Indonesia’s Geographical & Astronomical Location and Its Influence on Indonesia

Geographical and astronomical location of Indonesia – Geographical and astronomical location of Indonesia is the position of the Indonesian state which is defined in the boundaries that surround Indonesia. This country has many islands that are composed from Sabang to Merauke.

In this article, we will discuss more deeply the astronomical geographic location of Indonesia. For those of you who are curious about the explanation, see the information below.

The appearance of Indonesia’s natural surface consists of land and water with a ratio of 4:1. The appearance of the land itself is in the form of the highest mountain, the longest river in Indonesia, the lake which makes Indonesia the 15th largest country in the world.

Indonesia itself is an archipelagic country which is located in a strategic position and is described in terms of geographical position and astronomical position. The following is a full explanation.

Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world. This country also has a geographical position that is quite unique and makes it strategic. We can see this from the location of Indonesia which is between two oceans and also two continents and has waters which are one of the hearts of international trade.

Geographical Location of Indonesia

Geographical location is one of the determinants that will determine the future of a country in conducting international relations. Even though it is being ignored for the time being, the geographical conditions that exist in a country will determine various kinds of events that have a global impact.

According to Robert Kaplan, geography broadly can be a determinant and influence various events more than ever before.

In the future, Indonesia’s existence will be influenced by its geographical condition and location. Therefore, management of natural resources, capable defense, and qualified border areas are urgently needed.

Due to its strategic location, Indonesia has long been an arena for foreign influence struggles. This country has gone through several periods of control and struggle for influence.

Starting from the Netherlands, Portugal, to the United States and also the Soviet Union during the Cold War. In the future, it is possible that Indonesia will again become an area of ​​struggle for influence by other major powers. We can see this with the presence of China as the new hegemon in the region which has shifted the balance of power and also eroded America’s influence in the region.

Not only that, Indonesia and the surrounding region can become areas prone to disputes. This dispute can occur because Indonesia still has not resolved issues such as maritime boundaries with Australia, the Philippines, Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea, and islands.

The border negotiation process requires a lot of time, while it will make Indonesia more vulnerable to foreign influence due to weak border controls. Starting from terrorism to transnational crimes that may be committed in Indonesia which is very broad with its geographical conditions and quite limited supervision.

When viewed geographically, the Indonesian Archipelago is between the Asian Continent and also the Australian Continent and between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

For the borders of Indonesia itself, namely:

  1. To the north: the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean.
  2. To the east: Papua New Guinea.
  3. To the south: Indian Ocean.
  4. West: Indian Ocean.

Meanwhile, the area of ​​Indonesia reaches 5,194,143 km2 and two-thirds of Indonesia’s area is ocean.

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Indonesian Natural Appearance

As we mentioned above, Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world. Therefore, Indonesia is very rich in natural landscapes. In addition, the natural resources in Indonesia are also very abundant. Where natural wealth is one of the basic capital for Indonesia’s development. For that, it would be better if we use the existing natural wealth as well as possible.

Several land areas in Indonesia were formed from volcanic activity. This is marked by the appearance of the islands which have shapes like mountains of dust, lava, and also mud from volcanic eruptions which make the surrounding soil more fertile. Therefore, most of Indonesia’s population utilizes existing land for plantations and also agriculture.

While the series of mountains in Indonesia stretches from the tip of Sumatra Island to the northern tip of Sulawesi Island. One of the most famous mountains in Indonesia is Mount Anak Krakatau. This mountain is located between the islands of Java and Sumatra.

In the past, a very powerful eruption of Mount Krakatau occurred in 1883. From the eruption, three-fourths of the volcanic island was destroyed and caused a tsunami wave that killed thousands of people.

After the eruption of Mount Krakatau, a new mountain emerged which is now called Mount Anak Krakatau. The territory of Indonesia itself is located on the equator. This causes Indonesia to have a tropical climate.

Meanwhile, the difference in temperature in each region tends to be very small, except in Puncak Jaya, which is in Papua Province. This mountain peak is covered with eternal snow. Puncak Jaya is located in the Sudirman Mountains area.

Rainfall in various regions in Indonesia also varies. The wettest places in Indonesia are the mountains in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. Meanwhile, rainfall in these places reaches 3,000 mm per year.

Title: Geographic Information System

There are thousands of plant species that can be found in this region. The types of fauna in Indonesia are divided into two main groups, namely the Asian type and the Australian type. This Asian type of fauna lives in the northern and western regions. For example, Asian-type fauna, namely elephants and tigers.

As for the Australian type fauna, it lives in the eastern part of Indonesia, especially Papua. On remote islands also found quite unique fauna. For example, the Komodo dragon on Rinca Island and Komodo Island.

Condition of the Indonesian Population

In 2006, Indonesia’s population reached 206,265,000 people. There are more than 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia. Where most of the population adheres to Islam. Other religions that are developing in Indonesia are Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist and Confucianism.

Meanwhile, the main economic activity of the Indonesian population is agriculture. Apart from rice, agriculture in Indonesia also produces cassava, corn, rubber, tea and soybeans. Other economic activities in Indonesia are animal husbandry, fishing, mining and industry.

Location of Indonesian Astronomy

In addition to geographical location, there is also an astronomical location in which Indonesia’s position is influenced by imaginary lines of the earth, namely the latitudes and longitudes that surround the earth. This imaginary line is called because it is actually on the surface of the earth.

This one line does not only exist in the development of astronomy in the branches of biology. The following is the location of Indonesian astronomy based on latitude and longitude, namely:

a. Latitude

Latitude divides the structure of the earth into 2 equal parts, namely between north and south. Where is the line of latitude that is parallel to the imaginary equator (equator) that stretches to the north pole and south pole. The astronomical location of Indonesia is at 6o North Latitude (N) to 11o South Latitude (S).

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b. Longitude

This longitude has divided the earth horizontally, namely from west to east. This longitude is also called the meridian which limits the astronomical position of Indonesia between 95o east longitude (BT) – 141o east longitude (BT).

The Influence of Indonesia’s Geographical and Astronomical Positions

The following are some of the things that affect Indonesia based on its geographical location.

a. Influence Season

Indonesia’s geographical location is traversed by monsoon or monsoon winds. This monsoon wind brings different seasons in Indonesia. Which will affect the process of rain in the rainy season and hot dry season. In addition, the monsoon itself will move alternately throughout the year twice.

b. Strategic area

As we have discussed above, the location of Indonesia itself is between two continents and two oceans. This makes Indonesia an international crossing route, be it by sea or by air. That way, this event will affect economic development in Indonesia’s exclusive economic zone which is passed by large industries.

c. Having Cultural Diversity

Because the location of Indonesia’s territory is between two continents, namely the Australian Continent and the Asian Continent, so that Indonesia is in a cross position. That reason makes Indonesia has cultural diversity in the form of language, art, religion, and also civilization.

d. Has a Strategic Trading Location

Indonesia’s geographical location makes this country a strategic trading location. This is because the territory of Indonesia is a distribution channel for trade goods. This reason makes Indonesia have trade partners with surrounding countries. So that trading activity is increasing.

Furthermore, the following is the influence of Indonesia’s astronomical position, as follows:

a. Affecting Climate

Indonesia is located along the equator which means Indonesia has a tropical climate. Regions that have a tropical climate will get sunlight as the center of the solar system all the time. This of course will be different from what happens in countries that have a four-season subtropical climate. The same goes for polar climates.

Characteristics of Regions with a Tropical Climate

  • High rainfall
  • There is a vast tropical rain forest
  • Sunshine all year round
  • High air humidity

b. Affects the Time Difference

This astronomical location can affect the time difference set starting from latitude and also 0 o longitude in Greenwich City, England. For Indonesia itself, it is divided into three time zones, namely WIB (West Indonesia Time), WIT (East Indonesia Time), and WITA (Central Indonesia Time) in accordance with Presidential Decree No.41 of 1987.

  • Western Indonesia Time (WIB): covers the western part of Indonesia such as Sumatra, Java, Madura, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, and the surrounding small islands.
  • Central Indonesian Time (WITA): covers the central part of Indonesia such as Bali, Nusa Tenggara, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and the surrounding small islands.
  • Eastern Indonesia Time (WIT) covers the eastern part of Indonesia such as the Maluku Islands, Papua, West Papua and the surrounding small islands.

This is an explanation of Indonesia’s astronomical geographical location that needs to be understood. With the brief explanation above, we can better understand how the location of a country affects natural conditions and its economy.