Iqlab in Arabic is إقلاب which is one part of the law of nun mati and tanwin. According to the language, Iqlab means replacing. Meanwhile, according to the science of tajwid, Iqlab means changing the sound of reading nun dead or tanwin to mim, if the letter after is the letter ba.
In general, iqlab is marked with a standing lowercase mim like م which is a sign that the sentence has an iqlab reading law.
Iqlab is one of the tajwid reading laws used by Muslims when reading the Koran. For Muslims, reading the Koran according to its tajwid is an obligation because knowing the science of recitation can improve recitation of the Koran. Therefore, Sinaumed’s must learn the science of recitation and one of them is regarding iqlab. The following is a further explanation about iqlab.
Complete Explanation About Tajwid Science
Before understanding iqlab, it is better for Sinaumed’s to understand the science of recitation first, because iqlab is part of the science of recitation.
Tajwid literally comes from the Arabic word Jawadah which means to do something beautiful. Meanwhile, tajwid in reading science is the removal of letters from place by giving certain characteristics.
In other cases, namely in the science of qiraah, tajwid is removing letters from their places. That is, removing letters from places by giving certain properties. The number of places where the tajwid comes out of each hijaiyah letter makes the tajwid have quite a lot of types.
Tajwid can also be interpreted as a science that discusses the pronunciation of letters. There are several parts of the science of recitation, including the science of Makarijul letters, the science of oral letters, the law of the past and palaces, the science of wise letters, the law of endowments and beginnings, the Ottomans and calligraphy.
The purpose of studying the science of recitation such as iqlab is to read the Koran according to the example of the Prophet Muhammad and to protect the oral from all forms of errors and to maintain the purity of the holy book of Islam, namely the Koran.
The law of learning tajwid in Islam is fardhu kifayah. The meaning of fardhu kifayah is if there is someone in a group who studies tajwid, then the obligations of other group members have also been dropped.
However, if no one learns the science of tajwid in the group, then all members of the group will get sin. This is in accordance with the word of God in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 121. The following is the meaning of the letter:
“O people we gave the book (including the Koran), they read it with the true reading, they believe in it.” (QS. Al-Baqarah (2): 121)
Based on this verse, the scholars who are experts in reading from the Shafi’i school of thought, namely Ibnu Al Jazari, also stated that reading the Al-Quran with recitation of tajwid is legally obligatory.
People who read the Al-Quran without using the reading rules are considered sinful because Allah has sent down the Al-Quran with the reading rules or tajwid.
According to a hadith narrated by At-Tirmidhi, it is explained that learning tajwid is a priority for a Muslim and Allah will elevate those who are willing to study the Koran in this world and the hereafter. Here’s the hadith:
“The best of you are (people) who learn and teach the Koran.” (History of At-Tirmidhi).
Some Types of Tajwid Science
Please note that the science of recitation has several types of reading. The purpose of the types of tajwid is to be able to distinguish the pronunciation of each applicable reading law. Here are some types of tajwid science.
1. Law of Nun Sukun and Tanwin
If there are nun breadfruit and tanwin such as fathah tain, kasroh tain and dhommah tain that meet hijaiyah letters, the sound will change.
Readings for nun breadfruit and tanwin are divided into several reading laws including idzhar, idghom, ikhfa’ and iqlab.
2. Mim Breadfruit Law
In the law of reading Mim Sukun, it is divided into several types of law including Ikhfa Syafawi, Idzhar Syafawi and Idgham Mimi. How to read Mim Sukun’s law is more or less the same as reading Nuun Mati or Tanwin’s law, it’s just that the difference is in the letters that meet, namely Mim Mati.
3. Law of Nun Tasydid and Mim Tasydid
The third type of tajwid knowledge is the law of nun tasydid and mim tasydid, that is, if there are letters nun and mim that have the vowel tasydid, then there will be a change in the way of reading.
The way to read nun tasydid and mim tasydid laws is by humming or what is known as ghunnah. As for the length of reading it is one alif or for two vowels.
4. Lam Ta’rif Reading Law
When reading the holy verses of the Koran, then Sinaumed’s found lam ta’rif or alif lam, then Sinaumed’s found two reading laws. Alif lam must be read clearly or called idzhar qomariyah or read with a buzz and called idghom syamsiyah.
5. Mad Reading Law
The length and shortness of a recitation of the Al-Quran is referred to as the law of recitation mad. The way to read the Tajwid Mad book is to extend the reading of the sound of the letters with a length of one alif or as long as two vowels, two alifs or as long as four vowels and three alifs or as long as six vowels.
6. The Law of Reading Tarqiq and Tafkhim
When reading the Koran and Sinaumed’s encounters the letters lam and ro in a lafadz, Sinaumed’s must be careful in reading it. Because there is a condition where the letters lam and ro are read tarqiq or thin and there is also the opposite condition when the letters lam and ro must be read in tafkhim or bold.
7. Law of Qolqolah Reading
The law of reading qolqolah means a sudden sound shock or reflection, so that a sound will be heard or it will sound like a sound vibration.
The qolqolah letters themselves are qof, tho’, ba’, jiem and dal, the qolqolah reading laws are also divided into two, namely qolqolah sugro and qolqolah kubro.
The last type of tajwid reading law is waqof. Waqof means to stop for a moment or stop the sound and then change your breath. The reading of this waqof is at the end of the lafadz. In the Al-Quran, the sign of waqaf is in the form of small hijaiyah letters that are above the hijaiyah letters.
Iqlab Meaning and How to Read
After knowing what recitation is and how the law of studying recitation is in Islam, then Sinaumed’s is ready to learn more about one of the recitation laws, namely iqlab.
In the science of recitation of the laws of nun breadfruit and tanwin, iqlab is the number one letter in a series of hijaiyah letters, namely the letter ba or (ب). When Sinaumed’s reads the Koran and finds nun breadfruit or tanwin, followed by the letter ba (ب), the recitation of the Koran will also change.
To make it clearer, here are the reading rules for nun breadfruit or tanwin that meet the letter ba (ب).
The Law of Nun Sukun and Tanwin Meets the Letter Ba’
The law of reading Iqlab occurs when nun breadfruit or tanwin meets the letter ba’ (ب). How to read iqlab is to pronounce nun breadfruit or tanwin with the letter ba’ (ب). The characteristics of iqlab can be seen in the Al-Quran itself, which is indicated by a lowercase letter in the form of a small mim (م) which is between the two letters mim (م) and the letter ba’ (ب).
Definition of Iqlab
To be able to understand the law of recitation of iqlab, Sinaumed’s needs to know the meaning of iqlab first in the science of recitation. Iqlab is one of the basic discussions in the science of recitation.
The following is an explanation of the meaning of iqlab in language and terminology or in terms:
- In Arabic, iqlab means replacing or exchanging.
- In terms of terminology, iqlab can be interpreted as one of the laws of reading which is pronounced by replacing the sound of the letter nun breadfruit or tanwin with the sound of the letter mim breadfruit and then accompanied by a hum and hidden.
Causes of the Occurrence of Iqlab Law
Then why does the law of iqlab appear in the recitation of the Koran? Quoted from the Hukumtajwid.com page, it is explained that there are at least three reasons behind the iqlab law. Here’s an explanation.
- The first reason is because the letters nun ( نْ ) and tanwin ( ــًــ, ــٍــ, ــٌــ ) contain ghunnah, meanwhile, to pronounce the letter ba’ (ب) the lips must be closed. This then becomes the cause of obstruction of ghunnah reading if it is read using the tajwid idzhar law.
- Between the letters nun ( نْ ) and tanwin ( ــًــ, ــٍــ, ــٌــ ) the letter ba’ has a makhraj that is different from its nature. Because of this, it cannot fulfill the requirements if it is read according to the tajwid idghom law.
- If read with the law of ikhfa, reading iqlab is also considered impossible. Because it is still between idzhar and idgham.
Because of these things, according to Jumhur Ulama, the best way is to replace the letters nun ( نْ ) and tanwin ( ــًــ, ــٍــ, ــٌــ ) with mim. Apart from the fact that the letter mim has the same characteristics as the letter nun, namely ghunnah, another reason is because the makhraj is the same as ba’ (ب), so that the pronunciation becomes easier and the character of ghunnah in the reading is not lost.
How to Read Iqlab
The way to read iqlab is to change the sound of the letter nun breadfruit or tanwin to the sound of the letter mim dead and accompanied by a buzzing sound. The method is with the upper and lower lips in a closed position and accompanied by a buzzing sound for about 2 vowels or for one alif.
Example of Iqlab Reading
An example of the law for reading nun breadfruit can be found in the fragment of Surah Al Bayyinah, to be precise in verse 4 in lafadz اِلَّا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ in the fragment of the verse, Sinaumed’s can read it with il-la min ba’di. However, because there is a tajwid iqlab law in the form of nun breadfruit becoming min breadfruit, the reading must also be changed to il-la mim ba’di.
To make it easier to understand the iqlab law, Sinaumed’s can see examples of iqlab readings from the following verses of the Al-Quran and explanations about how to read them correctly.
- لَنَسْفَعًا بِالنَّاصِيَةِ
(QS Al Alaq verse 15), in this verse, tanwin meets ba’ so that the verse reads la nasfa’am bin nasiyah.
- وَاَنۡتَ حِلٌّ ۢ بِهٰذَا الۡبَلَدِۙ
(QS Al Balad verse 2), in the verse fragment of Surah Al Balad, there is a tanwin that meets ba’ so that the reading above is read as wa anta hillum bihaazal balad.
- وَاَمَّا مَنۡۢ بَخِلَ وَاسۡتَغۡنٰىۙ
(QS Al Lail verse 8), in the fragment of the verse of Surah Al Lail verse 8, there is a nun Sukun who meets ba’ so that the fragment of the verse reads as wa ammaa mam bakhila wastaghnaa.
- صُمٌّۢ بُكْمٌ
(QS Al Baqarah verse 18) In the verse fragment of Surah Al Baqarah verse 18, there is a tanwin meeting with the letter ba’ so that the lafadz fragment is read as Shummum bukmun.
- -كَلَّا لَيُنۡۢبَذَنَّ فِى الۡحُطَمَة
(QS. Al Humazah verse 4) in the fragment of the letter Al Humazah verse 4 there is a nun breadfruit that meets the letter ba’, so that the piece of lafadz is read as kalla layum ba dzanna fil hutamah
(QS. Al Baqarah verse 27) in the fragment of the letter Al Baqarah verse 27 there is a law of iqlab which occurs because there is a breadfruit nun who meets the letter Ba’ in the pronunciation of مِنْۢ بَعْدِ
- ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِ نْۢ بَ عْدِهٖ وَاَنْتُمْ ظٰلِمُوْنَ
(QS. Al Baqarah verse 51) in the fragment of the letter Al Baqarah verse 51, there is a law of iqlab in it because there is a nun breadfruit that meets the letter ba’ in the pronunciation of مِنْۢ بَعْدِهٖ
- مِ نْۢ بَ قْلِهَا وَقِثَّاۤىِٕهَا وَفُوْمِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا
(QS. Al Baqarah verse 61) in the fragment of Surah Al Baqarah verse 61 there is a law of iqlab because there is a nun breadfruit that meets the letter ba’ in the pronunciation of مِنْۢ بَقْلِهَا
- عَوَا نٌۢ بَ يْنَ ذٰلِكَ ۗ فَافْعَلُوْا مَا تُؤْمَرُوْنَ
(QS. Al Baqarah verse 68) In the fragment of Surah Al Baqarah verse 68, there is an iqlab law that occurs because there is a dhommahtain that meets the letter hijaiyah ba’ in the pronunciation of عَوَانٌۢ بَيْنَ
- ??? _ _ _ _
(QS. Al Baqarah verse 246) In the fragment of Surah Al Baqarah there is a law of iqlab which occurs because there is a breadfruit nun that meets the letter ba; on the pronunciation of مِنْۢ بَنِيْٓ and مِنْۢ بَعْدِ
- قَالَ يَٰٓـَٔادَمُ أَنۢبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّآ أَنۢبَأَهُم
(QS. Al Baqarah verse 33) in the fragment of the letter Al Baqarah verse 33, there is an Iqlab law in the pronunciation of ambi`hum, so the above verse is read as Qāla yā ādamu ambi`hum bi`asmā`ihim, fa lammā amba`ahum .
- مَّا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلَا بَعْثُكُمْ إِلَّا كَنَفْسٍ وَٰحِدَةٍ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌۢ بصَِيرٌ
(QS. Luqman verse 28) in the fragment of the letter above there is an iqlab law in the pronunciation of samī’um baṣīr, so the verse above is read as Mā khalqukum wa lā ba’ṡukum illā kanafsiw wāḥidah, innallāha samī’um baṣīr.
Thus the explanation regarding iqlab means to exchange or replace in Arabic and in terms of terminology, iqlab is defined as one of the reading laws which is pronounced by replacing the sound letters of nun breadfruit and tanwin with the sound of the letter mim breadfruit and accompanied by a hidden hum.
If Sinaumed’s wants to study the law of recitation or learn to read the Koran, then Sinaumed’s can learn it by reading books. As #Friends Without Limits, sinaumedia.com provides various kinds of original and quality books for Sinaumed’s.
Reading lots of books and articles will never hurt you, because Sinaumed’s will get #MoreWithReading information and knowledge.