In English, there are pronouns or what we call Indonesian as pronouns.
Types of Pronouns
As with pronouns in Indonesian, pronouns also have various types that can be used according to the context of the sentence. What are the types of pronouns? Let’s listen to the following description!
Personal pronouns are words that are used to replace people or things. ( Personal pronouns are words that are used to replace a person or thing ). These personal pronouns are distinguished again based on their behavior as objects and subjects. There are several personal pronouns as subjects, namely,
- I (I, I)
Example: I go to school early.
- You (You, You, You, You)
Example: You are a boy.
- We (We, Us)
Example: We are busy today.
- they (They)
Example: They are students.
- He (He – usually for a boy)
Example: He is a Colonel.
- She (She – usually for girls)
Example: She is a good girl.
- It (This, that)
Example: It is a car.
Meanwhile, personal pronoun as an object can be described as follows,
Example: Ali asked me to open the door.
In compiling sentences with pronouns, you must pay attention to the position or “role” of the pronoun according to the context of the sentence. Example!
- I (I) give this for you (given this for you).
- She gives me (He gave) me (me) money.
- For me (me) not for her (not for him).
- You and I
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Possessive adjectives are words used to express possession. This possessive pronoun cannot stand alone, so it must be followed by a noun ( Possessive adjectives are words that are used to express possessions. They can not stand alone, so they are followed by a noun ).
Possessive adjectives can function as objects or subjects, but keep in mind that these possessive adjectives cannot stand alone. There are several forms of possessive adjectives, viz
Example: My mother went to Monica (as subject)
Example: That is your bag?
Example: Her husband is a doctor.
Example: That is his house.
Example: Its door is broken.
Example: I visited our grandmother (as an object)
Example: Their problems are serious.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (Possessive Pronouns)
Possessive pronouns are words used to express ownership that can stand alone . Possessive pronouns are not followed by a noun. ( Possessive pronouns are words that are used to express possessions, which can stand alone. They are not followed by a noun ).
What is included in this possessive pronoun ? Let’s see!
Example: Tina is a friend of mine .
Example: I’m yours .
Example: This big house is theirs .
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REFLEXIVE PRONOUN (Reflective Pronoun)
Reflexive pronouns are words that are used to express something that has a reciprocal relationship ( Reflexive pronouns are words that are used to express something that has a reciprocal relation ).
In the use of reflexive pronouns , it is usually more to express an action that is unconscious or reflexive . Several forms are included in reflexive pronouns, namely,
- My self
Example: When i was cutting bread, i cut myself
Example: You will hurt yourself
Example: He bought himself a new motorcycle.
Example: She hurt herself
Example: The cat is washing itself .
Example: We build a house ourselves .
Example: They are pleased with themselves .
THE POSITION OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE TABLE
|Subject||Object of Verbs/ Prepositions||Possessive Adjective||Possessive Pronouns||Reflexive Pronouns|
|I give this for you.||She gave me a chance.||My car is new.||It is mine.||I do it myself.|
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (Point Pronouns)
Demonstrative pronouns are words that are used to point out something ( Demonstrative pronouns are words that are used to point out something ). There are several forms of pronouns that are included in this type of demonstrative pronouns , namely This, These, That, and Those .
- this _
This is used to show singular nouns that are near us ( This is used to point out the singular noun that is near to us). Example!
- This is (It) a new laptop.
- This is (It) a nice book.
- This song is good!
- These _
These areused to point out plural nouns that are near us. Example!
- These are (It) new books (new books)
- These are (It’s) nice bags (nice bags)
- These songs are easy listening
- That (That)
That is used to designate singular nouns that are far from us ( That is used to point out the singular noun that is far to us). Example!
- That is (That) my old friend (my old friend)
- That is Ida’s husband (Ida’s husband)
- That problem is very serious
- Those (That)
Those are used to point out plural nouns that are far from us ( Those are used to point out the plural noun that is far to us). Example!
- Those are (That) my old friends
- Those are (That) Ida’s teachers (Ida’s teachers)
- Those problems (the problems) are very serious (very serious)
To make it clearer, let’s look at the following table!
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INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS (Interrogative Pronouns)
Interrogative pronouns are words that are used to ask or ask questions ( Interrogative pronouns are words that are used to ask for questions ). There are several forms included in this type of interrogative pronouns, namely Who, What, Which, When, Where, Whose, Whom, Why, and How .
Who is the word used to ask people ( Who is the word that is used to ask for a person ). Example!
- Who is it?
It’s Budi! (This is Budi!)
- Who (who) invented telephone (who invented the telephone)?
- Who (who) are you?
I’m Arkie Hamizan.
- Who (who) is speaking (who is speaking)?
What (What/ What…/ How much)
What is the word used to ask for objects ( What is the word that is used to ask for a thing ). Example!
- What (what) do you want?
Money and food!
- What bus (Bus apa) do you take?
- What (what) is that?
It’s a new car.
- What did she say?
She said nothing.
- What (how) is the price (price) of this laptop?
- What (what) are you talking about? Nothing.
Which is the word used to ask a choice ( Which is the word that used to ask a choice ). Example!
- Which one is your sister?
The one with a blue T-shirt.
- Which bus (which bus) goes to Bali?
- Which (which) is your bag?
The black one
When is the word used to ask the time ( When is the word that is used to ask the time ). Example!
- When (when) did you come (you come?)
- When (when) were you born (you born?)
On July 20, 1999.
Where is the word used to ask for a place/location ( Where is the word that used to ask the place ). Example!
- Where (where) do you live (you live)?
- Where (where) are you going (you going?)
To the bank.
Whose is the word used to ask for possession ( Whose is the word that used to ask a possession ). Example!
- Whose house is it? (Whose house is this?)
- Whose car is that? (Whose car is it?)
Whom is the word used to ask a person as an object ( Whom is the word that is used to ask a person as an object). Example!
- Whom did you go with? (Who are you going with?)
- Whom did you speak to? (Who are you talking to?)
Why (Why/ Why)
Why is the word used to ask the reason ( Why is the word that used to ask the reason ). Example!
- Why (why) is she so unhappy? (he feels displeased)
Because she failed on her test.
- Why (why) do you come late? (you came late)
Because i missed the bus.
How (What/ What…/ How/ How)
How is the word that is used to ask how or how to process things ( How is the word that is used to ask how or process for a thing ). Example!
- How (how) do you feel (your feelings)?
- How often (how many times) do you play tennis?
Once a week (once a week)
- How far (how far) is Jogja to Solo (from Jogja to Solo)?
About 60 km/s (about 60 km)
- How long have you been living here? (you live here?)
Around ten years
- How old (how old) are you?
22 years old.
- How much (how much) money do you want? (money you want)
Less than IDR 5,000,000 (less than 5 million)
- How many (how many people) guests come to the party?
About 200 persons (about 200 people).
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RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Connecting Pronouns)
Relative pronouns are words that are commonly used in clauses as adjectives ( a relative pronoun is usually that used in adjective clauses ). Therefore, it is located between phrases because it acts as a connector.
Some of the forms included in this type of relative pronoun are That, Who, Whom, Whose , and Which . To understand better, let’s look at the following explanation!
That is a word used to replace a person or thing ( That is a word that is used to a person or a thing ). Example!
- Michael Jackson is the world’s best rock singer that ( yang ) ever visited our country ( Michael Jackson is the best rock singer in the world who has visited our country )
- Everything that ( yang ) happened were was my responsibility ( Everything that happened was my responsibility )
WHO (Who/ who)
Who is the word used to ask people ( Who is the word that is used for asking a person ). Example!
- The man who ( yang ) is speaking is a bank manager
- A pilot is a person who (yang) flies an airplane (Pilot is someone who flies an airplane)
- The woman who (yang) sits next to me comes from Texas
Whom is the word used to replace a person as an object ( Whom is the word that is used to a person as an object ). Example!
- The girl whom I met yesterday had left for Europe
- The man whom (the) the car belongs to is a businessman
- In my town there are five persons, most of whom (most of them) are rich and educated
- The man whom I talk to was very honest
Whose is the word used for a person to show ownership ( Whose is the word used for a person to show a possession ). Example!
- A widow is a woman whose husband is dead
- The man whose house is very luxurious works for a foreign private company
Which is the word used for a thing to show a choice . Example!
- This is the film which (yang) tells us about the Vietnam War
- The car which he broke last night is being repaired by a mechanic
- The hotel in which I stay is very expensive
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (Indefinite Pronouns)
Indefinite pronouns are words that are always considered singular and require a verb in singular form ( Indefinite pronouns are words that are always considered singular and required a verb in singular form). Example!
(People, you, you)
(someone, anyone, everyone)
(Someone, anyone, everyone)
Sinaumed’s, if you understand more about what pronouns are, don’t forget to practice the questions every day, OK? So that your English skills are cooler!
Riyanto, Slamet. The 1st Student’s Choice TOEFL . 2015. Yogyakarta: Student Library.
Purnaning, Estiwi Retno, et al. Upgrading TOEFL Score: The Secret to Increasing the TOEFL Score . 2012. Jakarta: Cmedia.