Inventor of the Atomic Nucleus – Some people may already know what an atom is, especially for those who study chemistry. The discussion about the atom itself has actually been taught since we first entered high school, so we will know about atoms in high school. However, there is nothing wrong if we already know about atoms before entering high school. It would be even better, we can know the inventors of the atom where each inventor always improves upon the discovery of atoms from the previous inventor.
Why can an atom be said to be a particle that has a very small size? Usually, atoms that are known to many people are shaped like circles with a diameter of 6-30 mm.
In addition, atoms always experience development or improvement from atoms that have been discovered before. Therefore, the inventors of the atom are not only made up of one person, but there are several figures. Do you already know the inventor of the atomic nucleus? In this article, we will explain the discoverers of the atomic nucleus and other atomic figures that you need to know. So, what are you waiting for, Sinaumed’s, immediately read this article until it’s finished.
The word “atom” is a word that comes from the Greek, namely “atomos” which means “can not be cut”. In other words, atoms are the smallest particles in an element or matter that cannot be cut into pieces. So, an element cannot be formed, if it does not contain atoms.
In fact, atoms that are already the smallest part of an element, in fact, still have even smaller particles. The tiny particles inside atoms, namely protons, neutrons and electrons. Of the three smallest particles, usually referred to as subatomic. Protons and neutrons are part of the atomic nucleus and electrons are the smallest particles that surround a neutral charge.
In addition, protons are the smallest particles that contain a positive charge, while neutrons are the smallest particles that contain no charge or are neutral. Electrons are the smallest particles of atoms that have a negative electric charge. Talking about atoms is indeed very complex, we can know this from the mass that is in every atom’s smallest particle. The mass present in each subatom is very different, so the mass of each atom is also different.
The subatomic proton has a hydrogen mass of about 1.67262 x 10^-27 kg. Then, the subatomic neutron has a mass of about 1.67493 x 10^-27 kg and finally the mass of the electron subatomic is about 9.1093837015 x 10^-31 kg.
The atom was first discovered by John Dalton, after which it was refined again by scientists who studied atoms. So, the next discussion is the discoverers and refiners of atoms that you need to know about, keep reading the article until it’s finished, Sinaumed’s.
The Figure of the Discoverer of the Atomic Nucleus
Here are some figures or inventors who have an influence on the development of the atom.
1. John Dalton (Atom Dalton)
John Dalton is someone who is an expert in chemistry, physics, to meteorology. He was born to a father named Joseph Dalton and a mother named Deborah Greenup. John Dalton was born in Eaglesfield, Northern England on September 6, 1766. The ability and intelligence possessed by John Dalton can be said to be above average because at the age of 12, he was trusted to help his older brother teach.
John Dalton began to be entrusted with teaching when he was studying at John Fletcher’s Quaker Grammar School in Eaglesfield, England. Two years after teaching at Eaglesfield, John Dalton moved to Kendall, England. In Kendall, he also became a teacher at a school where there were only 60 students.
While teaching, it turned out that John Dalton met Eihu Robinson and John Gough. Eihu Robinson is an expert in science and John Gough is a mathematician. Of the two men, John Dalton has the basics of mathematics. In addition, he also gained knowledge about the use of meteorological instruments. Until finally, John Dalton was able to publish a book on meteorology.
John Dalton, who really liked research and experiments, then he wanted to do research on the smallest and indestructible particles known as atoms. He created a theory called “quantitative theory”. In his theory, John Dalton clearly explained atoms, molecules, elements, and chemical mixtures. Basically, the atomic weights are different, but according to John Dalton there are atoms that have the same quality or quantity, that is, two atoms that come from the same group.
John Dalton continued to conduct research and experiments on atoms, until finally around 1804, he prepared a list of atomic weights. In addition, he also explained that in every two molecules that come from the same chemical combination, they consist of the same combination of atoms. This is the “law of definite proportions” which has been expressed by a scientist named Joseph Louis Proust. John Dalton explained his theory clearly, so that within 20 years he was accepted among scientists.
In fact, many chemists followed John Dalton’s advice to calculate relative atomic weights. Analyze chemical combinations derived from their weight, and determine a suitable combination of atoms that make up each group of molecules that have the same characteristics.
Until 1808, John Dalton published a book entitled A New System Chemical Philosophy . He died in Manchester, England on July 27, 1844. He was buried in a state funeral.
2. Sir Joseph John Thomson (Electron)
The inventor and complement of the next atom is Sir Joseph John Thomson or better known as John Thomson. John Thomson was born on December 18, 1856 in Cheetham Hill and he was a physicist. He really likes to read books, so his knowledge and insights are quite extensive. What’s more, John Thomson’s father was a bookseller.
In fact, John Thomson’s youth was often spent reading books, until at the age of 14, he was accepted at Owens College or currently better known as Victoria University Manchester. While studying at the school, John Thomson studied applied physics, not only theory, but he was also educated to conduct experiments. After 6 years studying at Owens College, John Thomson continued his education at Trinity College in Cambridge at the age of 20 with a scholarship he received.
Thanks to the physics that John Thomson discovered and developed, namely electrons, he received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906. Electrons created by John Thomson are part of atomic or subatomic particles that revolve around the atomic nucleus. Electrons discovered by John Thomson have a negative charge. Until finally, he said that the atom has a shape that resembles raisin bread. According to him, atoms that have a positive charge are surrounded by electrons that have a negative charge. That is why John Thomson thought that the shape of the atom is almost the same as raisin bread.
John Thomson discovered the electron based on his research on cathode rays in the Cavendish laboratory for 35 years (from 1884 to 1991). From the results of his research and experiments, he realized that cathode rays are particles that make up atoms that have a negative charge. With the discovery of negatively charged electrons, John Dalton’s atomic theory fell, especially about the atom as the smallest particle.
John Thomson argued that basically the atom as a whole has a neutral charge, so it is neutral. Then, because the electrons surrounding the atom are negatively charged, there must be other particles that have a positive charge. The existence of this positive charge aims to neutralize the negative charge on electrons. However, the atom created by John Thomson was only able to last for 7 years and then a new atomic discoverer appeared, namely Ernest Rutherford.
Sir Joseph John Thomson died on 30 August 1940 in Cambridge, England. He was buried in Westminster Abbey which is adjacent to two of the most influential scientists in the world, namely Issac Newton and Charles Darwin.
3. Ernest Rutherford (Atomic Nucleus)
After John Thomson’s atom only lasted 7 years, then a physicist appeared who was born in New Zealand on August 30, 1871. He was named Ernest Rutherford and was a British national. He was born to a father named James Rutherford and a mother named Martha Thompson. Ernest Rutherford first attended government school Nelson Collegiate School when he was 16 years old.
Then, Ernest Rutherford continued his education at Nelson College, thanks to his intelligence, he won a university scholarship in 1889 and chose to continue his education at the University of Canterbury College. After successfully obtaining BA, MA, and BSc degrees, he then undertook two years of electrical technology research. In 1851, Ernest Rutherford won a scholarship in science, then he went to Trinity College, Cambridge. As a student he had the opportunity to do research at the Cavendish Laboratory which at that time was led by Joseph John Thomson.
After doing research at the Cavendish Laboratory as a student of Thomson, Ernest Rutherford managed to see the weaknesses or deficiencies of the atom belonging to his teacher, Sir Joseph John Thomson. More precisely in 1910, he and his two assistants managed to find an atomic nucleus that has a smaller radius than its atomic radius.
Ernest Rutherford’s discovery of the atom was based on experiments or experiments he had carried out with his two assistants, namely Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. The experiment they carried out is known as the scattering of alpha rays (λ) on a thin sheet of gold. The experiment they carried out actually aimed to prove the opinion of Thomson who said that atoms are like solid balls with a positive charge which, when subjected to alpha particles, will be reflected.
The research they carried out resulted in the fact that if an alpha particle was shot at a thin gold plate, then almost all of the alpha particles could pass even though there was an angular deviation of less than 1 degree.
After carrying out the experiment, Ernest Rutherford argued that the atom he had discovered had a positively charged atomic nucleus. In addition, Rutherford’s atomic charge was small enough to be surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
On October 19, 1937, Ernest Rutherford died at the age of 66 in Cambridge, England. He is buried in the middle of Westminster Abbey church.
4. Niels Bohr (Atom Bohr)
Niels David Bohr or better known as Niels Bohr who is one of the discoverers of the atom. Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark on October 7, 1885. He was the second of three children with a father named Christian and a mother named Ellen. Niels Bohr can be said to be born from a family that is affluent or tends to be middle to upper class.
Niels Bohr’s educational journey was quite smooth, until in 1911, he succeeded in obtaining a Doctor of Physics degree from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. He graduated with a dissertation on metal electrons. His ability in physics earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922.
His interest in atoms can be said to have started when Niels Bohr went to Cambridge, England and met and studied under the guidance of the discoverer of the atom, Sir Joseph John Thomson. After several months of studying with Thomson, Niels Bohr chose to move to Manchester where he learned about the atom from Ernest Rutherford. After learning from Rutherford, then Niels Bohr began to develop the theory of atomic structure.
While doing various kinds of research and having done several experiments, Niels Bohr finally published the atom he found. According to Niels Bohr, the atom is like a planet that revolves around the sun. In addition, thanks to his research, he was able to prove that the electrons in atoms can only rotate in orbits and within a certain size.
In simple terms, if the electron of Niels Bohr’s atom absorbs energy, then the electron can move from the inner layer to the outer layer. Meanwhile, when electrons emit energy, electrons will move from the outer layer to the deeper layer.
Niels Bohr breathed his last on November 8, 1962 when he was 77 years old.
5. Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger
Werner Heisenberg was born on December 5, 1901 and died on February 1, 1976. Meanwhile, Erwin Schödinger was born on August 12 and died on 1961. In 1932, Werner Heisenberg won the Nobel Prize in Physics. Meanwhile, Erwin Schödinger won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933.
Werner Heisenberg began to conduct research on the intensity spectrum of electrons taken as a harmonic oscillator. Then, in June 1925, Werner Heisenberg published a paper entitled Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen (Quantum Theoretical Reinterpretations of Kinetic and Mechanical Relations). Then, in November 1925, Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan completed a paper that became known as the foundations of the new quantum mechanics.
Meanwhile, Erwin Schödinger perfected Heisenberg’s theory of quantum mechanics by creating a theory of the wave equation. With the theory of the wave equation, quantization will appear scientifically, like a vibrating string.
Source: From various sources