Functions of Art Along with Their Definitions and Types

The function of art – Art is a human work which is an expression or self-expression through audio, visual, literary forms, and so on. Art has certain goals and functions that can be applied in various fields such as religion, education, entertainment, health, communication, information, artistic, and so on.

According to KBBI, the definition of art is a work created using extraordinary expertise, such as dance, painting, carving, and so on. While the definition of art in general is a human activity to create visual, audio, and performance works that express imagination, ideas, or techniques in making them with the aim of being appreciated for their beauty and emotional strength.

People who create works of art are usually referred to as artists. There are various kinds of art that are widely known, for example music, fine arts, dance, theater, literature, and so on. Based on the dimensions, art can also be divided into 2 types, namely 2-dimensional art and 3-dimensional art.

Art has many functions. The main function of art, namely for artistic media and beauty, and as a form of expression from the artist which is used as a work of art. Besides that, there are also other benefits and functions of art, both the function of art for individuals or individuals as well as the function of art for society socially.

Functions of Art in General

In the following, we will explain what are the functions of art in general along with their discussion, both functions for individuals and functions for society.

1. As a tool to fulfill physical needs

Art can have a function as a means of fulfilling physical needs for certain individuals. Humans are creatures that have an ability to appreciate the beauty and use of various objects. Therefore, artists have a role to create various objects that have aesthetic and artistic artistic value.

2. As an Expression of Artists

The next function of art is also important, namely as an emotional expression of the artist. Works of art are the thoughts and expressions of their creators which are based on the emotional state of the artist, whether they are feeling sad, happy, angry, confused, and so on.

3. As an Artistic Media and Aesthetic Value

Art can have a function as an artistic medium that gives beauty or aesthetic value. In every room or location that is displayed with works of art, it will certainly add aesthetic value. This artistic function is generally considered to be the primary function of pure art.

4. As a Media for Education and Learning

Art can also have a role as a medium of education and learning. Art can make the learning process more interesting and entertaining. In addition, the values ​​contained in art can be taught and become important knowledge in the field of education.

5. As Media of Faith and Religion

The function of art is also important in religious and belief media. This is manifested by various things related to religion and belief, for example religious rituals, clothing and clothing, wedding ceremonies, religious songs, and so on.

6. As Entertainment Media

Art has a function as an entertainment medium which is generally in the form of audio, visual and audio-visual shows. Various kinds of works of art such as music, dance, and theater arts certainly present elements of entertainment that can give a sense of satisfaction and pleasure to the audience.

7. As a Health and Medical Media

Art also has an important role in the medical and health fields. Treatment can be done through artistic stimulation, for example by using music or visual art. Of course, medical media using works of art are still being studied today.

8. As Information and News Media

The last function of art is as a medium of information and news. Through art, humans can explain information to others more easily, for example through posters or infographics or through the media of songs or drama performances that contain certain messages from their creators.

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Definition of Art

Art can be interpreted as an attempt to achieve the desired result by using intelligence. So art is an act of applying the knowledge one has and the expertise that has existed since childhood (talent).

Definition of Art in General

Art is everything created by humans in which there is beauty and is able to evoke feelings for himself and others. The term art comes from the word sani (Sanskrit) which means offering, worship, and services which are closely related to religious ceremonies which are called art. According to Padmapusphita, the art comes from the Dutch language “genie” which in Latin is called genius which means extraordinary abilities that have been innate from birth.

Definition of Art According to Experts

Along with the times, many experts have expressed their views and opinions regarding the definition of art. The following are some definitions of art according to experts:

  • The definition of art according to Sudarmaj, art is all inner manifestations and aesthetic experiences that use the media of fields, graphics, texture, color, darkness, light and volume.
  • Understanding Art according to Aristotle, art is a form whose appearance and expression never deviate from reality and that art is imitating nature.
  • The definition of art according to Ki Hajar Dewantara, art is the result of beauty so that it can move the beautiful feelings of those who witness it. Therefore, human actions that can influence and create beautiful feelings are art.
  • Understanding Art according to Alexander Baum Garton, art is beauty and art is a positive goal and makes the audience feel happy.
  • The definition of art according to Hilary Bel, art is a term used for all works that can change the heart to find out who created it.
  • The definition of art according to Immanuel Kant, art is a dream because formulas cannot ignore reality.
  • The definition of art according to James Murko, art is an explanation of the beautiful feeling contained in the soul of every human being, born through an intermediary means of communication into a form that can be captured by the senses of sight (painting), the sense of hearing (sound art), or born through intermediaries. movements such as (drama and dance).
  • The definition of art according to Leo Tolstoy, art is an expression of the feelings of the creator which is conveyed to others so that they can feel what the painter has felt.
  • The definition of art according to Popo Iskandar, art is a result of emotional expression that wants to be conveyed to other people in the awareness of living in groups / communities.
  • The definition of art according to Eric Aryanto, art is an inner activity or spiritual activity that is reflected in the form of works that can evoke the feelings of others who listen and see it.

Art History and Polemics

There is a problem of language translation when Indonesian is exposed to Western concepts, such as what we now call art, even though art phenomena existed before and the equivalent term vusa was extracted from local vocabulary, such as the word kagunan in Javanese or kapangkitan in Sundanese. Comparing the word art for kunst or art actually sounds very odd because until the 19th century, the word art was only often used in the context of urine which is a euphemistic term for urine. Meanwhile, there are not many examples of using the word art to refer to something small or soft in other contexts.

Before the term popular art as it is today, the term kunst in the Dutch-Malay dictionary (Klinkert or Mayer or Badings, which was published at the end of the 19th or early 20th century) was translated into science, knowledge, wisdom, intelligence and craftsmanship. It is suspected that the General Dictionary of the Indonesian Language (first published in 1953) by Purwadar Minta is a dictionary that records the word art using a new meaning for the first time. Even though Purwadar Minta was not the first person to use the terms “art” and “fine art”, this created a polemic among artists because it seemed to create an imbalance in perceptions between art in Indonesia and art in the West.

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The terms “visual arts”, “music arts”, “theater arts”, “literary arts” and so on in the Indonesian language are suspected of causing adverbial symptoms. This symptom shows various important words (visual, music, dance, literature) which are mere adverbs (adverbs) for the word art. The virtue of these terms lies in the word “art”. The term “art” itself in Indonesian does not carry material characteristics, even though it is an abstract noun. Thus, all expressions of art have an equal position and art becomes an ‘open’ term.

Artistic expressions are not even limited to fine arts, dance, music, and theatrical arts (known as showing personal expressions). This series of terms can be extended to keris art, batik art, ronggeng art (and so on) which are known as arts in the world of tradition. Thus, the word art does not only have forms and is a mental condition that can take the form of many things as long as it has artistic symptoms. These symptoms can make the notion of art in Indonesian closer to aesthetics.

Therefore, there are various difficulties when balancing the development of art discourse in Indonesia and the West, for example dance if translated literally into dance art may not make sense to English users, as well as sculpture, music, and the like. English and several other languages ​​also provide a distinction between the terms art (for the concept of art in general) and (the) arts (in the creative fields of art).

Various Kinds of Art

There are several kinds of art that we can know and study carefully, namely as follows:

1. Fine Arts

The first types of art are fine arts which are a branch of art that can be seen and is in a visual form. Examples of visual arts are drawing, painting, sculpture, graphics, handicrafts, crafts and multimedia.

2. Art of Music

The next types of art are music which is a work that produces sound as its main element. In the art of music there are elements of melody, harmonization, and also a combination of sounds that give a beautiful effect to those who hear them.

3. Art of Movement

The third type of art is called the art of movement or what is commonly called the art of dance, which is a type of art that utilizes body movement as beauty. The flexibility and fit of body movements accompanied by a melody or beat makes the movement interesting and can be seen and enjoyed.

4. Theater or Performing Arts

The next types of art are theatrical art which is an art that visualizes imagination or describes an event that is real or not real. Theater arts can also be combined with music and motion arts and even fine arts.

5. Literary Arts

The next kinds of art are literary arts which can be enjoyed through hearing and sight. Usually literary art will be in the form of interesting words that are memorable and conveyed in a beautiful way. Examples of literary arts are poetry and calligraphy.

Art In Everyday Life

There are many examples of art in everyday life. Therefore, in the following, we will provide some examples of art that can be taken in everyday life based on the following types of art.

According to its function, art is divided into 2 parts, namely pure and applied. An example of pure art is the art of making sculptures, paintings, graphics, etc. Meanwhile, examples of applied art include handicrafts such as folding, lace and embroidery. Then there is billboard art (making posters, banners, advertisements), and also decoration art.

There are other examples of other arts, namely the art of music which includes jazz, classical, bosa, pop, rock, traditional, and so on.

In addition to the several examples described earlier, there are other examples of musical arts such as literary works, poetry, and so on.

Other examples of audio visual art are films, theater plays, and musical performances. Where later it can function to give a feeling of joy, emotion, sadness when seeing the performances in the film.

Examples of literary arts are poetry and prose. That is an art that consists of spoken and written language. So that the audience will definitely feel happy after enjoying the works of art in the form of oral and written.