State Ministries Are – Most of the existing ministries have undergone various changes, including mergers, separations, name changes, and also dissolution (either temporarily or permanently). The total ministries themselves are almost always different in each cabinet, starting with only a dozen until they once reached hundreds.
Before finally being determined in Law Number 39 of 2008, namely a maximum number of 34 ministries. In its journey, the formation of ministries in Indonesia has always considered political power, ideology and ethnicity.
During the era of struggle for independence and parliamentary democracy, there were 4 (four) political parties, namely the Indonesian National Party, Masjumi, Nahdlatul Ulama, and the Indonesian Socialist Party. Where, the four parties are competing against each other in grabbing ministry positions. After 1955, the Indonesian Communist Party became an additional force and political arena of Indonesia.
During the New Order era, namely development cabinets I to VII, there was only one dominant political force, namely the Working Group (Golkar). Meanwhile, in the reform era, various parties took turns in power. For example, the Working Group (Golkar), the National Awakening Party (PKB), the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle and the Democratic Party.
Where, these parties are 4 (four) major parties that have occupied the top leadership of the country. When viewed according to ethnic composition, the composition of ministers in the period 1945 to 1970 was dominated by the Javanese, after which it was followed by the Minangkabau and Sundanese tribes.
Two ethnic groups originating from eastern Indonesia, namely Minahasa and Maluku, are groups of people who contributed a lot to Indonesia’s independence. Throughout its history, the Ministry has used a variable nomenclature. During the New Order era, the nomenclature used was department, state minister’s office, and coordinating minister’s office.
In 1998, the terms state ministry and coordinating ministry began to be used, while the term department was retained. since the enactment of Law Number 39 of 2008 and Presidential Regulation Number 47 of 2009 stated that all Ministry nomenclatures were returned to being Ministries just like in the early days of independence.
The process of changing back this nomenclature began during the United Indonesia Cabinet II. So, in order to find out the complete discussion regarding the following Indonesian state ministries, the discussion has been presented below.
Definition of Indonesian Ministry of State
The Indonesian state ministry is an Indonesian government institution that deals with certain affairs in government. The ministry is domiciled in the national capital, namely Jakarta and is under the responsibility of the President.
The purpose of establishing the Indonesian state ministries is to assist the President in running the state government. Where, each ministry has its own field that handles certain affairs and the tasks and functions are different for each field. Each field in the Indonesian state ministries can improve performance through:
- Create an online application to measure the action plan.
- Improving the quality of evaluation of performance accountability in each performance unit.
- Improving planning to improve the quality and utilization of reports.
- Strengthen the implementation of performance culture in each unit.
- Synchronizing strategic goals and performance indicators of Indonesian state ministries.
Legal Basis of the Ministry of State of Indonesia
The legal basis of the Indonesian state ministry is in chapter 5 of article 17 of the 1945 Constitution which states that:
- The president is assisted by Indonesian state ministries.
- Ministers are appointed and dismissed by the President.
- Each ministry or minister is in charge of certain affairs in government.
- The establishment, change, and dissolution of Indonesian state ministries are regulated in the 1945 Constitution.
Basic arrangements regarding Indonesian State Ministries are explained in law number 39 of 2008 concerning State Ministries. Meanwhile, further provisions regarding the duties, functions and organizational structure of ministries are regulated by a Presidential Regulation (Perpres).
Formation and Amendment of Indonesian State Ministries
Based on article 12, the President forms the ministries of foreign affairs, home affairs and defense as stipulated in the 1945 Constitution. The formation of these ministries takes into account several things, including:
- Effectiveness and efficiency.
- The scope of duties and the proportionality of the duties of state ministries.
- Continuity, integration of task implementation, and alignment of state ministries.
- The development of the global environment of Indonesian state ministries.
The total of all ministries is at most 34. Regarding the change and dissolution of ministries, the President cannot just do it. Changes as a result of the separation or merger of ministries must be made with the consideration of the People’s Representative Council (DPR).
Ministries can be dissolved by the President by asking for the consideration of the People’s Representative Council (DPR). With the exception, ministries that handle legal, religious, financial and security affairs are required to have the approval of the House of Representatives (DPR).
Functions of Indonesian State Ministries
The functions of Indonesian state ministries are indeed very diverse. Where, ministries or ministers have a role that cannot be separated from the planning, administration and operational activities of the Indonesian state.
Under the direct supervision of the President, ministers carry out tasks related to state affairs aiming at the advancement of the Indonesian state. As, according to article 8 of the law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 39 of 2008 concerning state ministries, the functions of the Indonesian state ministries include:
- In carrying out its duties, the Ministry has responsibility for this matter as stated in article 5 paragraph 1 reads:
- Formulation, determination, and implementation of policies for their fields.
- Carry out the management of state property or wealth which is his responsibility.
- Carry out supervision on the course of tasks in their field.
- Carry out technical activities from the center to the regions.
- In carrying out its duties, the Ministry that carries out the affairs as stated in the Law article 5 paragraph 2 which contains:
- Formulate, establish, and carry out policies for their fields.
- Manage the property or wealth of the state for which it is responsible.
- carry out supervision and carry out tasks in their fields.
- Conduct technical guidance and supervision on the course of affairs in regional ministries.
- Carry out technical activities on a national scale.
- In carrying out its duties, the Ministry that carries out the affairs as referred to in the law article 5 paragraph 3, reads:
- Formulate and establish policies for the field.
- Coordinating and synchronizing the course of policies in their respective fields.
- Manage the property or wealth of the state for which it is responsible.
- Supervise the course of tasks in their field.
Duties of Indonesian State Ministries
Regarding the Indonesian state ministries, this has been regulated in the law of the republic of Indonesia Number 39 of 2008 which states that the task of the Ministry is to carry out certain government affairs in order to assist the President in administering state government.
Of course, in carrying out their duties the state ministries must be based on the laws and regulations that have been stipulated. The duties of the Ministry of State of Indonesia, including the following:
- Following and coordinating the course of policies and programs that have been determined in certain fields which are the responsibility of the division.
- Accommodate all problems that arise and seek solutions to these problems by following all developments in the conditions of the field that must be coordinated.
- Carry out coordination with various director generals and other institutional leaders in order to establish cooperation in overcoming problems related to areas coordinated within the country.
The authority of the Ministry of State of Indonesia
A Ministry certainly has power or authority, as well as Indonesian state ministries that have authority including the following:
- Coordinating the provision of household and protocol services to the President and Vice President.
- Perform certain tasks delegated by the President.
- Running affairs in his power with the existing executive authority.
- Other authorities that are adjusted to the provisions and regulations of the Law that have been made and apply.
- Having authority or power in the form of executive power, namely power as the executor of the law. This is because those who do have the authority in the form of implementing statutory regulations that have been established and determined by the institution that holds legislative power, carrying out the administration of government with the President and Vice President, and implementing state order both at home and abroad.
Rights and Obligations of the Ministry of State of Indonesia
The Ministry of State’s right is the right to govern the people. Meanwhile, the responsibility of the state ministries is to organize the state together with the President and vice president. This is because, being included in the executive branch, Indonesian state ministries have rights and obligations.
Classification of the Ministry of State of Indonesia
According to the Presidential Regulation, the classification of Indonesian state ministries, including the following:
1. The Ministry that Handles Governmental Affairs Nomenclature
The following ministries handle nomenclature government affairs, including:
- Ministry of Internal Affairs
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Ministry of Defense
2. Ministry in charge of State Administration Affairs
Ministries that handle state government affairs as national development goals, namely:
- Ministry of Religion
- Ministry of Law and Human Rights
- Ministry of Finance
- Ministry of Education and Culture
- Ministry of research, technology and higher education
- Ministry of Health
- Ministry of Social Affairs
- Ministry of Labour
- Ministry of Industry
- Ministry of Trade
- Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources
- Minister For Public Works and Human Settlements
- Ministry of Transportation
- Ministry of Communication and Informatics
- Ministry of Agriculture
- Ministry of environment and forestry
- Marine and Fisheries Ministry
- Ministry of villages, development of underdeveloped areas and transmigration
- Ministry of agrarian and spatial planning
3. The Ministry that Handles Affairs in the Context of Sharpening, Coordinating, and Synchronizing Government Programs
This ministry is tasked with managing state property and assets and carrying out supervision over the implementation of tasks in its field, consisting of:
- Ministry of national development planning
- Ministry of Administrative Reform and bureaucratic reform
- Ministry of state-owned enterprises
- Ministry of cooperatives and small and medium enterprises
- Ministry of tourism
- The Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection
- Ministry of Youth and Sports
- Ministry of State Secretariat
4. Coordinating Ministries Have the Task of Synchronizing and Coordinating the Affairs of the Respective Ministries
The coordinating ministry has the task of synchronizing and coordinating the affairs of the respective Ministries, including the following:
- Coordinating ministry for political law security commander
- Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs
- The coordinating ministry for human development and culture
- Coordinating ministry for maritime affairs
The formation of the Indonesian state ministries above is one of the efforts in mapping the duties and functions of state institutions as their destination point so that the implementation of government affairs can run well and in a coordinated manner.
Organizational Structure of Indonesian State Ministries
Within the Indonesian state ministries, the organizational structure of the Indonesian state ministries has been regulated in law Number 39 of 2008, including the following:
- The organizational structure of the ministries dealing with the fields as referred to in Article 5 paragraph 1 is composed of the following elements:
- The leader is the minister
- The assistant leader is the secretariat general
- The principal task executor is the directorate general
- The supervisor is the inspectorate general
- Supporters are the body and the center
- Implementation of main tasks in the regions and foreign missions in accordance with statutory regulations
- The organizational structure of the ministries carrying out the affairs as referred to in Article 5 paragraph 2, among others, are as follows:
- The leader, namely the minister
- Acting leader, namely the secretariat general
- Executor, namely the directorate general
- Superintendent, namely the inspectorate general
- Supporters, namely the center or agency
- The ministries that handle religious, financial, legal and security affairs as referred to in Article 5 paragraph 2 also have elements of carrying out basic tasks in the regions.
- The organizational structure of the ministries that carry out the affairs as referred to in Article 5 paragraph 3, among others are as follows:
- The leader, namely the minister
- Assistant leader, namely the secretariat of the ministry
- Executor, namely deputy
- Superintendent, namely the inspectorate
- Based on article 10, states that if there is a workload that requires special handling, the President can appoint deputy ministers in certain Ministries.
Requirements to Become Part of the Ministry of State of Indonesia
As discussed in the previous explanation, ministries or ministers are appointed by a President. To be appointed as part of the Ministry, a person must fulfill several conditions. The following has presented a number of requirements to become part of the Indonesian state ministries, including:
- Indonesian Citizen (WNI)
- Have faith in God Almighty
- Loyal to Pancasila as the basis of the state, the 1945 Constitution, and the ideals of the proclamation of independence
- Physically and mentally healthy
- Have good integrity and personality
- Never been sentenced to prison according to a court decision that has permanent legal force, for committing a crime punishable by imprisonment for 5 (five) years or more. Persons who have been sentenced to prison for political reasons and have received rehabilitation are exempt from this provision.
Some of the conditions for becoming part of Indonesian state ministries are not meant to limit the President’s right to appoint a minister, but emphasize that a minister who is appointed must have good integrity and personality.
However, it is hoped that the President will also need to pay attention to competence in the field of ministry duties and leadership experience that must be possessed by a minister, and be able to work together as an assistant to the President.
When referring to the requirements to become part of the ministers described above, of course there is no age requirement to become a minister. This means that a President may appoint a young minister as long as the young man fulfills the specified requirements and has good integrity and personality.
In addition, it is hoped that the President will also need to pay attention to the competence and duties of the Ministry. As well as leadership experience that must be owned by a minister and be able to work together as an assistant to the President.
List of Non-Ministerial Government Institutions
Not only does it have state ministries, Indonesia also has Non-Ministry Institutions or also called LPNK in implementing government programs. Non-ministerial government agencies created by the President to support and assist in carrying out certain tasks.
LPNK is directly under the President and is responsible for reporting all activities and work programs directly to the President through the ministers.
The existence of LPNK has been regulated in Presidential Regulation (Perpres) Number 103 of 2001. This rule regulates all matters related to LPNK, starting from its position, duties, functions, objectives, authorities, work procedures, and organizational structure. The following are several LPNKs in Indonesia, including:
- The Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM), deals directly with the coordinating minister for the economy.
- The National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia (ANRI) is in direct contact with the minister for the utilization of the state apparatus and bureaucratic reform.
- Geospatial Information Agency (BIG)
- Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG).
- State Civil Service Agency (BKN).
This is the discussion about the Indonesian state ministries, starting from their understanding to a number of other things that you must know. Hopefully the discussion above can help and add insight into knowledge about the ranks of ministry institutions in Indonesia.
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Author: Siti Badriyah