The main element in dance is something that must exist in the art of dance. Dance is a rhythmic movement at a certain place and time with or without music. Dance can be performed for various things, such as expressing the feelings of the dancers, entertainment, one of the processes of traditional ceremonies, association and so on.
When dancing, dancers must fulfill the main elements in it. That way, the dance that is performed will look cohesive, beautiful or be able to convey the message and meaning of the dance.
The main elements in dance are movement, fashion, make-up, dance accompaniment, dance properties, venue. In addition to these six elements, some say that the main elements in dance are wiraga, wirama, wirasa and wirupa. The main elements of this dance must and must be present in a dance performance, both traditional dance and modern dance.
In addition to the main elements, there are also dance companion elements that complement the dance performance. What are the main elements in dance? Check out the following explanation!
Definition of Dance
Before discussing the main elements of dance, it is better if Sinaumed’s knows and understands the meaning of dance first. What is dance?
Dance is a rhythmic body movement as an expression of the expression of the soul of the creator of the motion, so that it will produce elements of beauty and deep meaning. Tarik focuses on creative concepts and choreography.
The word dance in English is tied to French, namely danse, and these two words are considered to have roots in the ancient German language, namely donson, which means stretch or stretch or drag.
Dance has a function as a means and infrastructure in religious ceremonies. Bali is one of the areas in Indonesia that is still consistent and preserves the application of cultural dances in the daily lives of its people.
However, not only Bali, there are many areas in Indonesia such as South Sulawesi, Kalimantan to Irian Jaya which hold ceremonies using dance in them. Examples include cutting teeth, birth, cutting hair for the first time, marriage, death and maturity.
Religious dances generally have a sacred nature, are holy and have magical powers in them. An example is the Barong dance and Sanghyang dance from Bali, the birth dance from Irian Jaya, the dance to bring rain from East Nusa Tenggara and others.
Dance also has a role as a performance art or often referred to as a theatrical art. According to Susanne K. Langer, an American art philosopher, she explains that philosophically, dance as a performing art is a form of human birth and inner process to be seen by oneself and seen by others.
Definition of Dance According to Some Experts
In addition to the general understanding of dance, several experts also expressed their opinions about the meaning of dance. The following is the meaning of dance according to experts.
1. Corrie Hartong
Corrie Hartong explained that the art of dance is an urgent feeling that resides within humans. Then, these feelings encourage a person to express expressions in the form of rhythmic movements.
Soedarsono expressed his opinion about dance. According to Soedarsono, dance is an expression that originates from within the soul of every human being and is expressed through rhythmic movements.
In this case, Soedarsono revealed, that the expression of feeling in question is an emotion or feeling that is felt by humans. Meanwhile, a beautiful rhythmic movement is a movement that follows the accompaniment of the accompaniment, so that it will create an art that makes other people stunned and fascinated when they see these rhythmic movements.
3. Prince Suryadiningrat
Prince Suryadiningrat stated that the notion of dance is a movement that originates from all members of a person’s body and is carried out in accordance with the rhythm of music with a specific purpose and purpose.
4. Bagong Sudito
Bagong Sudito argues that dance is an art in the form of rhythmic movements as well as a medium of expression for humans.
5. Judith Lynne Hanna
Judith Lynne Hanna said that dance is a plastic art that comes from visual movement and can be seen at a glance.
6. Yulianti Parani
Yulianti Parani explained that dance is a rhythmic movement that arises from several parts of the body or throughout the body and is performed by a person or group of people followed by certain expressions.
7. Kamala Devi Chattopadhyaya
Kamala Devi Chattopadhyaya is of the opinion that dance is an urge that originates from within a person and needs to be poured into the form of rhythmic movements.
8. MA Theodora Retno Maruh
MA Theodora Retno Maruh said that dance is a work of art in the form of movement and its nature will not change into contemporary art.
From the understanding of dance in general and according to the experts above, it can be concluded that dance is a work of art whose form is rhythmic movement accompanied by music and other elements.
Main Elements in Dance
According to the book Islamic Character Dance Choreography for Elementary School Children (2019) written by Arina Restian, the main elements in dance are divided into four namely wiraga, wirama, wirasa and wirupa. Here’s an explanation.
1. Wiraga (body)
The main element in dance is wiraga or rasa. Wiraga is an element of dance that shows various movements such as standing, sitting, jumping and others.
This element of wiraga is the main element in dance, because dance must have movements in it which are full of meaning. Every dance movement is always created by humans who are commonly known as choreographers. With the presence of this choreographer’s role, the actual dance you already remember will look even more beautiful to watch.
2. Wirama (rhythm)
The second main element of dance is wirama, namely rhythm. The existence of rhythm in the art of dance, comes from the music played by the dance accompanists. A dancer or a group of dancers must be able to adjust the dance movements to the rhythm of the accompanying music. Not only the rhythm of the music that must be combined, but the dancers also need to follow the tempo of the music well.
If the dance movements and rhythms combine well, then the dance stage will look more beautiful. Apart from that, the rhythm also complements the atmosphere and meaning that the choreography and the dancers are trying to convey.
3. Wirasa (taste)
The third main element of dance is wirasa or taste. A dance that is just performed, without any sense in it, so every movement danced by the dancers will not touch the feelings of the audience.
Taste in this dance can be shown by dancers through rhythmic dance movements or showing expressions. That way, a dance can touch the feelings of the audience.
For example, like Balinese dance which emphasizes expression in it. When dancing, the dancers do not only practice movements, but also expressions, eye movements and others to convey the meaning of the dance.
4. Wirupa (expression)
The last main element of dance is wirupa or expression. A dancer must be able to express himself through facial expressions and deepen the character of the character he is portraying. This wirupa is as important as the other three main elements of dance.
As explained earlier, that expression can convey the feelings of the dancers when performing a dance. With expression, dancers can express messages, stories and the meaning of a dance.
For example, dance movements that describe anger. If the dancer shows it by smiling, then of course it will change the message and meaning of a dance. So, dancers must know how to express their anger.
With the four main elements in the dance, the dance performed by the dancers will create coherent movements and accuracy in conveying messages.
Main Elements in Traditional Dance
Indonesia is a country of culture. One of the interesting cultures and an attraction for tourists is the art of traditional dance. There are various kinds of traditional dance and each dance has its own characteristics.
Even though every traditional dance in Indonesia is different, there are main elements that exist in every traditional Indonesian dance. The main elements in this traditional dance will form a bond, so that it displays a harmonious dance and reveals beauty when staged. Here’s an explanation.
1. Dance moves
Dance movements are compositions of beautiful movements performed by the limbs and have undergone processing or processing in such a way that these movements can be enjoyed by others.
The elements of dance movement have different characteristics for each dance art. In its cultivation, dance movements are also often referred to as distortions. Dance movements in traditional dance are divided into two, which are as follows.
- Pure dance movements are dance movements that have no meaning, but still emphasize the beauty factor.
- Meaningful dance movements are movements that have a specific meaning, for example the movement of the hands on the waist which means having power.
2. Dance accompaniment
The accompaniment of the art of dance does not only have to be in the form of musical instruments, but can also be in the form of sounds that support the atmosphere in which the art of dance is presented. However, dance accompaniment can also be performed with traditional as well as modern musical instruments or even just sounds coming from body movements. For example whistling, singing, clapping and stomping feet.
3. Dance costumes or props
Dance costume is the whole of all clothes, clothing worn by a dancer when performing a dance performance. Costumes function to help revive the character or character that has become the role of the dancer.
In addition to costumes, make-up in dance performances also functions to bring the characters and characters played by the dancers to life. Makeup can also change the appearance of the dancers.
Make-up will be said to be successful if the dancer has the face that is needed and in accordance with the character he is carrying.
5. Performance venue
The main element in traditional dance is the place where performances are usually performed on stage. There are two common types of dance performance venues, namely open and closed stages. Open performances can be held in the field or yard. While closed performances can be held in halls, inside buildings or even classrooms.
Supporting Elements in Dance
In addition to the four main elements in dance, there are also supporting elements in dance that help perfect the dance performance. With supporting elements, the dance performance will look more meaningful and even make the audience more interested. Here are some supporting elements in the art of dance.
Costume is a supporting element in dance. Even though the costume is a supporting element, the existence of the costume is considered very important. The existence of this costume can give its own color in a dance performance. In addition, costumes in dance performances also have the function of conveying the message and atmosphere of the performance well to the audience.
In addition to costumes, the supporting element of dance is make-up which also has an important value in dance performances. Makeup does not only function to make the appearance of the dancers look more attractive and beautiful, but also serves to convey the firmness in the expressions of the dancers.
So, if in a dance performance the make-up is not good or does not match the story and theme of the dance, it is feared that the message and atmosphere of the dance cannot be conveyed properly to the audience.
3. Floor pattern
Dance is a rhythmic movement that needs floor patterns to move from one place to another. The floor pattern as a companion element of the dance will make the dance movements look more beautiful and orderly.
If a dance is performed in a group, the rotational patterns and rotations are usually much more complicated. This is so that each of the dancers can perform the dance moves to the fullest.
As a result, dance movements that have been designed and made in such a way by the choreographer will look more beautiful. In addition, the floor pattern also functions so that the dancers do not collide when changing positions.
The fourth element of dance is lighting. The lighting system in dance performances is divided into two types, namely the lighting system for lighting and the lighting system used for artistic staging purposes.
The lighting arrangement is generally the main source of lighting when performing dance arts. While lighting for artistic purposes usually serves to provide an atmosphere as well as dramatize dance performances.
Each dance performance generally raises a certain theme or story. So, every dance movement is not just a movement, but has a meaning behind it or becomes a symbol of the theme in the dance performance. The theme of the dance performance will affect all aspects of the elements in the dance, both the main elements and the supporting elements.
So, even though the theme is a supporting element, it plays an important role in dance. Different themes will bring up different performance concepts.
For example, if a dance performance takes the theme of romance from the story of Rama and Shinta, then the main and supporting elements will follow that theme. That way, the story of Rama and Shinta can be conveyed properly through dance movements, even though the dancers don’t speak or tell stories.
From this explanation, the main elements in dance are wiraga, wirasa, wirama and wirupa. The four main elements in this dance must exist in the art of dance, if there are none, then the dance performance may fail, not be beautiful or even not convey the message and story of the dance theme.
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