Betawi Traditional Clothing: Types, Functions, Uniqueness, and Explanations

Betawi Traditional Clothing   – Sinaumed’s, have you ever watched the legendary Si Doel Anak Sekolahan serial or film? Some of the footage displays Betawi traditional clothing. These traditional clothes are also often displayed at the Jakarta Fair to introduce the variety of cultures in Jakarta. Sinaumed’s, come on, let’s just discuss the traditional clothes of the Betawi tribe.

Overview of Betawi

The Betawi tribe are people who are descendants of residents in the city of Batavia. This city is the old name of the city of Jakarta when it was in the Dutch colonial period. The name Betawi itself comes from Batavia, then changes to Batavia, Batawi and then adjusts the language of the local community to become Betawi.
Currently, many Betawi people live in the Jabodetabek area and its surroundings. Biologically, this tribe was actually a blend of ethnic groups because in Batavia there were various ethnic groups who later married and gave birth to children.

The inter-ethnic mix came from other ethnic groups who migrated to Batavia, such as Javanese, Sundanese, Malay, Bugis, Batak, Chinese, Arabic, English, Dutch, Portuguese, Ambonese, Balinese and others. Overall, in terms of tradition, culture, customs, arts, culinary arts, the Betawi people are inspired by Malay, Islam and Chinese. Moreover, Malay and Islamic patterns are very strong there.

Now, the existence of the Betawi tribe is a minority because many residents from outside the area come to Jakarta. Currently, this tribe, both its people and culture, is somewhat marginalized from the daily life of Jakarta residents. To overcome this, in Jakarta a cultural heritage site was established in Situ Babakan.

Types, Uniqueness, Functions, and Explanations of Betawi Traditional Clothing

Sinaumed’s will witness a lively festival in DKI Jakarta Province every June 22. On that date, DKI Jakarta as the capital of our country commemorates his birthday. The commemoration is celebrated by holding the Jakarta Fair which showcases Jakarta’s cultural diversity, including Betawi. Ranging from culinary, music, performances, to traditional clothing also appeared at the event.

As the nation’s capital, it’s no wonder that the excitement is felt by all regions in Indonesia. In fact, it is not uncommon for TV presenters who do news coverage to also wear Betawi traditional clothing. From the display of these traditional clothes, at a glance you can describe the various models, colors, decorations, and motifs. Not infrequently there is a mixture of Malay, Islamic, Chinese, Arabic, Indian, Dutch, and other cultures.

As a tribe that grew up in the capital city, we should know more about this tribe. Sinaumed’s, let’s discuss them one by one in detail so we can recognize this Betawi traditional dress.

1. Kebaya Encim

One of the most frequently displayed Betawi traditional clothes is the Kebaya Encim for women. Both from teenage girls, young women, to middle-aged Betawi women like simple, simple kebaya, but can still convey this impression of elegance.

This Betawi traditional dress is often used during Jakarta Fair moments, uniforms for employees of government and private agencies, commemorations of holidays, receiving special guests, performing arts and culture, and other events.

In the past, when European culture still had a strong influence in Batavia or Jakarta, this kebaya was made of European-made lace or brocade combined with local embroidery. As a result, the kebaya looks like it was directly embroidered. The embroidery usually has a floral pattern that you can find on the bottom of the kebaya or on the wrist.

The embroidery used in Kebaya Encim also varies, one of which is an embroidery with lots of holes called a design. In earlier times, the design was soft and the appearance was refined close to perfection.

Now, many designs are made with the help of computer technology. The result is faster and more innovative but the design feels a bit rough, tough and less than perfect. When compared to designs made by hand, the results are far-fetched.

The neck forms a V (V-neck). The original model of Kebaya Keraancang tapers down on the lower front. The spur measures 12 cm to 30 cm from the woman’s pelvic floor. This tapered model is called Kebaya Sonday.

Then widen under the arm so that it looks a bit bigger than the size of the circle at the base of the arm. The model, called the Kebaya Model Goeng, is again in demand by many women today. Kebaya Encim underwent modification and modernization with the presence of materials such as brocade, silk, organdy, natural silk, and others.

As subordinates, Kebaya Encim is combined with sarongs with various models. Starting from the bouquet model, bamboo shoots, morning and afternoon cloth (a long cloth sheathed at the waist, bouquet, tumbak, or rhombus. However, many young women combine Kebaya Encim with trousers or long skirts.

At first, there was no scarf on the Kebaya Encim suit. But over time, the addition of a shawl became a modification of this Betawi traditional dress. The result was unexpected, the use of shawls turned out to make women who wore them more authoritative and more official.

In general, the hair of women who wear it is decorated with a bun with a model that is tailored to the wishes of the wearer. Then if you want, a veil is attached by showing a little hair in the front. But for women who wear hijab, there is no need to use a bun. The headscarf that has been worn is simply covered with a veil by showing the front and neck of the headscarf.

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To add beauty, the women wore jewelery in the form of a kettle of water or asur earrings, triple chain pins, eye rings, listering bracelets or snake bracelets, and scatter necklaces. Most importantly, the mix of jewelry and clothing matched. So it’s up to which one you want to use.

The women use closed slippers as footwear. The blend of Kebaya Encim from top to bottom aims to maintain women’s honor and elegance. The philosophy of this Betawi traditional dress is beauty, maturity, beauty, joy, wisdom, and obedience to the rules and guidance of the ancestors.

2. Sadaria’s clothes

The Sadaria shirt is worn by Betawi men and is often paired with the Kebaya Encim. This outfit is often used in the Abang None festival and also the Jakarta Fair. The appearance of this simple but understated dress is certainly familiar to all Sinaumed’s.

This Sadaria shirt is in the form of a taqwa shirt or a koko shirt with a Shanghai collar (closed collar) 3-4 cm high. Generally, these clothes are white and long-sleeved. When viewed from history, this clothing is inspired by Chinese culture, where many men wear koko clothes. It is called baju koko because it is widely worn by koko (older brothers in Mandarin).

Sadaria’s clothes are made of cotton, but sometimes they are also made of natural silk and linen silk. This shirt is buttoned from top to bottom and has pockets on the right and left sides of the bottom. Not infrequently on the side of the bottom is given a slit of about 15 cm so that the man who wears it does not feel too tight and a bit free.

Sometimes, Sadaria’s clothes are embroidered on the collar in the middle or right and left. The material chosen in making the embroidery can be cotton, natural silk, or other.

Sadaria’s shirt is matched with two choices of pants. Namely, trousers made of dark material or long trousers with batik motifs.

Selection of pants will affect the footwear that must be worn. If dark trousers are chosen, then loafers are appropriate to wear to make it look harmonious. If you use batik trousers with a komprang model, then pumped sandals are more suitable to be chosen as footwear.

As a complement, Betawi men use a plain black skullcap (cap) as a head covering. Then there is a folded sarong (cukin) hanging around the neck which is usually held with both hands during a photo session. The purpose of using courgettes is to make sarongs or prayer mats when performing prayers, weapons or tools to fight criminals encountered.

This Sadaria shirt is worn by employees from government or private agencies at certain times, traditional events, tourism attractions, welcoming special guests, and commemorating holidays. There is no particular philosophy of this outfit. It’s just that this clothing is to show the identity of the wearer as a man who is humble, dynamic, polite and has authority.

3. Betawi Pangsi

This Betawi traditional costume is often worn by Betawi champions who incidentally are warriors. One set of clothes consists of a Tikim shirt and Pangsi pants. It’s just that, lately this outfit is better known as Pangsi Shirt.

Based on historical records, the Tikim shirt and Pangsi pants are influenced by Chinese culture. Tikim clothes come from the Hokkien language, namely Tui Kim. And Pangsi Pants are from Phang Si. Both were adapted from the clothes of the Chinese who lived in Batavia.

This Pangsi shirt has a round neck shape like the letter O or the modern language is O-neck. Accompanied by long sleeves, the Pangsi Shirt is made in a loose fit compared to the size of the wearer’s body.

Previously, this shirt was made without buttons but now generally uses buttons. Betawi men wear plain white T-shirts as an underlay for the Pangsi Shirt, so that sometimes the shirt can be unbuttoned.

While Pangsi Pants are trousers that are a bit loose so they look too big. The color of the pants matches the color of the shirt you are wearing. Previously, this Pangsi traditional dress was used by Betawi men in their daily activities. However, over time, these clothes were worn more and more by warriors, warriors, punches, and Betawi farmers.

On the waist of Betawi men, there is a belt that is wider in size than an ordinary belt. And around his neck, there is a neatly folded sarong. The function of this sarong varies because it can be used for prayer mats and sarongs during prayers as well as weapons during duels.

The color of this Pangsi Betawi shirt is not only black, but also red, green and white. Each color has its own meaning. White or cream Pangsi clothes are usually worn by martial arts experts who are also religious leaders.

The religious knowledge acquired by the fighter was obtained from studying with Engkong Haji. Black Pangsi clothes are usually worn by thugs. And the red Pangsi shirt is used by someone who has high martial arts skills and religious knowledge so that his abilities cannot be doubted.

The color of the shirt certainly affects the color of other attributes, such as the cap. The color of the attribute indicates who is wearing the shirt. In ancient times, anyone who wore a red cap was someone who was recognized by society as someone who had high knowledge, was a street carpenter, and had eaten a lot of salt and sour, alias had a lot of experience. If the cap has intervened, the situation is extraordinarily precarious.

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If compared to today, the red cap might be equated with a red beret. People who wear the red cap are the spearhead of resistance against anything that is considered a disturbance to the security, peace and harmony of society.

Therefore, the red cap along with the red Pangsi shirt are sacred clothes and cannot be worn by just anyone. However, if the use is for artistic purposes, these clothes may be worn by ordinary people.

4. Attire of the Aristocrats of Ujung Serong

Furthermore, Betawi traditional clothes are specifically for nobles and demang. This attire is called the Aristocrat’s Clothing or Ujung Serong and is generally only worn by men.

This one outfit is often used by the State Civil Apparatus (ASN) or Civil Servants (PNS) in government offices, weddings as guests or guardians, commemorations of holidays, welcoming special guests, and other official events.

As an inner layer, Betawi men use white shirts. Then a black or dark suit jacket is used after the white shirt. As a subordinate, use matching colored trousers with a closed jacket. Then around the waist wrapped batik cloth that has been arranged in such a way and the length reaches the thigh.

The matching footwear is loafers. To impress classy aristocrats, pinned a gold watch. Finally, the head covering is in the form of a cap to add to the impression of authority.

5. Betawi wedding attire

As the name implies, Betawi wedding attire is for married couples. Like wedding dresses in other areas, this Betawi wedding dress has the characteristics and features of other traditional clothes from the same area. Because marriage is a sacred event.

This Betawi wedding dress is a fusion of Arabic, Chinese, Indian and European cultures, so it’s no wonder that this Betawi traditional dress has a quite unique model. For men, the wedding dress is called Dressing Care Haji. Meanwhile, for women, the wedding dress is called Cine Bride Dressing Care None.

How about the wedding dress? Come on, let’s discuss it a bit in depth below.

A. Hajj Care Makeup

This outfit consists of a long, brightly colored robe and a head covering in the form of a turban. The color of the turban matches the color of the robe and is decorated with bright sequins. On the left side of the front, there is a string of jasmine flowers that hangs down to the shoulder.

B. Cine Bride’s Care None Makeup

Clothing for the bride consists of many types, ranging from top clothes, bottoms, crowns, and jewelry. Below we will discuss one by one section.

a. Tuaki

The upper part of the shirt is in the form of a blouse which is divided into several models, the famous ones being the Malay baju kuning and the Chinese Shanghai model. Tuaki looks resplendent and full of sheen. This shirt is also decorated with golden sequins, especially around the chest, shoulders and cuffs.

b. Kun

The equivalent of the Tuaki that is this subordinate is a skirt that widens at the bottom. The length is up to the ankles of the woman wearing it. Kuns are often also decorated with loose thread in colors and combinations that match the top.

c. Lotus

This accessory is made of velvet covered in metal with a floral headpiece. The lotus is an ornament that is placed on the shoulders and chest so that both are covered. There are eight sheets in total which are arranged symmetrically so that they look neat and aesthetically pleasing.

d. Bun
e. Hairpin

That said, this hairpin is similar to the letter lam in Arabic which symbolizes the oneness of Allah in Islam. The hairpin is used by sticking it in a small casket that closes the knot of the veil rope.

f. The Veiled Xiangko

A veiled Siangko is a face covering like a veil, although it does not completely cover the face. In general, this Siangko is made of gold or silver and is 30 cm long and hangs down in front of the face.

Siangko symbolizes the purity of a girl who is well maintained. Not only that, from the Siangko used, the social status of the bride and groom can be recognized. When the bride and groom use the Siangko, usually those who are married are people from the upper middle class.

g. Twenty of the Goyang Flowers.
h. Phoenix Bird Ornament

This decoration is also known as a large flower which has four in number but its shape is also similar to a Phoenix bird. If we remember about this legendary bird, it likes to fly high into the sky and likes to whistle beautifully as a symbol of happiness.

Thus, the bride and groom are expected to be happy in living a married life.

i. Scatter necklace
j. Sumping or Ear Editing

It is said that if this chopstick is worn by a bride who is no longer a girl or a virgin, the bride will experience dizziness and even fainting.

k. Kerabu

The combination of earrings and studs that are used as one ear jewelry for the bride.

Sinaumed’s, finally we have finished discussing Betawi traditional clothing. Don’t forget, if you are looking for #Friends Without Limits in exploring knowledge, sinaumedia will always be at the forefront with the best books we choose.

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