunderstandings that affect the true meaning of the message and results in the wrong interpretation of the message.
- Emotions play an important role in determining the success of effective communication. Effective communication is not just about exchanging information, it is also about understanding the emotions behind that information.
When the communicator communicates with bad emotions, the message to be conveyed may not be well understood by the listener. Such emotional conditions do not allow the communicant to listen objectively and assimilate information effectively. Emotional states can be angry, scared, sad, happy etc.
Overcoming Barriers to Effective Communication
The most important part of effective communication is not what we say, but how we say it and the attitude we take when saying it. To be able to carry out effective communication, then we need to overcome the obstacles that become barriers. Hambagda in the book Communication for Management and Hybels and Weaver in the book Communicating Effectively provides several suggestions for communicators in overcoming obstacles to effective communication.
- Communicators need to avoid information overload. A message sender must be able to estimate the message delivered in the right amount so that it can be interpreted or read easily by the recipient in order to create effective communication.
- The communicator must repeat the message conveyed to prevent misunderstandings. Repetition of messages is important in an effective communication process to ensure that the information that reaches the recipient is understood correctly. If there are problems or obstacles in the communication process, this must also be discussed immediately, because delaying resolution will cost more.
- Communicators are required to choose the right communication media used to transmit information. Adjusting the communication media with the message to be conveyed precisely will create effective communication. For example, communicators must choose whether to convey design revisions in a project preferably via e-mail or telephone. The choice of communication media must be adjusted to the nature of the message to be transmitted.
- Communication is considered complete when feedback is provided on the message. The communicator must encourage the communicant to provide feedback as a way to confirm whether effective communication has been achieved.
In addition there are several effective communication strategies that can be applied by the communicant.
1. The communicant needs to be an active listener. Maybe the active listener is an odd concept of effective communication that we encounter. Basically being an active listener requires us to not only listen with our ears, but also listen with our other senses.
Communication expert Kenneth H. Cohn who introduced this concept revealed that effective communication can be created if the listener places full attention on the conversation. A communicant is asked to maintain body language while listening, such as not talking to other people, keeping eye contact at the same level, etc. The communicant was also asked to utter a short sentence indicating interest in the ongoing communication.
2. The communicant is obliged to give feedback on the message that has been received. Effective communication is successful when the communication that occurs is not only unidirectional – there is feedback that the communicant conveys.
There are procedures that must be carried out as long as the communicant submits questions, suggestions, or criticism. Before providing feedback, the communicant needs to determine what information is already known to other listeners or has been conveyed by the communicator. After knowing the missing information, the communicant fills this gap with feedback.
3. The communicant needs to paraphrase or confirm the information obtained. Effective communication requires the active role of the communicant during the communication process. This can be done by providing feedback.
However, before giving feedback, the communicant needs to review the information received in a concise and concise manner. By paraphrasing, the communicator knows that a communicant is fully involved in the communication process. Paraphrasing is also a communicant’s effort to ensure that the information received is correct and not distorted.
Effective communication cannot be done in a short time. Both communicators and communicants need to go through a long process of training habits and communication skills that can support effective communication.
It takes time and effort to develop the skills to become an effective communicator and communicator. The more effort and practice you put into it, the more instinctive and spontaneous your Sinaumed’s communication skills will be.
So, that was an explanation of effective communication that Sinaumed’s can practice in everyday life. If Sinaumed’s is interested in becoming an accomplished communicator or communicant, Sinaumed’s can study communication through books that can be obtained by accessing www.sinaumedia.com.
Author: Anendya Niervana