We can find examples of democracy in everyday life. One of the simplest examples is deliberation in selecting class leaders. This democratic attitude can be interpreted as an action based on democratic values. Where this attitude will support the implementation of democratic principles.
The meaning of democracy according to Herlina Sari in her book entitled Faces of Indonesian Democracy is the government system of a country as an effort to realize people’s sovereignty which is run by the government. There are many countries that implement a democratic political system, including Indonesia.
Each country implements this democratic system with its own understanding. The difference in understanding is divided into three points of view. What are the various perspectives of democracy?
Types of Democracy
Below are several types of democracy according to a book entitled Democracy Teaching Materials by Dwi Sulisworo, et al, including:
Based on Ideology
If based on an ideological point of view, this democratic system is divided into two, namely:
1. Constitutional Democracy or Liberal Democracy
Liberal democracy is democracy that uses a political system with understanding to provide individual freedom. Where this liberal democracy can also be said to be a democracy that prioritizes the protection of individual rights from government power with notes that are in accordance with constitutional law. Therefore, in this democracy, every decision one wishes to vote for will be taken from the majority decision. This is done so that every policy that has been made does not violate the rights of every individual.
2. People’s Democracy
This people’s democracy aspires to a life without social class and without private property. This democratic system is also known as proletarian democracy with a viewpoint of Marxism and communism.
Based on the Way of Channeling the Will of the People
A democratic political system based on the people will be divided into three types, including:
1. Direct Democracy
Direct democracy, also known as pure democracy, is a type of democracy in which the people have direct power without any representatives, intermediaries or parliamentary assemblies. This democracy requires broad participation in politics.
If the government has to pass certain laws or policies, then those regulations will be determined by the people. They will vote on an issue and play a role in determining the fate of their own country.
2. Representative Democracy
This representative democracy is what will be done when the people can choose who will represent their voice in parliament. Where this democracy is the most common form of democracy throughout the world. The emphasis itself is on protecting the rights of not only the majority of the people in the state, but also minorities. By electing more qualified representatives, the minority will then be able to speak out in a more efficient way.
3. Referendum System Representative Democracy
This democracy is a combination of direct democracy and representative democracy. The people will elect their representatives to sit in representative institutions which are then controlled by the people themselves.
Based on Points of Interest
If based on the point of concern, the democratic political system is divided into three types, including:
1. Formal Democracy
Formal democracy is a democratic political system that upholds political equality, without eliminating disparities in the economic field. In a formal democracy, everyone is considered to have the same rights.
2. Material Democracy
Material democracy is a political system that focuses on efforts to eliminate differences in the economic field. Meanwhile, equality in the political field is given less attention and sometimes even omitted.
3. Joint Democracy
This combined democracy combines the good and throws out all the bad of formal democracy and material democracy. In this, the equality and rights of everyone are recognized, but people’s activities are limited for the sake of welfare.
Democracy itself is carried out so that the needs of the general public can be met. Policy making in a democracy depends on the wishes and aspirations of the people in general.
By determining policies in accordance with the wishes of the people, then in a democratic country there will be people’s satisfaction. In addition, a country itself can be said to be a democratic country if it meets the following characteristics:
1. Have People’s Representatives
Indonesia has a legislative body called the People’s Representative Council or DPR which has been elected through general elections. Therefore, state affairs, people’s sovereignty, as well as power will be represented by these DPR members.
2. Decisions Based on Citizens’ Aspirations and Interests
All decisions made by the Government will be based on the aspirations and interests of the people and not just personal or group interests. This also prevents rampant corruption.
3. Applying Constitutional Characteristics
This relates to the will, interests, or power of the people. Where this is also stated in the determination of the law or law. The law that is created must also be applied fairly.
4. Holding General Elections
People’s parties must be held regularly until representatives or leaders are elected to run the government system.
5. There is a party system
The party is a means or media to implement a democratic system. With the existence of a party, the people can also be elected as representatives of the people who have the role of being the successors of aspirations. The goal itself is of course so that the government can realize the wishes of the people, as well as being a representative of the people who can control the work of government. If there are irregularities, the people’s representatives can take legal action.
In general, the purpose of democracy itself is to create a prosperous, just and prosperous society with the concept of prioritizing honesty, fairness and openness. In concept, the goals of democracy in the life of the state include freedom of opinion and people’s sovereignty. For more details, the following are some of the goals of democracy.
1. Freedom of Opinion
The purpose of democracy is to provide freedom of opinion and expression. A country that adheres to a democratic system of government, where its citizens have the freedom to express their opinions and express their aspirations and expressions.
This is one of the fundamental things for a democracy. The guarantee of basic rights is also carried out in an open way as a way of uncovering and overcoming social problems that have not materialized.
2. Establishing Security and Order
In general, democracy has the goal of creating security, order, and also peace in society. Democracy will guarantee the rights of every citizen and also promote deliberation to solve common problems so that there is mutual security in the community.
3. Encouraging Active Communities in Government
Democracy prioritizes people’s sovereignty, so that they will be involved in every government process, from direct general elections to giving aspirations related to public policy. The people are encouraged to be actively involved in the political field to advance the performance of the country’s own government.
With the role of the people in government, it will also make every citizen more responsible for the role they have as a citizen who is obliged to maintain the integrity of the country.
4. Limiting the Power of Government
The highest power in a country that implements a democratic system is in the hands of the people. That means, the people have the right to give their aspirations and also criticize the government. The democratic government system also has the goal of limiting government power so as not to create absolute or dictatorial power.
With democracy it is hoped that it will create an accountable government, where the government only functions as a representative of the people who are given the task of summarizing all the needs of the people.
The people themselves can assess and also demand if there is a discrepancy between the needs and the policies formulated. The people can make demands if the government violates the policies that have been made.
Example of Democracy
As explained above, this democratic government system is centered on the community itself. Therefore, human principles and values can be upheld.
As for examples of democracy that can be found in social life, be it the scope of the family, school, state, and also the environment that surrounds us. The following are some examples of democracy you need to know:
Examples of Democracy in the Family Environment
The scope of the family is the smallest environment in social life, of course democracy can start from our own family. The following are some examples of democracy in the family environment, including:
1. Be Fair to All Family Members
The first democracy is our attitude towards all existing family members, where we must be fair to our parents, siblings or closest relatives. This can make family relationships harmonious.
2. Free Expression of Opinion
All family members have the same right to express opinions. This must be maintained properly so that there are no misunderstandings because of a matter. What’s more, if the misunderstanding is not resolved properly, it will later have fatal consequences if it is not straightened out immediately.
3. Overcoming Family Problems with Deliberation
If there is a problem in the family, then do deliberations together with all family members. Never hesitate to do this because family is the closest person and will definitely understand if discussed properly.
4. Prioritizing Common Interests
Even though you have a harmonious family, never be selfish. The family should be the most valuable thing that must be taken care of properly, one of which is by prioritizing common interests.
Examples of Democracy in the School Environment
In addition to the family environment, there are also examples of democracy in the school environment. Here, both students and teachers, must uphold democracy. There are many examples of democracy in the school environment, including:
1. Election of Class Leaders by Voting or Deliberation
One example of democracy in the school environment is the election of class presidents. Where the election can be done by deliberation or voting led by the teacher. Not only the election of the class leader, but the election of other chairmen can also be done by way of deliberation. For example, the election of student council president, activity head, class administrator, and others.
2. Respect the Opinions of Others
Instilling mutual respect for others should have started since school. Here, the role of a teacher is very important to teach students about this attitude. This can be started from trivial things such as respecting students’ opinions, not laughing when other students answer, and so on.
3. Implement a Rotating Picket Schedule
Implementing a picket schedule is certainly a good lesson for students. With a rotating picket schedule, this can make students know that everyone has the same rights and obligations. The picket schedule is not only limited to cleaning pickets, but can also be in the form of ceremonial pickets, class arranging pickets, and others.
4. No Discrimination
School has become a second home for students. Therefore, protecting the school environment from various unpleasant things such as discrimination is a very important thing to do. Both teachers and students can play an active role so that school conditions are not contaminated with acts of bullying or discrimination. Because, in school all students have the same rights.
Examples of Democracy in the Neighborhood
Democracy in the neighborhood must of course be implemented, bearing in mind that this is where a person is required to play an active role in keeping the social system running. The following is an example of democracy in the neighborhood.
1. Exercising Rights and Obligations in the Community
Every citizen in society has the same rights and obligations. Surely this must be done by all citizens regardless of status, economy, or position of the community.
2. Participate in Maintaining Security and Order
The security and orderliness of an environment is largely influenced by the people in it. If there is a riot because of a problem, then all people can participate in solving the security problem as a family.
3. Mutual Cooperation with All Citizens
This gotong royong activity is one of the positive activities that has been carried out since ancient times. However, along with the development of the times, this one culture is increasingly faded and we rarely meet. In fact, these activities have enormous value to the establishment of a democratic government.
4. Routine Meetings
One of the most traditional democratic actions is deliberation. Where everyone has the right to participate and express their opinion in solving a problem through the deliberation. So, it will produce a decision and be supported by all members which it thinks is the best solution.
Examples of Democracy in the State
The last example of democracy is democracy in the system of state government. Here, everyone, be it from the government or society has a role to advance the country. Examples of democracy in the state can be seen below.
1. Election of President and Vice President
The general election of the president and vice president becomes a democratic party in a country. Where all countries have the right to choose leaders from that country. In Indonesia, the election is a very big event for democracy. In fact, this day is a national holiday.
2. Leaders can carry out tasks according to the mandate
Countries like Indonesia have a leader called the president. The president who was elected to lead the country for about 5 years has a very big responsibility. One of them is carrying out the task in accordance with the mandate that has been given by the community. It is an obligation to run a democratic system of government.
This is an explanation of examples of democracy from various layers. For Sinaumed’s who want to know more deeply about other examples of democracy, they can read related books by visiting sinaumedia.com . To support Sinaumed’s in adding insight, sinaumedia always provides quality and original books so that Sinaumed’s has #MoreWithReading information .