Assessment Is: Definition, Function, Purpose, and the Difference with Evaluation in the Educational Realm

Assessment Is – Sinaumed’s must be familiar with the term “assessment”? Yep, if you look in the dictionary, this term means an assessment process. This assessment is not only carried out by teachers on student competencies , you know , but is also often used in the process of recruiting new employees at an employee. Therefore, the existence of an assessment will not be separated from tests to assess how competent a person is and can be used frequently in all fields. 

If so, is the teacher’s assessment of student competency and the employee recruitment process the same? Of course it is different, because the two subjects have different levels of competence and different goals. Even so, the two subjects still need an assessment which is accompanied by a test to assess their ability to deal with a problem. However, in this article, we will discuss assessment in the realm of education, aka student competency. Then actually, what is an assessment? What is the purpose of the assessment being carried out? Let’s look at the following reviews so that Sinaumed’s understands these things!

What is an Assessment?

The definition of assessment in the realm of education and employee recruitment in a company is of course different. This is because the subjects and objects in the implementation process are also individuals with different ages and competencies. Even though in fact, this assessment is the same as a form of assessment of the competence possessed by a person. But keep in mind that in this article, we will discuss assessment in the realm of education, so that it focuses on student competencies. 

The term assessment is defined by Stiggins (1994) as a process of assessing student learning processes, progress, and outcomes (outcomes). Meanwhile, according to Kumano (2001), states that assessment is “the process of collecting data which shows the development of learning” aka a form of assessment of student learning processes. Sinaumed’s must have often encountered this assessment when he was in school. This was stated by Gabel (1993) who categorizes assessment into two groups, namely traditional assessment and alternative assessment. 

Traditional assessments are usually in the form of tests with right or wrong answers, multiple choice tests, complementary tests, and limited answer tests. Meanwhile, alternative assessments are usually in the form of non-tests, in the form of essays or descriptions, practical assessments, project assessments, questionnaires, inventories, peer assessments, self-assessments, portfolios, observations, discussions, and interviews . If you look at the forms, most of the assessments are carried out in Guidance and Counseling (BK) subjects, yes…

In this regard, Popham (1995) stated that the existence of this assessment should be part of learning in schools because the assessment focuses on student learning processes. Not only the learning process, but also the progress of student learning. In general, the information obtained from this assessment activity can be used as a basis for making decisions about students, whether it is related to curriculum, learning programs, and school policies. 

It should also be noted that the existence of assessments is not only carried out in schools, but also in tertiary institutions, of course, the subjects are students.  

The difference between Assessment and Evaluation

Many people think that this assessment is the same as an evaluation, but in fact the two things are different. Basically, this evaluation is an assessment of the education program as a whole, so it is more macro in nature. While the assessment is narrower (micro), moreover usually the implementation is carried out by Guidance and Counseling subjects only. So, here is the difference between assessment and evaluation. 

The difference between Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment Evaluation
More emphasis on process assessment. More emphasis on learning outcomes.
Side with the interests of students. In this al, students can use the results of the assessment as a reflection of the improvement of their learning. Take sides with the interests of the evaluator.
The assessment is carried out more narrowly (micro), related to student competence and improvement of learning programs. Conducted as a whole (macro) relating to planning, implementation, and monitoring.
Is one of the methods chosen in the evaluation.  Using various criteria and methods.
Subjects are just students. The subjects vary, ranging from students, teachers, materials, organizations, and others.
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Assessment function

The most basic assessment function is the formative function, which is to provide feedback to the teacher and at the same time can be used as a basis for improving his learning techniques. In addition, students can also participate in the process of improving existing learning standards. 

Meanwhile, according to Arikunto (2013) the function of the assessment is as follows: 

  1. To find out whether the instructional objectives have been achieved.
  2. Feedback for improving the teaching and learning process.
  3. Basis in compiling student progress reports to their parents.

Assessment Purpose

Based on Student Competency

It should be remembered that the existence of this assessment is not only applied in Guidance and Counseling subjects, but also in all subjects taught in schools. According to Arikunto (2013), states that the general purpose of the assessment is to determine how much achievement of competency indicators has been planned previously in a subject. While other objectives are in the form of:

  • Assess individual abilities through specific tasks.
  • Determine learning needs.
  • Assist and encourage students.
  • Assist and encourage teachers to teach better.
  • Determine learning strategies.
  • Institutional accountability.
  • Improving the quality of education.

Based on Guidance and Counseling

Different subjects, the purpose and form of the assessment given to students will be different. In the realm of Guidance and Counseling, the existence of this assessment has 12 objectives that have been contained in the book Foundations for Guidance and Counseling in Indonesia (Karya Lahmuddin Lubis). In the book, Hackney and Cornier put forward the 12 assessment objectives, namely:

  1. Streamlining the information gathering process. 
  2. Allows the counselor to make an accurate diagnosis.
  3. Develop an effective action plan.
  4. Determine whether or not the counselee is following a certain plan.
  5. Simplifies goal achievement and progress measurement. 
  6. Increase insight into the counselee’s self. 
  7. Able to assess the environment. 
  8. Improving counseling processes and discussions that are more focused and relevant.
  9. Indicates the probability that a certain event will occur. 
  10. Increase interests, abilities, and personality dimensions. 
  11. Generate choices. 
  12. Facilitate planning and decision making

Just a little trivia, OK? Counseling doesn’t always exist in schools, it can also become a profession whose subjects are the general public. Therefore, the existence of an assessment can also be used in it. This was also stated by Hackney and Cornier in a book entitled Comprehensive Professional Counseling , that assessment has 6 objectives, namely:

  1. Get information about the problems presented by the counselee and other problems related to them. 
  2. Recognize the controlling and contributing variables associated with the problem. 
  3. Determine what the counselee’s goals/expectations are as a result of counseling.
  4. Collect basic data that will be compared with subsequent data in order to assess and evaluate the counselee’s progress and the effects of the treatment strategy used. 
  5. Educating and motivating the counselee by sharing the counselor’s point of view about the situation, increasing the counselee’s acceptance of treatment and contributing to the changes that are the result of therapy. 
  6. Use the information obtained from the counselee to plan effective treatment methods and strategies

Forms of Assessment in the Realm of Guidance and Counseling

This time, we will discuss the form of assessment in the Guidance and Counseling realm, which has two forms, namely in the form of tests and non-tests. Here’s an explanation.

1. Test Technique Assessment

In this assessment it is only used by counselors who have special certification, especially for the use of psychopedagogical testing techniques. Assessment of this test technique is a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior levels of two or more individuals, then developed again to observe and describe behavior with the help of a numerical scale or certain categories (Cronbach, 1960). Meanwhile, according to Anne Anastasi in the book Non-test Technique Assessment in the Perspective of Comprehensive Counseling (Karya Gantina Komalasari), argues that assessment with this test technique is a measurement of an objective and standardized sample of behavior. So, in the assessment of this test technique there are also several types, namely:

  1. Achievement Test

An achievement test is a measure of a person’s level of acquisition or learning in a subject or task. As a measurement instrument, achievement tests are more direct than other tests. These tests provide counselees with the types of information they need to make important educational and career decisions. If a counselee has the right abilities, interests, or personality dispositions for a chosen career field, but lacks knowledge or expertise, he or she can make positive steps to correct those inefficiencies. 

  1. Aptitude Test

An aptitude test can be defined as a trait that characterizes an individual’s ability to perform in a certain area or achieve the learning required to perform in a certain area. Theoretically, an aptitude test is to measure a person’s potential to achieve certain activities, his ability to learn to achieve these activities. Other functions of this aptitude test are:

  • Identify potential abilities that are not based on individuals; 
  • Support the development of special abilities or potential of certain individuals; 
  • Providing information to help individuals make educational and career decisions or other choices among existing alternatives; 
  • Helps predict the level of academic or job success that individuals can anticipate;
  • It is useful to group individuals with similar talents for personality development and educational purposes.
  1. Interest Test

As the name implies, this test is a test that measures what kind of activity/occupation a person likes the most. Asher et al argue that the interests possessed by an individual can have an impact, namely as:

  1. As a psychological condition characterized by focusing attention on a particular problem/activity, or as a tendency to understand an experience that will be repeated, 
  2. As a feeling of pleasure resulting from the presence of special attention to an activity.
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Sinaumed’s must have known that everyone in this world has different interests? Yep, Whiterington also defines interest as an individual’s willingness to an object, individual, thing, or situation related to him. Meanwhile, according to Crow & Crow in a book entitled Guidance and Counseling in Educational Institutions (by WS. Winkel & MM Sri Hastuti) states that interest can be a driving force that makes individuals pay attention to objects (can be other individuals, situations, or activities). certain).

Well, the use of this interest test can aim to help young people (usually also applied to students) in choosing jobs that match their interests and talents. In general, the results of this interest test can be used in 3 applied fields, you know… namely career counseling, job counseling, and student majors. Does Sinaumed’s still remember the interest technique that was once given by the Guidance and Counseling (BK) teacher when we were in grade 12 to determine our college major? 

The use of this interest test is not only used for grade 12 students to determine college majors , but also in the process of recruiting employees in a company to place prospective employees according to their abilities and interests in a field. 

d) Personality Test

This personality test is usually to measure personality traits but not unique, but more cognitive in nature, such as character, style, temperament, emotional life style, mental health, network of social relations with other people, and others. 

2. Non-Test Technical Assessment

Since this assessment is in the form of a non-test, both the design, administration, processing, analysis and interpretation procedures are relatively simpler. This form of test is also the most widely used by counselors. As for the types of non-test assessment techniques, there are Problem Checklists (DCM), Common Problem Expression Tools (AUM-U), Learning Problem Expression Tools (AUM PTSDL), Interviews, Sociometry, Observations, Questionnaires, and many others.  

Source:

Siregar, Siti Wahyuni. Assessment in Guidance and Counseling. 

Wulan, Ana Ratna. Definition and Essence of the Concept of Evaluation, Assessment, Test, and Measurement . FMIPA Indonesian University of Education. 

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