Definition of Social Groups, Examples, Types, and Driving Factors

Definition of social group – Humans living in the world cannot live alone and need help from others. Humans include social beings that are interconnected between individuals and the surrounding environment. Well, to provide a better understanding of social groups following their explanations, functions, characteristics and examples.

Definition of Social Groups

Humans are social creatures who cannot live on their own without the intervention or help of others. Every social being has an immediate environment, whether it is a family or another environment that forms a large group such as a tribe.

The group in sociology is known as a social group. Social group means that the interaction that occurs between individuals to make contact, communication, and cooperation. To understand further, a social group is a group of people who have an awareness of togetherness and interact or communicate with each other.

The function of the existence of social groups is to meet their needs. Therefore, humans need other people to work together or in groups. The existence of different social groups will certainly have an impact by creating new social conflicts. This is basically because of ideological differences in each group.

The group members of a social group will obey all the orders in the group. However, other groups will actually try to compete and even defeat other groups. It is this kind of thing that can actually cause social conflict between groups by threatening each other and not caring about the applicable Law.

The main cause of social conflict that occurs between groups is the existence of new situations and conditions that result in imbalances that occur in the social system.

However, social groups will also produce social integration if there is tolerance and a sense of mutual appreciation and respect between one group and another.

Social groups are formed from the interaction between one individual and another. They will interact with each other in communication, cooperation, accommodation, assimilation, and acculturation in order to achieve common goals.

Understanding Social Groups According to Experts

The following is the definition of social group according to experts which has been summarized by various sources:

  • Paul B. Horton and Chester L. Hunt

They think that a social group is a group of people who have an awareness of their membership to interact with each other.

  • George Homes

George Homans stated that a social group is a group of individuals who do certain activities, interact with each other to do those activities, interact and have mutual feelings to form a whole that is organized and reciprocally related.

  • Stolley Kathy

Stolley explains that social group is a term in a specific sociological sense. The sociological definition of a social group is a group of people who interact regularly based on common interests and develop a sense of belonging, among them developing a sense of solidarity and loyalty that makes them feel different from other groups.

  • Soerjono Soekanto

The last expert’s opinion is from Indonesia, namely Soerjono Soekanto who states that social groups are collections or units of people who live together because they are mutually related and mutually influence each other.

Characteristics of Social Groups

After knowing the meaning of social groups in general and according to experts, then we also need to know the characteristics of social groups. Here are some characteristics of social groups that need to be known.

  1. The existence of the same impulse or motive between individuals one with another.
  2. There is an affirmation in the form of the formation of an organization or structure that consists of a position and their respective roles.
  3. There is a consequence that comes from a different interaction between one individual and another in an environment.
  4. There is an awareness that exists in each individual and knowing their respective roles.
  5. There is a very close relationship between its members in order to achieve a goal.
  6. Each member has an influence or reciprocity.
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Driving Factors of Social Groups

The existence of social groups is certainly a driving factor. The formation of social groups that occurs usually begins with the existence of a relationship or contact and social communication that produces a social process in social interaction.

Social formation itself can be formed by several things, such as emotional, practical, and intellectual experience. Emotional experience is a grouping that exists when the instinct is channeled to live together with other human beings. Practical experience is a grouping based on activities that humans do to fulfill their wishes and desires.

Intellectual experience or personal experience is a grouping based on the limitations of a person’s mind so that it requires the guidance and direction of other people.

Types of Social Groups

Social groups can be distinguished from various kinds, whether based on heredity, based on the attitude of members, based on interests and areas and others. Here’s an explanation:

  • Types of Social Groups Based on Interests and Regions

Social groups can be distinguished based on their interests and territories, there are four types, namely:

  • Tribe or ethnic group

Tribe or ethnic group is a community whose members have special characteristics so that we can distinguish them from the general public.

Such groups are formed as a result of migration, war, slavery, or changes in political boundaries. Examples include the Dayak tribe, Baduy tribe, and so on.

  • Nation

A nation which is a community with a very broad scope and has very many members. Members of a nation share many similarities in language, history, and culture.

  • Village

The village is a group in which the inhabitants have special characteristics, namely the existence of a fairly high kinship attitude and their economic activity is usually in the agricultural sector.

  • Kota

A city is a residential community with a relatively large population. A special feature of cities is that their people are heterogeneous, both in terms of occupation, level of education, cultural background, and religion.

  • Types of Social Groups Based on Ancestry

There are two types of social groups based on heredity, namely as follows:

  • Every

Social groups can be distinguished based on a person’s caste which is formed based on birth ties. Each caste has its own traditions and rituals.

For example, like in India. In India castes are divided into 4 levels, namely Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and at the lowest level Sudras.

  • Nobleman

Next is the nobility which is a social group formed based on birth ties from the royal family.

For example, in Javanese society there is a term known as priyayi who are descendants of learned kings. 

  • Types of Organized Social Groups

There are several types of regular social groups. Here are the types and explanations:

  • Primary group

The primary group is a small group that has the characteristics of intimacy, face-to-face association, and cooperation.

  • Secondary Group

A secondary group is an impersonal formal group with little social affinity.

  • Group In /  In-Group

Group in or  in group  is a form of one’s awareness of individual identity in a social group.

  • Outer Group /  Out-Group

An out group or  out group  is an outside group that can make a person feel he or she is not part of that group.

  • Informal Group

Informal groups are groups that grow out of a process of interaction, attraction and need for a person.

  • Formal Group

Each group has its own rules that are firm and deliberately created by each member to regulate the relationship between its members.

  • Membership Group

Is a group in which everyone is physically a member of the group.

  • Paguyuban  / Community

Paguyuban is a form of life together, where the members are bound by a pure and natural inner relationship.

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This social group has a warm or intimate nature of each member. The relationship is personal and limited to a few people and is exclusive.

  • Types of Irregular Social Groups

Social groups can also be divided based on irregular social groups. Following are some types of irregular social groups.

  • Social Crowd /  Crowd

Social groups can also occur in the presence of a group of people who are in one place, but among them are not permanently related.

  • Public

What is meant by the public is a group that is not a unit. Interaction occurs directly through communication that is not durable.

Examples of private conversations such as gossip, newspapers, radio, television, movies, and so on.

  • Massa

A mass is all the individuals in a social crowd. In addition, the existence of this mass is usually caused because there is an incompatibility in society.

 

Those are some types of social groups. Well, so that our discussion about social groups is more complete, then it is good that we also discuss about examples of social groups. So, what are the examples of social groups?

Examples of Social Groups

Social groups certainly have an important role in the life of each individual. Where they will learn how to communicate well, even cooperate with other groups. The following are examples of social groups, namely:

1. Occupational Group

Occupational group is one type of social group consisting of individuals who have the same or similar occupation. Occupational groups have a big role in assessing a person’s personality, especially in the members who join it.

Examples of occupational groups, such as the Association of Pharmacy Scholars, the Indonesian Doctor’s Association, Peradi and others.

2. Formal Groups

A formal group is a group that is established or formed intentionally through the leader’s decision to complete a task efficiently and effectively.

An example of a formal group is a traffic police unit consisting of sections, namely the administration section, field or patrol, logistics, construction or counseling.

3. Informal Groups

Informal groups are groups that do not have a clear structure and are not defined by the organization. Informal groups are formed naturally that appear as a need for social contact. This social group is often formed because each member has some common goals.

Examples of informal groups such as mothers’ groups, friends hanging out, etc.

4. Social Crowd

Social aggregate or known as social crowd is a group of people who are in a place. But, they don’t have a regular relationship. A social crowd can also be referred to as a collectivity, which is a group of people in a place and a time that is temporary in nature.

Examples of social gatherings include demonstrations, major studies, concerts and others.

Closing

Basically, a social group is an activity, a group or a very good social interaction. In fact, with the existence of various types of social groups, it can increase the bond of unity and unity. Therefore, social groups that exist in society cannot be simply eliminated.

However, sometimes the large number of social groups can sometimes trigger a conflict that can divide unity and unity. This can happen because one social group and another social group do not respect each other. Therefore, it is necessary for social groups in a community to respect each other. That way, unity and unity can still be maintained.

Thus the discussion about the meaning of social groups, types of social groups, to examples of social groups. Hopefully all the discussions above are useful and can add to your insight.