The Meaning of Criticism: Types and How to Express It

Definition of Criticism – Every human being has the freedom to think. This is what makes us have the right to give criticism or evaluation. Where criticism is meant here is criticism that can build to make someone or something better than before.

In addition, criticism can also be interpreted as providing an assessment of something. For example, when you are watching something like a movie. Well, not infrequently we will comment on what we have watched.

The act of giving comments or evaluations can fall into the category of criticism. Actually, the assessment is not only criticism, but there are also essays. So that you also understand more about criticism, here is a complete explanation.

Definition of Criticism

Common criticism is said to be a deeper type of analysis about a work that uses theoretical studies to provide an evaluation, interpretation or observation about the work.

Because criticism is an evaluation, then the text of criticism also has a purpose in explaining the advantages and disadvantages of something like a work. In addition, criticism can also provide input or solutions to the creators of a work. Usually, some things that often experience criticism are film, literature, music, painting, dance and drama.

The word criticism itself comes from the Greek language, Clitikos , which has the meaning of distinguishing. Whereas according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary or KBBI, criticism is criticism or feedback or satisfaction that is sometimes also accompanied by a description and consideration of the good and bad of a work, opinion and so on.

In addition, criticism can also be interpreted as an expression or response related to the good or bad of an action that will be or has already been made. The existence of criticism can also make the work more tested for quality.

In other words, criticism can also be interpreted as an opinion against another opinion which is based on an observation and analysis in advance which will then be interpreted against a position that supports or does not support, contradicts or does not contradict the object being criticized.

Criticism based on its function

After we learn together about the meaning of criticism in general, we will then learn about the type of criticism seen in terms of its function. Where criticism based on its function is still divided into several more categories.

Well, so that you can better understand the type of criticism based on its function, here is a complete explanation.

1. Journalistic Criticism

Journalistic criticism is criticism about the results of research that will be presented openly to the public. Usually, journalistic criticism will be expressed in mass media such as newspapers. Journalistic criticism is not only on works of art, but also on exhibition activities.

The existence of journalistic criticism is almost the same as popular criticism, but more detailed and sharper in terms of its evaluation. Because journalistic criticism uses the mass media, its existence can influence the public’s perception of the quality of what is being typed.

There are several characteristics possessed by journalistic criticism, among them are as follows.

  1. Written for newspaper readers.
  2. Not much confiscate the news column in the newspaper.
  3. Limited writing time.
  4. Only as news

2. Popular Criticism

Next, there is popular criticism, where this popular criticism is almost the same as journalistic criticism because it is intended specifically for public consumption. Even so, popular criticism is general, up to the introduction or publication of a work of art.

The style of language used in popular works will be easier for the general public to understand. This is due to the use of simple terms. In addition, writing popular criticism can also be done by writers who do not have specific skills in the art world. Some of the characteristics of popular criticism are as follows.

  1. Can be written by a general writer.
  2. Seeing the reality that is developing in society.
  3. The language is easy to digest and simpler.
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3. Criticism of Education

There is also educational criticism or commonly referred to as pedagogic. Where this pedagogic is an activity of giving criticism with the aim of increasing sensitivity to artistic and aesthetic aspects as a process of learning art.

Usually, this educational criticism is applied to art education institutions. Therefore, the existence of educational criticism will be able to improve the quality of artwork from students. If it is applied to educational institutions such as public schools, then the existence of this educational or pedagogic criticism will be present in art subjects.

Just like other types of criticism, educational criticism also has several characteristics as follows.

  1. Responsive nature.
  2. There is a standard form of value.
  3. Done in an educational institution environment.
  4. There is freedom of discussion.

4. Scientific or Scientific Criticism

Further, there is a type of scientific or scholarly criticism. Where this type of criticism has an academic nature that also requires knowledge, ability and high sensitivity in evaluating a work of art.

Usually, this scientific criticism will be delivered by a critic who is already an expert in a certain field such as art and must follow academic methodology.

In the field of art, the existence of this scientific criticism will be used as a reference for collectors and curators of art intuition, for example those in galleries, museums and auction houses. The characteristics of scientific criticism are as follows.

  1. Apply certain methodologies or rules in criticizing.
  2. The results are not absolute.
  3. Scientific in nature.
  4. Developed by researchers in a neutral and fair manner.

Types of Criticism Based on the Point of Refusal

In addition to the type of criticism based on its function, criticism is also divided into types based on its starting point. In this type it is still divided into several categories in it. Well, for you to understand better, here are some categories that are in the criticism based on the point of departure.

1. Expressivist Criticism

Furthermore, there is expressionistic criticism, which is one of the types of criticism that is often used in works of art. In that field, critics are more inclined to give evaluations and respond to quality evaluations of ideas and feelings that artists want to consume through the artwork they create.

In expressionistic criticism, it will be more related to the title, theme, content and visualization of objects featured in a work of art.

2. Formalistic Criticism

Formalistic criticism is also often used in the field of art. Where the purpose of formalistic criticism on artworks is to configure its formal aspects. Simply put, related to the manufacturing element.

For example, in the art of painting, it will be more inclined to visual elements such as lines, colors, textures and so on. In addition, this critique also discusses related to the techniques and materials used in fine art works.

3. Instrumentalistic Criticism

Instrumentalistic criticism of a work of art will be more directed towards the achievement of goals, moral, religious, political and also psychological. In instrumentalistic criticism will not question too much the formal reality that is in the artwork. But instrumentalistic criticism will focus more on aspects of the context in the present and in the past.

Tips for Giving Constructive Criticism

The existence of criticism on something will make it have the best quality. Therefore, criticism is needed that can build what is criticized. However, it cannot be denied that not everyone is able to give constructive criticism.

Therefore, it is important for us to know more about how to give constructive criticism. Because, the assessment we give will have an impact on something that is being criticized.

There are several ways that can be done when giving criticism so that the evaluation we give can be constructive instead of bringing down. Well, to be more clear, here are some tips in giving constructive criticism.

1. Start On A Positive Way

You will be able to find something positive to say in the process of giving constructive feedback. Even like a statement of appreciation that is spoken sincerely and honestly can be one form of constructive criticism. Where the positive appreciation you say will make others feel appreciated. Of course you can add positive criticism behind the appreciation given before.

2. Avoid Emotions

When you give criticism in an emotional state, then it is most likely that the presentation done looks emotional, angry as well as body language and tone of voice will make other people more defensive and less consider the existence of the criticism you give. Therefore, in giving criticism try not to be in an emotional state.

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3. Smile and Use Warm Body Language

Let others know if you are someone who can give them empathy. This will make him feel more comfortable and don’t forget to show if you also feel the same way as them.

4. Pay attention to the tone of voice

In order not to create an emotional impact, you should also keep the tone of your voice so that it can appear stable and friendly. Where the tone of voice is also able to communicate many things and sometimes even more than a word that has been chosen.

Try not to raise your voice or allow tension to arise. Use a tone of voice that can really provide comfort when you listen to the recipient of the criticism if the situation is the opposite.

5. Avoid Negative Body Language

Avoid negative body language, blaming or attacking personally. This needs to be done in order to further reduce the possibility of the assumption that you are speaking in an angry state. Also avoid using judgmental and abusive language.

6. State Your Opinion Specifically

The more specific the criticism you give, the easier it will be to carry out the criticism. Focus on the main objective, not even on your opinion. Give a more detailed explanation for each criticism given.

For example, by giving key aspects such as more specific examples so that people receiving criticism can better know what they should do.

7. Give Encouragement to Criticize Yourself

In some cases showing that letting the person concerned find the solution independently before you give an opinion on what to do is one of the right actions. Therefore, you can also give encouragement so that the concerned party can try to criticize themselves.

8. Focusing more on the behavior than on the person

In giving criticism it will be better if you focus on the behavior and not on the person. Therefore, in giving an assessment of personal characteristics, one should be more careful. This is because such actions can sometimes make someone hurt.

9. Provide Helpful Feedback

When you want to help others to be able to change in a positive way. Of course in this condition you need to convey things that can make the related parties do something rather than you conveying things beyond their control.

Giving criticism related to the things they can do will make you look like you are building and empowering them. On the other hand, giving criticism by conveying things he can’t do will make them feel uncomfortable.

This is because they cannot do anything about the situation that is happening, even though they basically want to do a certain action to be better.

10. Avoid Talking Too Much

If you really don’t want to make others feel overwhelmed about the criticism given, then avoid using too many words. Criticizing with too many words, even in a positive form, will still create the effect of presenting a list of problems to the relevant parties. This will make the nature of the conversation carried out negatively.

11. Know When to Stop Criticizing

Knowing when to stop talking is also one method of constructive criticism. Where you can try to criticize one or two of you and end the conversation. Repeating the same problem will not be productive or will even trigger negative feelings in the person who is criticized. Find the signs when your criticism feels enough delivered.

12. Follow Up

When you finish giving criticism, then you can try to give observations. In this case you can observe the person after talking to you. Try to give an assessment of the progress he has made.

If possible, discuss more concrete steps in order to achieve the goals of the evaluation you gave earlier. Give praise for every progress he has made.

Accepting and praising the success of others is also able to provide an incentive for that person to continue their good efforts and make them feel valued and appreciated.

The Impact of Constructive Criticism

It cannot be denied that giving positive criticism is really difficult. Because some things that are considered painless are actually the opposite. Therefore, applying some of the tips above can help you to give constructive criticism.

Interestingly, there are several positive impacts that will be obtained by the relevant parties when receiving positive criticism that you have presented. Where they will start to continue learning, wanting to grow to a better side.

In addition, the existence of criticism will also make them more aware of any shortcomings they have. In fact, it is not rare that the presence of constructive criticism can trigger a person to control his emotions.

Well, that’s a complete description related to the meaning of criticism to its impact. By knowing the explanation above, you will find it easier to give constructive criticism without having to be afraid to express an assessment.