Examples of Drama Manuscripts – Drama is a genre (type) of literary work that describes human life with motion. Drama describes the reality of life, character, and human behavior through the roles and dialogues that are staged. Stories and stories in drama contain conflicts and emotions that are specifically intended for theatrical performances.
Drama scripts are made in such a way that later they can be staged for the audience to enjoy. Drama requires quality communication, situation and action. This quality can be seen from a conflict or problem that can be presented in its entirety and depth in a drama performance.
Definition of Drama
Drama is a story in the form of motion.
The term for drama during the Dutch colonial period in Indonesia is called tonil . Tonil then evolved to be replaced by the term play by PKG Mangkunegara VII. Sandiwara comes from the Javanese word password and wara . Sandi means secret, while wara ( warah ) means teaching. The term play implies teaching which is carried out with symbols. Meanwhile, the definition of modern and traditional drama must be distinguished. In modern drama, drama activities use dialogue scripts, while traditional plays use improvisation in their dialogues.
Structure and Elements of Drama
Drama is a work that contains high artistic value. A drama follows an orderly plot structure. An organized structure will help the audience enjoy a drama being staged. The structure of the drama includes acts, scenes, dialogues, prologue and epilogue. Act is another term for episode. Each act contains a whole small story that becomes the whole drama. In other words, the act is part of a drama script that summarizes an event that occurs somewhere in a certain time sequence.
The scene is the part of the play that shows the changing events. This change in events is marked by a change in character or setting of place and time, for example in the first scene, character A is talking to character B. They then walk to another place and meet character C, there is a change in the scene.
Dialogue is part of a drama script in the form of a conversation between one character and another. Dialogue is the most dominant part in drama. Dialogue is what distinguishes drama from other types of literary works.
Prologue and epilogue are the frame of a drama. Prologue is an introduction to enter into a drama. The contents are an overview of the drama to be played. Meanwhile, the epilogue is the last part of the drama. Its content is the conclusion of the play being played. Epilogue usually contains the meaning and message of the drama being played.
There are three important elements in drama, including:
- Characters, actors who have more roles than other actors, are usually categorized as protagonists or antagonists.
- Dialogue or conversation that must be said by the characters in the story.
- Instructions for behavior, actions, or actions that must be carried out by the character.
Types of Drama
1. Tragedy Drama
Tragedy is a drama that tells the sad stories of noble figures. The story in the tragedy is the struggle of a noble character who becomes a hero to oppose various oppositions against him. This opposition is unfair because of the difference in power. The story in the tragedy is so serious that it evokes pity and fear.
2. Comedy Drama
Comedy drama is a drama that presents stories that are not too serious but funny. The story deals with events that may occur in the play. Funny things arise from the behavior of the characters and are not related to the situation in the story. Funny behavior also contains the wisdom of the characters.
Melodrama has a very serious story. In the story, various incidents appear by chance. The story in a melodrama evokes a feeling of pity that makes the audience carried away.
Example of a Dramatic Script
Have you ever written a play script? Drama scripts are different from other scripts, both in form and writing technique. When you are going to write a drama script, it is better if you first choose a story theme as the basis for writing the script. You have to choose an interesting story as the basis for writing a play. After that, you can arrange a drama story framework based on the selected story.
You must be able to identify the conflicts in the story in order to develop a drama story framework based on the story you have chosen. Finally, you can develop the story framework into a one-act play text that contains original ideas.
As a form of literature, drama is not much different from other forms of prose literature such as novels, romances, or short stories. Quoted from the book Bahasa Indonesia 2 SMP Kelas VIII written by Ida Ayu Kusrini (2007: 16), drama scripts are different from other scripts, both in form and writing technique.
1. Example of a Drama Script for the Script Submission
Andi: “Shan, I want to tell a story, here?”
Shani: “What story? About your crazy dreams, right? What do you want to dream now? So astronaut? Or, traveling to the planet Neptune?”
Andi: “Hahaha, you just know. I really want to tell my dream. However, my dream this time was not as strange as before. This time, the dream I realized was more realistic. I want to be a novelist, Shan. To be precise, to be a fantasy novel writer. You know yourself that this is a fortuneteller. So, me becoming a fantasy novel writer is all I can make it happen.”
Shani: “Widih, your dreams are unlucky, how good are you again. Eh, by the way, have you written the script yet?”
Andi: “Okay, please. In fact, I sent it to the publisher yesterday.”
Shani: “Widih, great time then! I hope the publisher will accept the manuscript, Ndi.”
Andi: “Amen. Thank you Shan.”
Some time later.
Shani: “Ndi, what about your novel script? Was it accepted by the publisher or not?”
Andi: “No, this is Shan. Instead, I was asked to revise it by the publisher. Where are the more revisions? Ah, what a beautiful dream to make a fantasy novel a dream that I can make come true.”
Shani: “Well, Ndi. Your manuscript was only asked to be revised; not rejected. So, your manuscript still has a chance to be published by a publisher. Besides, if it’s not published in the publisher you’re aiming for, you can still send it to other publishers. Is not it?”
Andi: “Yeah, Shan. Eh, by the way, thanks for the input.
Shani: “You are welcome, Ndi”.
Andi also revises the manuscript of the novel. Shani, as his best friend, continues to support and give advice to Andi. Short stories, fantasy novels written by Andi are also published and are loved by many readers.
2. Example of a Drama Script with the Theme of Free Association
That morning at a high school, Bayu ran up to Jono, Liyana, Nina, Ardi, Mira, Cici and Ahmad.
Bayu: Friends, yesterday one of our friends was detained by the police because he was involved in a narcotics case.
Jono: Yes, yesterday I heard rumors, but I don’t know who the detained child is.
Nina: He said, if I’m not mistaken, the one who was arrested by the police was Riko, a student from the next class.
Ahmad “Oh my gosh, what a pity, he must have a problem so he tried illegal drugs as an escape. On the one hand, this incident damaged the good name of our school.
Liyana: However, he could be a victim or someone framed him. We shouldn’t accuse him of being a user first before there is strong evidence.
Nina: As far as I know, he does come from a fairly affluent family, but lacks love from his parents.
Ardi: It’s true what Liyana said, now there are many irresponsible elements who frame or are looking for other victims.
Cici: Nowadays, narcotics cases are rampant among teenagers. Almost every day television shows broadcast news about narcotics cases.
Ahmad: We have to choose our friends wisely and be wary of strangers around us.
Mira: Parents’ love and attention really influences the lives of teenagers who are still unstable. If parents continue to ignore their children, they will fall into promiscuity.
Bayu: He said he didn’t end up in jail because he was underage. He will only go through the rehabilitation stage and his parents need to be investigated further regarding their ignorance about their child who has repeatedly used the drug.
Cici: Hopefully after being rehabilitated, Riko can recover and go to school as usual.
Liyana: Hopefully, our journey of life is still long. Our age now is the age where we find identity and plan for the future. It’s a shame if the bad actions we do now can destroy our future.
Jono: Let’s support each other and remind each other that we don’t fall into promiscuity that will ruin our future. Strengthen our faith and be open to our parents, family and closest friends if there are problems so that we don’t get depressed and trigger us to do forbidden things like trying to use narcotics!
3. Example of Togetherness Theme Drama Script
One day five friends were playing football in the village field where they lived. They often play football in the afternoon on the field. Currently, they were resting on the sidelines.
Bayu: Dod, what did your mother bring you? (while opening the lunch box).
Dodi: I brought this fried chicken. How about you, Bay?
Bayu: I brought large prawns with my mother. Because yesterday my father caught shrimp with Ehsan’s father.
Dodi: So, your lunch also uses shrimp, San?
Ehsan: Yes, Dod. I’m the same as Bayu (smiling happily).
Dodi: Waaahhh delicious… I also really like shrimp. How about you, Ham?
Ilham: I was brought cassava leaves with chili fish, Dod. My favorite food.
Dodi: Wow, that’s no less delicious. How about you, Ton?
Anton: (smiles grimacing) I didn’t bring anything with me. My mother had to go to work early in the morning because my brother was going to high school. Therefore, fathers and mothers must work hard to earn money. So, my mom didn’t have time to cook me and bring me lunch (sadly).
Dodi: Yes, Ton. You can still eat with us.
Anton: What do you mean?
Ehsan : What if we eat together so that Anton can also eat our food.
Ehsan : Like this, what if we eat using banana leaves? So, our food will be poured into the banana leaf. Let’s all eat together.
Dodi: That’s a great idea. Come on!
Ilham and Bayu took banana leaves not far from where they were. They all poured their food on the banana leaf. They ate voraciously.
Anton: Thank you guys. Only you guys understand my situation.
Bayu: Ready. Don’t worry, Ton (smiles).
4. Example of Friendship Theme Drama Script
That afternoon when school break time rang, Ari, Dian, Mala, Winda and Haris ordered food in the cafeteria while chatting together.
Mala: Do you know why Dika didn’t come to school for three days? Is he sick?
Haris: The last time I saw Dika was yesterday afternoon sitting pensively on the terrace of his house when I was about to go to a shop near his house. I asked him why he was contemplating and not going to school. He just replied that it was okay and reasoned that lately he was always oversleep.
Dian: Hmm, it’s impossible for Dika to be oversleeping all the time, he’s a diligent kid who always wakes up before the morning call to prayer. Maybe Dika is having a problem, but he doesn’t want to tell us?
Winda: Oh yes, I remember, three days ago after school, my mother told me that she saw Dika at the market helping her mother sell. Isn’t that the first day Dika didn’t go to school?
Ari: It’s best if we visit him after school to find out what happened to Dika.
Winda, Haris, Mala and Dian agreed with Ari’s proposal. In the afternoon they gathered and went together to Dika’s house. There they found Dika tidying up his mother’s merchandise.
Dika: Friends, what’s wrong? Why are you suddenly here? Let’s sit first.
Dian: We just want to make sure the reason why you haven’t come to school for three days straight is because we all know that you are our most diligent friend and we suspect that you are having a problem.
Ari: You’d better tell us what your real problem is, little brother.
Dika: Sorry in advance friends, I don’t want to tell because I’m embarrassed and don’t want to bother you. I work to help Mother to reduce school fees. I was threatened with not being able to pay my tuition fees and I felt sorry to see Mother working alone.
Mala: Then tomorrow afternoon we will help around selling some of your wares. How are you guys?
Harris: I agree!
Winda: My mother often buys your mother’s merchandise because the fish and vegetables are always fresh. The market snacks are also delicious. I’ll ask you later to offer your mother’s snacks to her social gathering friends.
Dika: Thank you, my friends, you are my true friends.
Book Recommendations & Related Articles
- Harimawan (1988). Dramaturgy . Bandung: Rosda.
- Kosasih (2008). Appreciation of Indonesian Literature . Jakarta: Nobel Edumedia.
- Rene Wellek and Austin Warren (2013). Literary Theory . Jakarta: sinaumedia Pustaka Utama.
- Suwardi Endraswara (2011). Drama Learning Method . Yogyakarta: CAPS.