The Art of Painting – Painting is one of the oldest branches of art among other branches of art. This is evidenced by the tracing of a hand on the cave wall. It is estimated that these hand tracings were made since prehistoric times. Then it was realized that this activity could produce quite beautiful pictures and until now it has developed into a branch of fine art by drawing on a flat surface.
Along with the development of art, various kinds of art genres began to emerge from time to time. As for what distinguishes the art flow, among others, the visual style, coloring techniques performed by each painter, and the message in it. So, in this article, we will discuss what is the flow of painting and what are the currents of painting in the world. Here is a full explanation:
Definition of Painting Art Flow
The flow of painting is a style, genre, and distinctive understanding that is followed by certain individuals or groups to create painting. The flow referred to here is that it can be in the form of main ideas or ideas that were sparked by someone or flow naturally or emerge on their own in line with the development of painting. You need to understand that several schools of painting usually interact with each other. For example, flow C exists because it feels that flow B is no longer relevant to the conditions of the times, or that it has too downplayed certain streams. Then the D flow is present because it feels that if the two are combined it will become more perfect.
Schools or what is commonly called schools of painting are also often influenced or can be said to be formed by the conditions of society at that time. There are large sects whose influence is just as strong, there are also small sects which do not get too much attention. In the past, naturalism and realism had the strongest influence. Because, both of them have an applicable function as documentation, before there was a camera that replaced them. Today, the flow still exists but is not as strong as it used to be.
A lot of inspiration, lessons, and also knowledge that can be drawn from the various currents of painting that exist today. Therefore, studying the flow of painting again will open up a lot of new treasures, ranging from simply appreciating well, or just getting into the world of painting.
The Largest & Most Important Art Flow in History
The following are some of the greatest types of painting in the world:
The flow of romanticism is a flow that describes a reality that exists in various ways that seem dramatic and has an atmosphere like in a dream. For example, a ship tossing because of stormy weather, a human figure standing on a hilltop when dusk comes, and so on. Romanticism reveals the beauty of a theme from its theatrical style, not only relying on beautiful subjects.
Characteristics of Romanticism
a. Is imaginative, although still realistic or no fantasy in it. In addition, the scene also looks more dramatic than the reality.
b. Subjectively, namely the creation of art is assessed as an artist’s self-expression.
c. Using a fairly high emotional intensity.
d. The atmosphere or imagery has a dreamlike quality.
e. Describing very strong feelings and not being literal or using similes and symbols.
Important Figures of Romanticism
1. Francisco Goya
2. Caspar David Friedrich
3. JMW Turner
4. Theodore Gericault
5. Henry Fuseli
6. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
The flow of naturalism is a school that wants to describe nature as similar and as accurate as possible with the references it will paint. Naturalism is a place for artists to appreciate nature. Generally, artists will choose a certain time, for example at dusk or golden hour, to paint a very special and extraordinary scene.
Characteristics of Naturalism Painting
a. This flow prioritizes the accuracy and similarity of the image in the painting with the object to be painted according to the reference.
b. The main weapon of the painters is the technique and ability.
c. Bringing beautiful painting themes but based on purity.
d. The flow of naturalism is a form of appreciation of the artists for the beauty of nature.
e. Always raising the theme of natural beauty or scenery that surrounds the artist.
Figure of the Art of Painting Naturalism
1. John Constable
2. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
3. Theodore Rousseau
4. Thomas Cole
5. Frederic Edwin Church
6. Ilya Repin
7. Basuki Abdullah
Realism is a school that wants to show an event, a certain model, or an atmosphere in everyday situations, without drama or only the most beautiful conditions are chosen. The genre may not perfectly copy what they see, realistic events, or themes, not just images.
Characteristics of the flow of Realism Painting
a. Raising the theme of everyday events that occur and are experienced by most people.
b. Describes the people who are in a real and unique situation with their daily environment.
c. Realist works will show human beings of all classes in their natural conditions and situations.
d. Realism never agrees with exaggerated artistic subjects or romanticist-style dramatizations.
e. Having detailed images that resemble the original or natural using high techniques mastered by the painters.
Figures of the flow of Realism Painting
1. Gustave Courbet
2. Jean-François millet
3. Edouard Manet
4. James Whistler
5. John Singer Sargent
6. Thomas Eakins
Impressionism is a school of painting which only paints a glimpse of the subject to be painted. This flow arose because of the existence of a camera that has been able to take over the function of art as a medium of documentation. Compared to replicating colors that are similar to the human way of seeing, impressionism wanted to depict pure colors based on the process of natural color formation.
Generally, followers of impressionism will paint in the open in a fairly short period of time. So you have to sacrifice the accuracy of the form. That is the reason why their paintings are only impressions. Because, they did not have time to complete further details. However, from these imperfections, new aesthetic forms emerge that do not exist in other schools such as realism, naturalism, even photography.
Characteristics of Impressionism Painting
a. The images in the paintings tend not to be detailed, the paintings will only look similar when viewed from afar
b. Contrasting and vibrant color palette based on the color circle grouping theory.
c. Focus on painting the reflection of light on the subject
d. Using a brush technique called dab, which is an external term for dipping sauce.
e. Never use black.
Figure of the School of Impressionism Painting
1. Claude Monet
2. Edgar Degas
3. Pierre-Auguste Renoir
4. Camille Pissarro
5. Alfred Sisley
Fauvism usually uses a style similar to Impressionism. But rejected the basic idea of imitation of nature. This flow of Fauvism is to make color an independent element of art. The color is not only the color of clothes, skin color, or the color of the sky. But being one of the elements that are independent or stand alone without being a physical representation of anything.
Characteristics of the Fauvism School of Painting
a. Striking colors that do not show accuracy in the model to be painted.
b. The shape of the image in the painting is accompanied by a dark line.
c. Colors are used to express ideas or ideas of artists, not just coloring.
d. Detailed accuracy in the form of images on the model or subject reference is ignored.
e. Convey ideas, ideas, or personal messages from the painter.
1. Henri Matisse
2. Maurice de Vlaminck
3. Andre Derain
4. Kees van Dongen
5. Raoul Dufy
6. Georges Braque
The flow of expressionism is one of the schools that emphasizes the individual expression of the artists themselves on what they remember, see, and feel. It can be said that expressionism is a flow of painting that emphasizes the expression that is in the soul. Expressionism will not impose precision and also the difficulty of painting in his work. Therefore, these streams do not have an accurate level of similarity and even greatly deviate from natural references.
Characteristics of Expressionism Painting
1. Will not prioritize the similarity of the objects they paint.
2. Expressive and bold brush strokes or brush marks are left visible and not covered up.
3. Painting techniques that look naive or amateur but still have good composition.
4. Prioritizing the expression of the artist’s individual soul compared to tracing nature.
5. Using color as a symbol for something, not just as a coloring object.
1. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
2. Wassily Kandinsky
3. Kathe Kollwitz
4. Paul Klee
5. Chaim Soutine
6. Max Beckmann
The flow of cubism is a flow that contains various points of view of an object in the same picture. So as to produce a deformed and fragmented painting. This flow also simplifies objects to resemble geometric shapes. A painting object can consist of various angles simultaneously to produce an aesthetic discrepancy.
Characteristics of Cubism
a. Using multiple perspectives in one image.
b. Doing deconstruction and deformation of painted objects such as changing the position of the mouth with the position of the eyes.
c. Simplify the object to be similar to a geometric shape.
d. Explore open shapes and blend the background with the object in front of it.
e. In the second phase of cubism, many used everyday objects as either collages or newspaper clippings.
1. Pablo Picasso
2. Georges Braque
3. Fernand Leger
4. Juan Gris
5. Robert Delaunay
6. Sonia Delaunay
Dadaism is a flow that cannot make a beautiful work physically. But it is filled with sharp criticism or social messages by making an indirect allusion, up to a direct statement that is quite provocative to the authorities who are considered to have made a negative decision. The flow of dadaism will emit aesthetic beauty from a side that is rarely contained in beauty.
The Characteristics of Dadaism
a. Displays an image that is not beautiful but provocative.
b. It contains messages that question the meaning of art, the role of artists, and aesthetics in general.
c. Conveying anti-war appeals through satirical or satirical messages on the atrocities of war.
d. Contains anti-bourgeois messages at that time considered to have resulted in World War I.
e. Using “readymade” objects or something that already exists, such as everyday objects such as spoons, glasses, toilets, and so on.
1. Francis Picabia
2. Marcel Duchamp
3. Man Ray
4. Hannah Hoch
5. Sophie Taeuber-Arp
6. Andre Breton
Surrealism is a school of painting that presents images of real objects in situations that are impossible to occur in the real world. So that the image is like the one in the dream. Pictures that are real but in unreal conditions, such as: pictures of floating humans, melted wall clocks, or portraits of faces with mouths and noses whose positions are swapped. The flow of surrealism usually uses the approach of Freud’s psychological theory. Where the flow explores the subconscious and the image of a human dream as one illustration of a human desire.
Characteristics of the Surrealism Painting School
a. Loading an image of a real object in unreal conditions.
b. Imagery like the one in a dream.
c. Having a high contrast, that means, there is a large shape next to a small one.
d. Play the imagination that is in the dream with the real world.
e. Looks like fantasy but sticks to real world references.
Figures of the Surrealism Painting School
1. Salvador Dali
2. Andre Breton
3. Hans Arp
4. Max Ernst
5. Alberto Giacometti
6. Joan Miro
Painting Techniques in General
You need to understand that there are many kinds of techniques in painting. Material, each person will definitely have the characteristics of a painting technique according to their abilities. The use of painting techniques is one thing that is very important in order to produce a maximum image. So, using technique is very necessary. The following are some techniques that you can use in everyday life.
1. How to Paint Using the Aquarel Technique
The aquarel technique is a painting technique that uses watercolor (aquarelle) as a base and uses thin and subtle strokes of color. So, the image or painting that will be produced has a transparent and also light nuance. In order to produce a smooth, thin, and also light strokes. It would be better if you use a slightly thinner paint.
2. How to Paint with the Plaque Technique
In contrast to the aquarel technique which seems more transparent. The use of the placard technique is a painting technique that uses watercolors, oil paints, and also acrylic paints with thick strokes and a thicker paint composition. So that this technique will give a more colorful impression in a painting. This painting technique is often used by professional painters to create beautiful paintings that have high economic value.
3. How to paint with the spray technique
This spray technique is a painting technique that uses spraying paint onto the painting medium. The purpose of using this technique is to produce a painting that is smoother and looks more real from a visual standpoint. If you ever see graffiti on street walls, that is an example of painting using the spray technique.