Mad Thabi’i: Definition, How to Read and Examples

Mad thabi’i – When someone reads the Koran, of course he is not allowed to read it carelessly or just read without studying the science of tajwid first. Because a Muslim is required to learn the science of tajwid when reading the Koran.

In fact, the law of learning tajwid is fardhu kifayah, so it means that learning tajwid is an obligation and this obligation will fall if there are several people who learn it.

By learning the science of recitation, the reading of the Al-Quran becomes clearer and the meaning of the verses in the Al-Quran is easier to understand. One of the tajwid sciences that Sinaumed’s must learn is mad reading and one type of mad reading is mad asli or mad thabi’i. What is mad thabi’i? What is the way to read it and how is it an example? Check out the explanation further in this article.

Definition of Mad and Mad Thabi’i

Theoretically, a qori or Al-Quran reader is required to study and know the guidelines outlined by the scholars of tajwid experts as well as things that have been recorded by the imam of the Qurra, namely regarding the law of nun mati, tanwin and mim mati, reading mad and the law, makhorijul letters and their characteristics, waqof and ibtida and other laws.

Books on the science of recitation, of course, have explained the laws of nun breadfruit, tanwin and mim mati and one of the most frequently encountered is the law of recitation, namely mad and qasr readings.

It should be noted that there are quite a lot of types of mad reading, namely there are 15 types of mad reading. Linguistically, mad can be interpreted as an addition or in terms of mad is lengthening the sound when pronouncing the letter mad.

In discussing the science of recitation, there are three letters that are categorized into mad letters, among which are alif with the previous letter having the vowel fathah, yes breadfruit with the previous letter having the vowel kasrah, and finally wawu breadfruit with the previous letter having the vowel in the form of dhommah.

However, in terms of details, the laws of mad reading may vary. There are various kinds of mad readings that Sinaumed’s need to know as a basis for reading the Al-Quran properly and well.

There is also an argument or origin for mad reading, namely from the hadith of Musa bin Yazid al Kindiy ra who said, when Ibn Mas’ud’s friend taught someone, that person also read:

???

Companions of Ibn Mas’ud denied those who read لِلْفُقَرَاۤءِ without extending it and did not give any relief for not extending it. Even though the long and short pronunciation does not affect the sentence and the meaning of the verse.

However, because the reading of the Al-Quran was a sunnah muttaba’ah reading from the last person who took it from the first person, the friend of Ibn Mas’ud also denied reading that was not the same as the reading of the Prophet SAW which was read to all the companions.

So in that way, it shows the obligation of studying the science of recitation and following its provisions when reading the Al-Quran.

According to the book Nihayatul Qoul Al Mufid written by Shaykh M. Makky Nashor, it is explained that mad according to language means lengthening and adding. Meanwhile according to the term mad are the following:

اِطَالَةُ الصَّوْتِ بِحَرْفٍ مِنْ حُرُوْفِ الْمَدِّ

Extend the sound with one of the letters from mad letters or original letters.

Meanwhile, according to KH. Maftuh Basthul Birri in his book entitled Standard Tajweed which is translated by Fathul Mannan, explains that mad according to the term qurra is lengthening the sound with the letter mad.

The mad letters referred to are three of them, namely alif, wawu and finally yes’ with the condition that they must die and fall after the munsabah vow. The size for reading the mad length can be counted on the fingers.

One movement is called one vowel, one letter is one vowel and one alif is defined as two vowels or two movements. Move your fingers normally, namely by holding them or by opening them, apart from counting the length, you can also do it with a tap, such as one tap, two taps and so on.

Mad thabi’i or original mad is the basic concept of mad in the Al-Quran. Mad thabi’i is a word in the Koran that has the vowel fathah and is followed by the hijaiyah letter alif (ا), the vowel kasrah is followed by yes (ي) breadfruit and then the vowel dhammah is also followed by waw breadfruit (و).

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Original mad or mad thabi’i can also be interpreted as a branch of discussion of various kinds of mad. According to Arabic, mad means lengthening. More specifically, the reader of the Koran must extend the sound of the letter or the reading because in this verse there is one letter mad.

Mad thabi’i reading law must be recited with a length of 2 vowels or as long as 2 beats. Every reader of the Koran finds verses with the law of tajwid mad thabi’i. Then it is obligatory to read the verse in accordance with the rules of mad thabi’i.

Mad Reading Distribution

Before discussing further about mad thabi’i Sinaumed’s, it is necessary to know an explanation about the distribution of mad in general.

Described by Shaykh Sulaiman Al Jamzuri in his book entitled Tuhfatul Athfal, he said:

وﺃلمد اﺻﻠـﻰ ﻭ ﻓـﺮﻋــﻰ ﻟـﻪ * ﻭﺳــﻢ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻃﺒﻴـﻌـﻴﺎ ﻭﻫـــﻮ

???

بل أي حرف غير هنز اوسكون * ﺟﺎ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﻣـﺪ ﻓﺎﻟﻄﺒــﻴﻌﻰ ﻳﻜـﻮﻥ

It means:

There are two mad schools, namely original mad (mad thabi’i) and mad far’i. The original mad is also called mad thabi’i, namely mad which does not depend on causes and does not also depend on the absence of letters obtained. Every letter other than hamza and breadfruit that comes after mad letters (alif, wawu, yes) is mad thabi’i.

Meanwhile, according to the book Nihayatul Qoul Al Mufid written by Shaykh M. Makky Nashor, it is explained that the original mad is the basic or principal mad law. Given the name mad original or mad thobi’i because someone who has good character will not reduce or add to the length of the reading that has been set.

So, if in an aya there is a wawu mati that falls after the vowel dhommah, yes mati that falls after the vowel kasrah and an alif that falls after the vowel fathah, then the length is one alif or two vowels.

Another opinion says the reason it is called mad is because mad reading is in accordance with the basis or reaction. Meanwhile mad reading is called mad thabi’i because of the nature of mad or the length of the reading is certain, namely as long as one alif.

Actually there are 15 types of mad readings, but broadly speaking mad readings only have two types namely mad original or mad thabi’i and mad far’i.

Mad far’i reading can be interpreted as a branch. So, actually, mad far’i is a branch of the original mad and in general mad far’i occurs because there is another cause that comes from the letters breadfruit and hamzah.

Types of Mad Thabi’i Readings

Mad thabi’i does not depend on causes, for example when meeting with hamzah and breadfruit. The dependence of mad thabi’i is only on mad letters. Readings from mad thabi’i are generally divided into several types, namely mad thabi’i kalimi and mad thabi’i harfi. Here’s a further explanation.

 

  • Mad Thabi’i Kalimi 

Mad thabi’i kalimi is mad thabi’i which is seen in the word or mad thabi’i which is seen in the form of the word. Mad thabi’i kalimi there are still several types that divide it, namely mad thabi’i kalimi dhahir and mad thabi’i kalimi muqaddar.

Mad thabi’i kalimi dhahir is the original mad which has mad letters and is clearly visible in rasm or writing. Examples are the following:

صِرَاطَ

The example above is before the alif there is the letter ro with the vowel fathah.

The second type is mad thabi’i muqaddar, namely mad letters which are not clearly visible racially or in writing because they are discarded. Examples are the following:

الرَّحْمَٰنِ

The example above is mad thabi’i because there is a letter mim with vowel fathah and it must be read at length because there is an alif mad which is not visible or not written.

 

  • Mad Thabi’i Harfi

Mad thabi’i harfi is mad thabi’i which has the form of letters. Mad thabi’i literally only exists in fawatihus suwar or letter openers or muqatha’ah letters.

Mad thabi’i harfi is collected into five letters حَيٌّ طَهُرَ and then shortened into the following sentences:

كهيعص

The example above is mad thabi’i harfi which is only in the opening of the letter, such as the letter Maryam with mad thabi’i harif which is in the letter ha and the letter yes.

As an additional note, if there are the letters kho, yes, shot, hamzah and ro, then they are read by extending them to two vowels or one alif and it is called the law of reading mad thobi’i harfi, not referred to as the customary mad harfi mukhaffaf because two the following reasons:

  • It does not have original breadfruit after the letter alif mad ( حا , يا , طا ,ها , را ) and is different from the letter kof ( ق ) which is read  قاف after mad there is breadfruit in the letter fa’ which is included in the common mad harfi mukhaffaf.
  • The letters ( ح ي ط ه ر ) must be read extended to two vowels or one alif and not read to a length of 6 vowels like the usual mad reading. All fawatih letters as suwar are read using Asma Al letters and if they are read in the letters that are read with musamayatul letters, then according to the history of Imam Hafs from Imam Asim, the reading should not be idghomed.
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The following examples:

سۤ ۚ – ١ وَالْقُرْاٰنِ الْحَكِيْمِۙ – نۤ ۚوَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُوْنَۙ –١

In addition to the two types of mad thabi’i above, there are also a number of additions that are related to mad thabi’i laws that need to be of concern to the reciter. Here’s the explanation.

 

  • Mad Thabi’i Not Read

When reading the Koran or reciting recitations, there are several readings that should be read according to the mad thabi’i reading law, but the mad thabi’i are not read. An example is the fragment of Surah Al Baqarah verse 17, as follows:

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ

From the example above, there is mad thabi’i, that is, after the letter ya breadfruit, which previously had the letter dzal with the vowel kasrah. However, from beginning to end, his mad thabi’i readings were not legible.

If there is a mad thabi’i reading, then after meeting the letter breadfruit, then the mad thabi’i reading is not read, this is for the sake of preventing iltiqa sakinain or a meeting of the two sukun.

 

  • Mad Thabi’i Tak Idgham

In the reading law of idgham mutamatsilain it is stated that if two letters are the same, then the first letter of breadfruit and the second of life will be included as the first idgham in the second letter.

The rule of idgham mutamatsilain does not apply if it coincides with the reading law of mad thabi’i. An example is the letter ya mad breadfruit meeting with yes or the letter wawu mad breadfruit meeting wawu. Examples are the following:

الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ

(letters ya mad meet with letters ya)

 آمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوْا

(letters wawu mad meet with letters wawu)

From the example above, it can be concluded that the idgham mutamatsilain reading law does not apply if it is concurrent with the mad thabi’i law, because the mad thabi’i reading law will be superior or some opinions reveal that reading like this is mad tamkin.

 

  • Mad Reading Like Mad Thabi’i

The last mad reading law is a reading that is similar to mad thabi’i, namely mad tamkin, mad iwadh, mad shilah washirah and mad badal. The four mad reading laws are derived from mad thabi;i, because they have the same reading length, which is 2 vowels long.

According to some opinions, similar mad readings such as mad thabi’i are included in the division of the types of mad thabi’i. Meanwhile, other opinions reveal that the derivatives of mad thabi’i and mad thabi’i must still be explained differently and separately.

Examples of Mad Thabi’i Readings

So that Sinaumed’s can understand the explanation regarding the law of mad thabi’i reading, here are some examples of mad thabi’ readings in the Al-Quran.

  • QS. Al Humazah: 3

يَحْسَبُ أَنَّ مَالَهُۥٓ أَخْلَدَهُۥ 

Yaḥsabu anna mālahū akhladah

  • QS. AlFiel: 1

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَٰبِ ٱلْفِيلِ

Alam tara kaifa fa’ala rabbuka bi`aṣ-ḥābil-fīil

  • QS. AlFiel: 5

فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍۭ

Fa ja’alahum ka’aṣfim ma`kụl

  • QS. Al Quraysh: 4

ٱلَّذِىٓ أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنْ خَوْفٍۭ

Allażī aṭ’amahum min jụ’iw wa āmanahum min khaụf

  • QS. Al Maun: 3

وَلَا يَحُضُّ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ ٱلْمِسْكِينِ 

Wa lā yaḥuḍḍu ‘alā ṭa’āmil-miskīn

  • QS. An Nasr: 2

وَرَاَيۡتَ النَّاسَ يَدۡخُلُوۡنَ فِىۡ دِيۡنِ اللّٰهِ اَفۡوَاجًا

Wa ra-aitan naa syayadkhuluuna fii diinillaahi af waajaa

  • QS. At Takasur: 5

كَلَّا لَوۡ تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ عِلۡمَ الۡيَقِيۡنِؕ

Kalla Lauta’lamuuna ilmal yaqiin

  • QS.. Al Qariah: 7

فَهُوَ فِىۡ عِيۡشَةٍ رَّاضِيَةٍ

Fahuwa fii ii syatirroodiyah

  • QS. An Nas: 4

مِنۡ شَرِّ الۡوَسۡوَاسِ ۙ الۡخَـنَّاسِ

Ming syarril was waasil khannas

Thus the explanation regarding the law of reading mad thabi’i. As a Muslim, of course, Sinaumed’s needs to learn the science of recitation so that he can read the Al-Quran properly and well.

If Sinaumed’s wants to start studying recitation or learning to read the Koran, then Sinaumed’s can learn it by reading books. As #FriendsWithoutLimits, sinaumedia.com provides various kinds of quality and original books for Sinaumed’s.

Author: Khansa

Source: 

  • https://tafsiralquran.id/ilmu-tajwid-mengenal- Hukum-mad-asli-mad-thobii/
  • https://wisatanabawi.com/ Hukum-bacaan-mad/#Mad_Thabii
  • https://www.khudzilkitab.com/2019/09/penjuangan-mad-thabii-lengkap.html
  • https://syarihub.id/mad-thabii-pengertian-dan-exemplary/
  • https://berita.99.co/example-mad-thabi-i/