Parliamentary Is: Definition, Characteristics, Weaknesses and Strengths

Parliamentary is – The system of government is the way in which the country is organized and run. The system of government determines how power is divided and exercised between the government, parliament, and the judiciary. There are several forms of government systems that are commonly used in the world, including presidential, parliamentary, semi-presidential, and federation systems.

A presidential system is one in which the president holds executive, legislative, and judicial powers. The president is directly elected by the people and does not have to retain parliamentary support to remain in power.

A parliamentary system is one in which the parliament holds great powers in controlling the government and making policies. The head of government (the prime minister) is elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

A semi-presidential system is one in which the president holds executive powers and has a considerable role in policy making, while parliament holds legislative powers. Countries that use a semi-presidential system include France and Russia. The federation system is a system of government in which the country is divided into several parts (provinces or states) which have considerable power in regulating regional affairs.

On this occasion, the matter to be discussed is parliamentary. To find out more about parliamentary, then you can see this article, until it’s finished, Sinaumed’s.

What is Parliamentary?

Parliamentary is a system of government in which parliament plays a very important role in controlling the government and making policies. Parliament is made up of a group of democratically elected people whose job is to represent the people and make policies for the country.

In a parliamentary system, the role of parliament is very strong and the government must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power. Parliamentary systems are usually combined with presidential systems, where there is a president who acts as head of state and head of government. However, in a parliamentary system, the head of government is the prime minister who is elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power. Parliamentary systems are common in European countries, including the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany.

Definition of Parliamentary According to Experts

The following are some definitions of parliamentary according to experts:

1. According to David P. Currie

Parliamentary is a system of government in which the parliament holds great power in controlling the government and making policies.

2. According to William E. Hudson

Parliamentary is a system of government in which the head of government (prime minister) is elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

3. According to JH Burns

Parliamentary is a system of government in which the parliament holds major powers in controlling the government and making policy, and the head of government (the prime minister) is elected by the parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

4. According to David Armitage 

Parliamentary is a system of government in which the parliament plays a very important role in controlling the government and making policy, and the head of government (the prime minister) is elected by the parliament and must maintain the support of the parliament to continue in power.

Parliamentary Government System Structure

In a parliamentary system, the government structure consists of several elements, namely:

1. Parliament

Parliament is an institution consisting of a group of democratically elected people whose job is to represent the people and make policies for the country. Parliament consists of two chambers, namely the People’s Representative Council (DPR) and the Regional Representative Council (DPD).

2. Prime Minister 

The prime minister is the head of government elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power. The prime minister is responsible to parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

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3. Cabinet

The cabinet is a group of ministers who are elected by the prime minister and are responsible to the parliament. The cabinet is responsible for governing and managing government affairs and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

4. President

The president is the head of state who serves as a symbol of the state and has several constitutional powers. The president usually has a more symbolic and less powerful role in parliamentary systems.

5. Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is an institution tasked with adjudicating cases related to the authority of the government and parliament. The supreme court is also responsible for adjudicating cases related to the powers of government and parliament.

Countries that Adopt a Parliamentary System of Government

After knowing the definition of parliamentary and its structure, so that the discussion in this article is more complete, we will also discuss several countries that use a parliamentary system of government.

1. England

England is a country that is famous for its parliamentary system. In England, parliament consists of the House of Representatives (DPR) and the House of Representatives (DPD). The head of government is the prime minister who is elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

2. The Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the parliament consists of the People’s Representative Council (DPR) which consists of 150 democratically elected members. The head of government is the prime minister who is elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

3. Germany

In Germany, the parliament consists of the People’s Representative Council (DPR) which consists of 631 democratically elected members. The head of government is the prime minister who is elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

4. Canada

In Canada, the parliament consists of the House of Representatives (DPR) which consists of 338 democratically elected members. The head of government is the prime minister who is elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

5.Australia

In Australia, parliament consists of the House of Representatives (DPR) which consists of 151 democratically elected members. The head of government is the prime minister who is elected by parliament and must maintain parliamentary support to continue in power.

A Brief History of the Parliamentary System of Government

The history of the parliamentary system of government originates in England, where the first parliament appeared in the 13th century. Initially, the parliament consisted of the People’s Representative Council (DPR) and the State Representative Council (DPD). The DPR is made up of democratically elected members, while the DPD is made up of religious leaders, aristocrats and judges.

In the 17th century, the first Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, emerged as head of government elected by parliament. Walpole held power for 20 years and became the first prime minister to retain parliamentary support for staying in power.

Over the centuries, the British parliamentary system has continued to evolve and become a model for the rest of the world to follow. At the beginning of the 19th century, a parliamentary system began to be implemented in a number of European countries such as the Netherlands, France and Germany. Later, the parliamentary system was adopted by countries that were recognized as British colonies such as Australia, Canada, India, and so on.

Until recently, the parliamentary system has been one of the most common systems of government in the world, and many countries use parliamentary systems, including the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, Canada, Australia, India, and many other countries.

Learning history is never ending. Through the book Modern Indonesian Political History: Political Studies, Islamic Politics, Democratic Government and Civil Society in Indonesia , readers will find out more deeply about the political history that occurred in Indonesia. Not only that, through this book, readers will also know how to feel the different political nuances in each era, so this book is suitable as a reference for students.

 

The advantages of a parliamentary system of government

As with other government systems, the parliamentary government system also has advantages. What are the advantages of a parliamentary system of government?

1. Responsive to the people

Because parliament consists of democratically elected members, parliamentary systems tend to be more responsive to the wants and needs of the people.

2. High accountability

Because the prime minister and cabinet must maintain parliamentary support to stay in power, parliamentary systems tend to be more accountable than presidential systems.

3. Stable leadership

Because the prime minister must maintain parliamentary support, parliamentary systems tend to be more stable than presidential systems in that the president can be replaced every five years.

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4. Ability to overcome crises

Because the prime minister and cabinet must maintain parliamentary support, parliamentary systems tend to be better able to weather crises because the prime minister and cabinet can be replaced as needed.

5. Ease of making policies

Because parliament is in control and makes policy, parliamentary systems tend to make policy easier compared to presidential systems where the president has to negotiate with parliament.

Those are some of the advantages of a parliamentary system of government, but like other systems, a parliamentary system also has disadvantages, for example conflicts can occur between parliament and the government. To find out more clearly about the shortcomings of the parliamentary system of government, they will be discussed below.

Indonesia is a country that adheres to a presidential system in which the government is led by the President. In addition, in the Indonesian government, each member of the Council will be elected using the electoral system. In this electoral system there are parties and parliaments. Then, what is the relationship between elections, parties and parliament? To answer that question, you can find it in the book Party, Elections, and Parliament in the Reform Era. 

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Disadvantages of a Parliamentary System of Government

The parliamentary system of government has several drawbacks, including:

1. Frequent conflicts between parliament and government

Because parliament and government have different powers, conflicts can occur between these two institutions.

2. Unstable government

Because the prime minister must maintain parliamentary support, a parliamentary system can lead to an unstable government if the prime minister or cabinet loses parliamentary support.

3. Slow policy making

Since parliament has to approve policies made by the government, the policy-making process can be slow.

4. Less efficient in dealing with crises 

Due to the slow policy-making process, the parliamentary system can be less efficient in dealing with crises when they occur.

5. Could cause a riot

Decisions taken by the prime minister that are not supported by parliament can lead to political instability and riots.

6. Less effective in solving a problem

The parliamentary system is often seen as less effective at addressing the problems facing the country, as the prime minister is more focused on maintaining support than addressing problems.

Those are some of the shortcomings of the parliamentary system of government. Even so, the parliamentary system is still considered as one of the effective and stable systems of government in the long term.

In the Indonesian parliamentary system, there is a Regional Representative Council or better known as the DPD. Basically, the DPD is a people’s council representing several regions in Indonesia. The book Bicameral Parliament in a Unitary State In a Unitary State This Constitutional Study of the DPD’s presence in the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia can be used as a guide for those of you who want to learn more about the DPD.

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Conclusion

At this time, the parliamentary system is still one of the most commonly used government systems in the world. Many countries use a parliamentary system, including countries in Europe such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany and France, as well as countries outside Europe such as Australia, Canada, India and Japan.

Several countries that use a parliamentary system have experienced developments in their parliamentary system over the last few decades. Some countries have increased democracy and people’s participation in the policy-making process, while several other countries have increased government transparency and accountability.

Several countries also carried out reforms in their parliamentary system, such as countries in Europe which experienced changes in the parliamentary election system, changes in the composition of the parliament or changes in the system of electing heads of government. Outside Europe, several countries have developed unique parliamentary systems, such as India which combines a parliamentary system with a federal system and a presidential system.

However, the parliamentary system is still considered one of the most stable and effective systems of government in the long run. However, the parliamentary system also suffers from problems that can lead to political instability, such as conflicts between the parliament and the government, or an unstable government.

So, Sinaumed’s, our article regarding the understanding of what is parliamentary has been completed. After knowing the parliamentary system of government, are you friends, Sinaumed’s interested in paying attention to and studying the various forms of existing government systems?

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Author: Mutual

Reference:

  • https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_parlementer
  • https://katadata.co.id/intan/berita/6202a0360c352/parlementer-Jadi-sistem-Government-ini-pengertian-dan-exemplary