Geographical Conditions in Indonesia – The geographic and astronomical location of the country of Indonesia is the position of the state of Indonesia which can be interpreted as all the boundaries that surround Indonesia. This country has many islands which are composed from Sabang to Merauke and from Miangas to Rote Island.
In the following article, we will discuss more deeply the astronomical geographical location of Indonesia. For You who are curious about the explanation regarding the geographical location and astronomical location of Indonesia, let’s look at the information in the following article.
The appearance of Indonesia’s natural surface consists of land and water with a ratio of around 4:1. The appearance of the land itself includes the island whose largest size is 786,000 km (Papua Island), the mountain with the highest altitude is 4,884m (Puncak Jaya Wijaya), the river with the longest size is 1,143 km (Kapuas River), and the lake which is the largest. the largest size is 1.130km (Lake Toba). These things have helped make Indonesia the 15th largest country in the world.
Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world. This country also has a geographical position that can be said to be unique and makes it a strategically located country. We can see this from the position of the Indonesian state which is between two oceans and is also flanked by two continents and has waters that serve as one of the hearts of international trade.
Geographical Location of Indonesia
Geographical location is a determinant that will determine the future of a country in establishing international relations. Although for the time being one can ignore geographical location, the geographical conditions that exist in a country will actually contribute to various events that have global influences.
According to Robert Kaplan, geography broadly can be used as a determinant and become the influence of various events more than anything that has ever happened before.
In the future, Indonesia’s existence will be greatly influenced by its geographical location and conditions. Therefore, good natural resource management, qualified national defense, and secure border areas are indispensable.
Due to its quite strategic location, since ancient times, the Indonesian state has become an area contested by foreign parties. The Indonesian state has gone through various periods of domination and also territorial struggles.
Starting from Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French, English, and also Japanese. Colonization is even still being pursued for several years after the Indonesian state proclaimed its independence. In the future, it is possible that the Indonesian state will again become an area of struggle for influence by other major powers.
We can see this with the presence of China as the new hegemon country in the region which has shifted the balance of power and eroded America’s influence in the Indonesian region.
Not only that, Indonesia and the surrounding region can be said to be an area prone to disputes. The dispute is still possible because the Indonesian state has yet to resolve various issues regarding maritime boundaries with the Philippines, Timor Leste, Australia and Papua New Guinea.
When viewed geographically, the Indonesian Archipelago is located between the Asian Continent and also the Australian Continent and is between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
For the boundaries of Indonesia itself, namely:
- To the north: the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean.
- To the east: Papua New Guinea.
- To the south: Indian Ocean.
- West: Indian Ocean.
Meanwhile, the total area of Indonesia is 5,194,143 km2 and two-thirds of Indonesia’s area is ocean.
Indonesian Natural Appearance
As mentioned in the previous point, Indonesia is the number 1 largest archipelagic country in the world. Therefore, the country of Indonesia is very rich in various natural landscapes. In addition, the natural resources in Indonesia are also very abundant. Where natural wealth is one of the basic capital for the development of the Indonesian state. Therefore, it would be better if we use the existing natural wealth as well as possible and still pay attention to its sustainability.
Some of the land areas in Indonesia were originally formed from volcanic activity. This is marked by the appearance of islands that have shapes resembling mountains of dust, lava, and also mud originating from volcanic eruptions which make the surrounding land more fertile. Therefore, most of Indonesia’s population utilizes existing land for agriculture and plantations.
Meanwhile, the series of mountains in Indonesia stretches from the tip of Sumatra Island to the northern tip of Sulawesi Island. One of the most famous mountains in Indonesia is Mount Anak Krakatau. This mountain is located between the islands of Java and Sumatra.
At first, in 1883 there was a very powerful eruption originating from Mount Krakatau. With the eruption, three-quarters of the volcanic island was destroyed and caused a tsunami that killed up to thousands of people.
After the eruption of Mount Krakatau, a new mountain emerged which is now named Mount Anak Krakatau. The territory of Indonesia itself is located on the equator. This causes Indonesia to have a tropical climate type.
Meanwhile, the difference in temperature in each region tends to be very small, except for Puncak Jaya Wijaya, which is in Papua Province. This mountain peak is covered with eternal snow because of its very high position. Puncak Jaya Wijaya is located in the Sudirman Mountains area.
Rainfall in various regions in Indonesia also varies. The wettest places in Indonesia are the mountainous areas of Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua. Rainfall in these places reaches 3,000 mm per year.
Meanwhile, the lowland areas only have rainfall ranging from 1.0600 – 2.200 mm per year. High rainfall is the cause of many areas in the country of Indonesia becoming more fertile. For more than 2,000 years, people living in the archipelago of Indonesia have made a living in the agricultural sector, especially rice. Besides that, the country of Indonesia is also rich in diversity of flora and fauna.
As for the Australian type fauna, it lives in the eastern part of Indonesia, especially in Papua. On some remote islands also found quite unique fauna. For example, the Komodo dragons on Rinca Island and Komodo Island.
Condition of the Indonesian Population
In mid-2022, Indonesia’s population will reach 275.77 million people. There are more than 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia. Where most of the population adheres to Islam. Other religions that are developing in Indonesia are Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, and also Confucianism.
Meanwhile, the main economic activity of Indonesian citizens is in the agricultural sector. Apart from rice, agricultural activities in Indonesia also produce cassava, corn, rubber, tea and soybeans. Other economic activities in Indonesia are industry, animal husbandry, fishing and mining.
Location of Indonesian Astronomy
In addition to geographical location, there is also an astronomical location in which Indonesia’s position is influenced by the earth’s imaginary lines, namely the latitudes and longitudes that surround the earth. Imaginary lines and latitudes are called imaginary lines because they are made as if they were on the actual surface of the earth.
This one line is not only in the development of astronomy, but also in various branches of biology. The following is the location of Indonesian astronomy based on latitude and longitude, namely:
The lines of latitude divide the structure of the earth into 2 equal parts, namely between the south and also the north. Where is the latitude parallel to the imaginary equator (equator) that stretches to the north pole and south pole. The astronomical location of Indonesia is at 6o North Latitude (N) to 11o South Latitude (S).
This line of longitude is formed as if it divides the earth horizontally, that is, from east to west. This line of longitude is also referred to as the meridian which limits the astronomical position of Indonesia between 95o east longitude (BT) – 141o east longitude (BT).
The Influence of Indonesia’s Geographical Location
The following are some of the things that affect the country of Indonesia based on its geographical location.
1. Influence Season
Indonesia’s geographical location is traversed by monsoon winds or better known as monsoon winds. This monsoon wind gives a difference in the seasons in Indonesia. Which will affect the process of rain in the rainy season and also in the hot dry season. In addition, the monsoon itself will move alternately twice throughout the year.
2. Strategic Areas
As stated in the previous point, the location of the Indonesian state itself is between two continents and two oceans. This makes the Indonesian state an international crossing route, be it by sea or by air. That way, this will affect economic development which is in Indonesia’s exclusive economic zone and is traversed by various large industries.
3. Have Cultural Diversity
Because the position of the territory of the Indonesian state is between two continents, namely the Australian Continent and the Asian Continent, so that the Indonesian state can be said to be in a cross position . This is the reason why Indonesia has cultural diversity in the form of languages, arts and religions.
4. Has a Strategic Trading Location
This good geographical location makes Indonesia a strategic trading location. This is because the territory of the Indonesian state is a distribution channel for trade goods. This reason makes Indonesia have trade partners with various countries around it. Thus, increasing trading activity.
The Influence of Indonesia’s Astronomical Location
Furthermore, the following is the influence of Indonesia’s astronomical position, as follows:
1. Affects the Climate
The country of Indonesia is located along the equator which means that the country of Indonesia has a tropical climate type. Areas that have a tropical climate type will get sunlight all the time. This of course will be different from what happens in countries that have a four-season subtropical climate type. Likewise with areas that have a polar climate type.
Characteristics of Regions with a Tropical Climate
- High rainfall
- There is a vast tropical rain forest
- Sunshine all year round
- High air humidity
2. Affects the Time Difference
This astronomical location can affect the time difference set starting from the point of longitude and also 0 o latitude in Greenwich City, England. For Indonesia itself, it is divided into three time zones, namely WIB (West Indonesia Time), WIT (East Indonesia Time), and WITA (Central Indonesia Time) based on Presidential Decree No. 41 of 1987.
- Western Indonesian Time (WIB) covers the western part of Indonesia, namely Sumatra, Java, Madura, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, and the small islands around it.
- Central Indonesia Time (WITA) covers the territory of the central part of Indonesia, such as Bali, Nusa Tenggara, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and the small islands around it.
- Eastern Indonesia Time (WIT) covers the eastern part of Indonesia such as the Maluku Islands, Papua, West Papua, and the small islands around it.
This is an explanation regarding the geographic and astronomical location of the country of Indonesia that You needs to understand. With the explanation in this article, we can understand more about the influence of a country’s location on natural conditions and also its economy.