Declarative Sentences: Definition, Functions, Characteristics and Examples

The declarative sentence is – Humans are social beings who live by relying on each other with a communication system. Where later the communication carried out by humans will be easier and run smoothly because of language.

In a book entitled Unity in Language (2010) by Abdul Chaer, it is explained that language is a symbol of sound that is arbitrary and used by humans as a means of communication and social interaction.

In language there are various kinds of word sequences that eventually become a sentence with meaning and purpose to be conveyed. Then, according to Henry Guntur Tarigan in the book Teaching Syntax (1984) explains if the response type sentence is expected to be divided into several types of sentences. Starting from declarative sentences, interrogative sentences and imperative sentences.

So, in this article, we will explain about declarative sentences in more depth. If you don’t really understand declarative sentences, surely the explanation in this article will be of great help to you.

Definition of Declarative Sentences in General

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Indonesian is the national language in Indonesia. Of course, the Indonesian language subject is one of the materials that will be taught from elementary school to the community. Apart from that, learning Indonesian also has many topics of discussion.

One of them is the type of sentences as well as examples of sentences that must be understood by students. For example, declarative sentence material is very important to learn.

The existence of declarative sentences is indeed one type of sentence that is often used to communicate between humans. Even though maybe you don’t really know what types of sentences are from sentences that are often used.

However, it is very important for us to know about types of sentences including declarative sentences. One of the goals is for you to be able to communicate better.

Simply put, a declarative sentence is a type of sentence that is based on the message of the discourse. That means a declarative sentence will be seen in terms of the embodied meaning which is based on the response from the reader or listener.

Meanwhile, according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary or KBBI, a declarative sentence is a type of statement that is always concise and clear. Where later the existence of a declarative sentence has the aim of telling the listener about something that is known by the source or person who is speaking.

Because it has the purpose of providing information, a declarative sentence also does not require an answer from the listener or the recipient.

Definition of Declarative Sentences According to Various Experts

As previously explained, if a declarative sentence will provide some information to those who receive it. Therefore, it is not uncommon for some people to call declarative sentences as news sentences.

Various kinds of information contained in declarative sentences are actual events that did occur and of course what is conveyed to the general public is an event that actually occurred. In addition, the delivery of declarative sentences will usually contain complete, comprehensive and detailed information.

However, it is not uncommon for declarative sentences to contain the opinions of the speakers. We also encounter declarative sentences more often in everyday conversations, news on TV, radio and electronic media.

Besides being able to explain in general terms, the meaning of declarative sentences is also explained by several experts. So, to better understand how the experts think about the meaning of declarative sentences, you can read the reviews below.

1. In the Indonesian Descriptive Grammar Book: Syntax

According to the book Indonesian Descriptive Grammar: Syntax, a declarative sentence is a type of sentence that is based on the message of the discourse. That means the declarative sentence can be seen from the markup to be realized and the responses from the recipients.

2. Tika Hatika in the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture Module Theme 6

Tika Hatikah explained that declarative sentences in the Indonesian Language Ministry of Education and Culture Module Theme 6 are types of sentences that function to provide information or news about something. Therefore, declarative sentences usually do not require responses such as answers from those who are listeners or readers.

3. M. Ramlan

  1. Ramlan has an opinion that declarative sentences usually have news intonation and do not have question words like what, who, why, where, and so on. In addition, declarative sentences also do not contain invitation sentences such as the words come on, don’t, come on, please, and so on.
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Meanwhile, in terms of the intonation of the sentence, declarative sentences are usually flatter and the writing will also end with a period, so that it seems that there is no intention other than giving news or information.

4. Surono

Surono has an opinion that declarative sentences are terms of news sentences. Where the sentence can be said as a sentence that does not have special markers such as interrogative sentences or imperative sentences.

5. Alvi

According to Alwi, the meaning of a declarative sentence is a sentence which in its written form will end with a full stop and in its spoken form it will be marked with a descending tone. Declarative sentences will usually be used by the speaker or writer to make a question. Therefore, a declarative sentence will also contain news for listeners and readers.

6. Cook

According to Cook, a declarative sentence is a sentence made to convey information without expecting a specific response.

7. Forecast

Ramlan has an opinion about the meaning of a declarative sentence is a sentence that functions to tell something to other people which makes the response of the sentence a concern as reflected in the eyes that show attention.

8. Rahadi

Rahadi explained that a declarative sentence is a sentence that has the objective of providing information such as a certain event to the speech partner, both the reader and the other person who is the listener.

9. Putrayasa

Putrayasa has an opinion if a declarative sentence is a sentence that will end with a full stop and will be pronounced in an accompanying tone at the end of the sentence.

Functions of Declarative Sentences

After you know the meaning of declarative sentences in general and the understanding of experts, of course you can conclude that declarative sentences have a specific function to convey information. Both information in the form of opinions and in the form of facts can indeed be conveyed through declarative sentences.

Therefore, the function of a declarative sentence will be different from other types of sentences in Indonesian. Because, in general, declarative sentences will have functions such as providing news information whose contents are to convey several important things such as facts, statements or opinions.

With the information conveyed, readers and listeners will be able to more easily find information or an event that occurs in accordance with the facts. So, in this case the existence of a declarative sentence can help the person who carries it in the process of providing information more easily and also remains useful.

In addition, conveying information using declarative sentences can make it easier for readers and listeners to understand the information they will receive. This is because declarative sentences have been supported by the existence of a sentence structure that is in accordance with the process of conveying information.

Characteristics of Declarative Sentences

Like other types of sentences, declarative sentences also have certain characteristics. Of course, the characteristics of this declarative sentence can be its characteristics, making it different from other types of sentences.

So, for those of you who don’t know what are the characteristics of declarative sentences, you don’t need to be confused about this because the explanation below can help you understand more.

1. Has an Informative Nature

A declarative sentence is a sentence that has informative properties. Where the informative nature it has can be the most visible characteristic. This is because basically declarative sentences contain information that is conveyed to the general public, both listeners and readers.

The information that will be conveyed in a declarative sentence will be in accordance with the facts which sometimes will also be given additional opinions from the author or speaker who conveys the sentence. In addition, the information conveyed in declarative sentences can also be conveyed directly by actors or other people according to what they see from the delivery of the news.

Even so, conveying information in declarative sentences will be required to write or tell what it is if the information comes from other people or other sources. This will make declarative sentences not have a sensational nature because if this happens, it can be said that the function of the sentence will be lost.

2. The existence of non-coercive nature

The following characteristics of declarative sentences are their non-coercive nature. That means in conveying information through declarative sentences, these sentences cannot be made under coercion to other people. Both for readers and listeners who provide responses and so on, including reactions from recipients of information contained in declarative sentences.

Therefore, the recipients of the information can also express their reactions freely according to what they want. Or it could even not give any reaction to the information conveyed by the source. Because after all, declarative sentences have a function only to provide information without the need for special responses.

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3. No Response Required

Previously, it has been explained that if a declarative sentence does not have a coercive nature, then the purpose of having a declarative sentence conveyed by the speaker or writer is only to provide certain information. This will make declarative sentences unnecessary to provide a response, whether in the form of an answer or opinion from the reader or listener.

This can happen because in a declarative sentence there is already information that is conveyed in a clear, straightforward and straightforward manner, so that the owner of the information only needs to convey the information and certainly does not need to demand a response from readers or listeners. Of course, you also know that declarative sentences are also referred to as news sentences which do not have the obligation to receive any response.

4. There is Neutral Information

In addition to the several characteristics described earlier, declarative sentences also have neutral or flat intonation. Although in a declarative sentence it contains information that is straightforward and firm.

However, the intonation of declarative sentences will not be made up and down. Usually, they will use a neutral or flat intonation like people speaking in general.

In the process of compiling sentences, declarative sentences usually only use full stop punctuation at the end and use commas when necessary. In declarative sentences, there are no complex punctuation marks, either question marks or exclamation points.

Thus the use of intonation will also be neutral and flat in the hope that listeners and readers can better understand the information conveyed.

5. Ends With a Period

The last characteristic of a declarative sentence is that it ends with a full stop (.). That means, declarative sentences will have a flat intonation as previously explained.

In addition, the presence of full stop punctuation can also indicate to the reader that it is not necessary to give a response when knowing the information in a declarative sentence.

Examples of Declarative Sentences

After knowing all the information about declarative sentences. Next we will try to study some examples of declarative sentences. Some of the sentences below are examples of declarative sentences quoted from various sources.

  1. He is my friend. He didn’t work because he was sick.
  2. There are no penguins at the North Pole. Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia.
  3. Youths from Wonorejo Village are holding a soccer league in their village field which will start next week.
  4. Today, all students in Malang City go home early because of the thick fog caused by the eruption of Mount Semeru.
  5. I will send a letter later by post.
  6. Mother has not returned from the market since this morning.
  7. Report cards will be distributed on Monday next week.
  8. The increase in the price of tofu and tempeh which will start next week has forced tofu and tempeh producers to strike.
  9. Maglev trains are the fastest mode of ground transportation in the world.
  10. The Aceh tsunami was the biggest tsunami disaster in human history.
  11. Mother cooked in the kitchen using a frying pan that I bought yesterday at the supermarket.
  12. The Australian box jellyfish has venom that can kill up to 60 adults.
  13. The car accident that occurred on the Cipularang toll road section claimed the lives of at least 20 more people.
  14. The concert event which took place in Sumatra some time ago was forcibly stopped because it was suspected of violating health rules and protocols.
  15. Until now, the BASARNAS team continues to carry out evacuation efforts due to the flood disaster that occurred in West Java.
  16. Green tea contains many antioxidants which are good for preventing cancer.
  17. Police are investigating the cause of the fire which engulfed the area.
  18. Several people helped to lift a tree that had fallen on an arterial road in Yogyakarta due to a tornado a few minutes ago.
  19. This morning there was a traffic accident due to thick fog blocking the view. The discovery of antibiotics discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928 managed to reduce the death rate from infection.
  20. Brother forgot to bring his office key even though he left 15 minutes ago.
  21. The honey badger has tough but elastic skin, which allows it to easily escape from the lion’s clutches.
  22. Wind power plants are the most environmentally friendly source of energy because they do not produce any gas emissions.
  23. The Minister of Social Affairs arrived this morning to hand over assistance to MSMEs affected by Covid-19.

Well, those are some summaries of declarative sentence explanations. Starting from the definition of declarative sentences, their functions, characteristics, to examples of declarative sentences, there are complete explanations here. From the discussion above, it can be said that declarative sentences are sentences that contain information and end with a full stop.

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Author: Hendrik Nuryanto

Source:

  • https://penerbitdeepublish.com/kalimat-deklarative/#Pengertian_Kalimat_Deklaratif_According to_Para_Ahli
  • https://www.kompas.com/skola/read/2021/08/20/132831769/pengertian-kalimat-deklarative-dan-exemplary