Definition of Educational Administration – Educational administration is a form of effort to integrate existing activities and programs. This activity is interdependent with groups and individuals who have the same goals for the benefit of students.
The following is a further explanation of the existence of educational administration.
Definition of Educational Administration
The definition of educational administration is expressed by several experts as follows.
- Drs. M. Ngalim Purwanto, stated that educational administration is a process of integrating or combining educational goals personally, spiritually, and materially.
- The Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, also defines education administration as all processes related to educational activities including directing, planning, coordinating, financing, reporting, to supervision in the framework of covering education.
- Dasuqi and Somantri, stated that education administration is an attempt to practice existing administrative principles in the field of education.
- Hadari Nawawi, revealed the administration of education as a series of activities together to achieve education in order to create a systematic education.
- Good Carter V, interprets educational administration as all the techniques and procedures used in the administration of educational institutions in accordance with predetermined policies.
- According to Knezevich , educational administration is a process that deals with the creation, maintenance, stimulation, and unification of personnel in an educational institution in an effort to realize predetermined goals.
- Oteng Sutisna also stated that education administration is an effort to coordinate the interdependent activities of people and groups in achieving the common goal of children’s education.
- Nasution stated that education administration is the overall process of all joint activities in the field of education by utilizing all available facilities both personal, material and spiritual to achieve educational goals.
In addition, educational administration can also be interpreted as a collaboration to achieve educational goals, as well as processes to achieve educational goals, starting from planning, organizing, directing, monitoring and evaluating. Educator administration can also be considered as a system with a whole consisting of interacting parts, with the aim of management to monitor whether it has achieved the set goals.
From a leadership perspective, educator administration functions to answer questions about how educational administrators carry out their duties, as well as a decision-making process between employees and a leader.
Meanwhile, in terms of educational administration communication is an attempt to make other people understand and vice versa. Educational administration can also be seen from an administrative perspective regarding routine note-taking activities, documenting activities, also carrying out correspondence with all its aspects and preparing reports.
By paying attention to the components of education and the education system, the administration will play a supporting role and expedite the teaching and learning process. In carrying out education administration, there will be many things that must be done. Not to mention related to social cases such as dropping out of school and problems regarding lack of character education.
Elements and Objectives of Educational Administration
According to Sondang P Siagian there are several elements that must exist in educational administration, such as having more than 2 people working on it, also supported by tools and equipment.
According to The Liang Gie , the administrative elements are different again, which includes the existence of organization, management, communication, finance, supplies, staffing, administration, and public relations or public relations. These eight elements must exist in educational institutions, starting from elementary level institutions to the tertiary level.
Administrative goals according to Sergiovanni and Carver are seen into four basic goals that are emphasized in the world of education, namely creating production effectiveness, efficiency, adaptability, and building job satisfaction.
In addition to these four objectives, the other objectives of educational administration are to achieve flexibility in the educational administration process, efficiency and effectiveness of the implementation of educational administration as well as the implementation of continuity of education administration and lifelong education that is disciplined and guided by scientific linearity.
Educational administration is also responsible for forming and giving birth to quality and beneficial students for the nation and state. In addition to educating students, they also produce students who are faithful, have good morals, are independent and responsible. Do not become a corrupt person, because in the end it will harm society and the country.
The Role of Educational Administration
There are several roles of educational administration that we need to know as follows.
- Planning , in achieving educational goals requires careful planning. The planning is made as best as possible so that it can run optimally. Because educational planning is not made arbitrarily, it must be mutually agreed upon.
- Organizing , this is very necessary in building good relationships and interactions with staff, between education and students. Therefore, this must work together to achieve the expected educational outcomes.
- Coordination , this must be based on good communication. If communication is not based on coordination, it will also have no impact. The team in the coordination section will be responsible for developing techniques, generating ideas, and how to create interactive learning.
If it is stagnant, then the management of educational institutions will also be uprooted. The results of students will also fall apart due to the lack of maximum knowledge that has been given.
- Communication , one way to establish connectivity between educators and students is good communication. Building communication is used as a means of transforming knowledge between educators and students, besides that it is also a report on the results of educational attainment from regional units to central units.
- Supervision , as long as carrying out to achieve the goal, it is necessary to have supervision. Because without supervision, if there is a violation, they can be immediately reprimanded. In each educational institution unit a management structure is formed, if not monitored the potential for fraud is very likely to occur.
- Staffing , commonly referred to as staffing , has the responsibility for planning and organizing. With staffing, the work structure will make it easier to achieve educational goals.
- Budgeting , to run and achieve educational goals there are exit costs and entry costs. So it takes budgeting that needs supervision. Because in the financial sector there is a high risk of corruption by some irresponsible people or persons.
- Assessment , in an organization or educational institution will require transparency in the management process. One of them is by evaluating, whether it has been carried out effectively as a whole and achievements or not at all, so that things that are lacking can be corrected.
To run an education is not an easy thing, because it requires many elements and elements that are integrated and related to one another. In fact, there are many structures that must be involved in order to achieve national education because it is related to government and the world of education.
Principles and Functions of Educational Administration
The existence of a relationship between education providers and learning in schools, raises the existence of several principals and functions of educational administration, namely as follows.
- Educational administration is a regulatory system for integrating all types and forms of resources related to the effectiveness of learning towards achieving educational goals in schools. In the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution, it was emphasized that the goal of the NKRI’s national education is to educate the life of the nation.
- There is the formation of a national education system with educational autonomy , because the social reality of the Indonesian nation is multicultural. With the national education autonomy system, the managerial process of learning in each school can run intensively, effectively and efficiently.
- It is necessary to have a clear national education plan to achieve the elaboration of national education goals, with an elaboration of the form of programs that will be concrete and structured. Implementation needs to be supported by an accurate organizing and coordinating system. This also requires an intensive monitoring system so that learning in schools can run effectively and efficiently in order to achieve the multi-competence target of human resources as an urgent national need.
- The existence of a strong function and role as a renewal of social life towards achieving national goals in the future.
The four main points of education administration need to function as a basis for the development of effective education and learning management in schools. Besides that, it also requires consideration of the psychological, anthropological, and sociological background of the community in the school environment.
This is because the substance of spiritual, intellectual and moral intelligence has become an educational goal with a process of fostering behavior as a social psychological, anthropological and sociological aspect. In order for the process to run smoothly, education and learning planning is needed that is clear and comprehensive. In addition, an effective and efficient implementation management system is also needed.
Principles of Educational Administration
There are two principles used as the basis for educational administration activities in schools, namely the ideal principle and the operational principle .
On the ideal principle, the implementation of educational administration in a country depends on the education system adopted. The education system adopted by the Indonesian state is an education system based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
Educational administration is essentially a broad education sub-system, so the ideal basis used in administrative activities in schools is Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
The second principle is operational or the principle used to achieve national education goals as stated in the National Education System Law Number 20 of 2003, the education system in Indonesian schools has undergone renewal. This reform was carried out to improve the quality of education at the school level.
The principles used in the 2013 curriculum as the basis for operational administration are as follows:
1. Principle of Flexibility
Implementation of education in schools must pay attention to ecosystem factors and the ability to provide facilities for the implementation of school education.
2. Principles of Efficiency and Effectiveness
Efficiency is not only in the right use of time, but also in optimal utilization of energy.
3. Goal-oriented principles
Educational administration is a component in the education system, so to achieve this goal the operational objectives that have been formulated must be the basis for the implementation of educational administration activities in schools.
4. Continuity Principle
It is the operational basis for carrying out administrative activities in schools. Because, in each level of education must have a mutually sustainable hierarchy.
5. The Principle of Lifelong Education
Every human being is expected to always develop. Therefore, the community or government is expected to create a situation that can support the teaching and learning process.
Educational Administration Tasks
The educational administration tasks are as follows:
- Strive for education to appear normally by formulating, completing, elaborating and setting educational goals that will be formally concerned
- Disseminating and trying to instill educational goals in the members of the institution, so that these educational goals become the needs and encouragement of the work of the members of the institution
- Choose, select, describe and determine processes in the form of actions, activities and work patterns that are calculated and provide results in accordance with the objectives set
- Supervise the implementation of the educational process by monitoring, checking and controlling every activity, action in every system process. This effort is often associated with inherent supervision or quality control in education.
- Assess the results that have been achieved and the processes that are currently in effect, in addition to striving for information regarding results and processes to become feedback that can improve processes and results in the future
Scope of Education Administration
There are several fields within the scope of educational administration, including:
School Administration Sector
- Administration organization and employee structure
- School finance budget
- Staffing and school personnel issues
- Finance and bookkeeping
- Correspondence or letters
- Appointments, transfers, placements, reports, filling out master books, report cards and so on
Student Personnel Field
- Student organization
- Student health problems
- Evaluate student progress
- Student welfare issues
- Guidance and counseling for students
Teacher Personnel Field
- Appointment and placement of teachers
- Teacher person organization
- Employment issues
- The problem of conditions and evaluation of teacher progress
- Teacher refreshing and upgrading
Field of Supervision or Supervision
- Efforts to increase the morale of teachers and administrative staff.
- Strive for and develop good cooperation between teachers, students, and school administrative staff.
- Strive for and create guidelines for assessing educational and teaching outcomes.
- Efforts to improve the quality and experience of teachers.
Field of Curriculum Implementation and Development
- Guide and apply the school curriculum in an effort to achieve the basics and goals of education and teaching.
- Carry out curriculum organization and its methods, in accordance with the renewal of education and the community environment.
Education Administration Components
Administrative components can be broadly classified into:
- School Personal Administration , the whole process of structuring personnel in schools consisting of school principals, vice principals, teachers, heads of administration, all administrative employees and so on
- Curriculum Administration , all experiences provided by schools to foster children’s development by creating teaching and learning situations.
- Education Infrastructure and Facilities Administration , for infrastructure such as locations or places, school buildings, and sports fields. Meanwhile, facilities are direct tools to achieve educational goals, such as rooms, books, libraries, laboratories, and so on.
- Student Administration , such as OSIS with the aim of training student leadership and providing a vehicle for students to carry out appropriate curricular activities.
- School and Community Cooperation (Humas) , there are several paths that can be taken in school-community relations, namely:
- Child or student
- School letters, flyers and bulletins
- Mass media
- Informal meeting
- Student progress reports
- formal contact
- Utilize the resources available in the community
- Educational support agency
Very clear the important role of administration in the sphere of education. Educational administration that is carried out properly will certainly support the achievement of educational goals for students.