What is Observation – Observation is one way to get any information from an event by observing it directly. As is known, science is the basis of all events or activities that occur either in a small or a larger scope.
Basically, all of this knowledge is then obtained from learning about events that occur around us or obtained indirectly by reading or listening to explanations from other parties. To find out more about observation, then you can see this review, Sinaumed’s.
Definition of Observation
In general, the definition of observation is an activity of observing a particular object carefully directly at the research location. In addition, this observation also includes recording activities that are carried out systematically about all the symptoms of the object being studied.
There are also other opinions which say that the notion of observation is an act or process of observing something or someone carefully in order to obtain some information or simply to prove the truth of a study.
It can also be said that the observation process as a data collection technique is in accordance with the research objectives. This activity is also planned and recorded in a systematic way and can be controlled in terms of reliability and validity.
Definition of Observation According to Experts
In addition to the general understanding, experts also have their own opinions about what is meant by observation activities. Here are some of them:
1. Kartini Kartono
In Kartini Kartono’s opinion, observation is testing with a specific purpose to find out something, especially those aimed at collecting facts, data, scores, and the value of a verbalization. It can also be called the disclosure of words about everything that has been observed and further investigated.
Meanwhile, the definition of observation according to Nurkancana is a way of making an assessment by means of direct and systematic observation. The data that has been obtained in these observations are then recorded in a special observation note. This recording activity is also part of the observation activity or an object.
Not much different from the two previous experts, Seville also argues that observation or observation in a simple sense is a process in which the researcher looks at the situation of a research being conducted. The method must also be in accordance with what is used and in the form of observing interactions or conditions of teaching and learning, behavior, and group interaction.
4. Gibson RI and Mitchell MH
Observation according to Gibson RI and Mitchell MH is a technique that can be used as degree selection. The goal is to determine a decision and conclusion on the observed object. So, it is clear that observations like this cannot be done alone, but must be assisted by using various other research methods.
Patton said that observation is an accurate and specific method. Data collection techniques must also have a purpose and be able to find all kinds of information about all ongoing activities to then be used as an object of study in a research.
Furthermore, the definition of observation according to Arifin is a process of observing and recording systematically, logically, objectively, and rationally which talks about various phenomena. The phenomenon in question is something that occurs in an artificial situation to be able to achieve a certain goal or actually.
7. Nawawi and Martini
Finally, the definition of observation according to Nawawi and Martini. Both agree that observation is an observation and recording in sequence. This observation also consists of all the elements that appear in a phenomenon regarding the various objects of research. Then, the results of these observations will also be reported in a systematic manner and in accordance with applicable rules.
Basically, observation is an activity that aims to find information from objects. However, this observation activity has its own characteristics. In general, there are three characteristics of observation, including:
Objective, or carried out based on the state of a single real object that is directly observed.
Factual, or observations made in accordance with the facts derived from observations that are proven to be true without various unclear allegations.
Systematic, this observation activity is carried out in accordance with a method that has been determined from the start and not haphazardly.
For those of you who are going to observe objects, it is mandatory to also make plans related to the most optimal observation method. The results of these observations can then be conveyed in the form of real data which will provide information and learning to the reader.
After knowing the function and purpose of the above, then what are the benefits of making observations? The various benefits of observation include:
- Record an event or event in a coherent and chronological manner
- Describes an incident or event with a high degree of accuracy
- The findings can then be interpreted easily.
- Observation results can also help interpret a situation in the real world.
- Can be combined using other techniques to generate reports.
Observers or researchers have the goal of observing objects or phenomena including:
1. Describing Objects and Everything Related to Observation of the Five Senses
The observers then have trained their five senses so that they can observe all events or objects carefully. Of course the ability of these trained five senses will be different from the ability of ordinary people. Everyone also has a different point of view. Observations with the five senses must also be supported by other observation techniques, namely extracting accurate data from the field directly.
2. Drawing a Conclusion
Objects that have been observed for a certain time will then provide conclusions about observations. This conclusion is then presented in the form of a report that can provide information or learning materials for readers.
3. Obtaining Data or Information
The purpose of making observations or observations is to obtain data or information from an object being observed. This data or information will then be shared with other parties in the form of scientific or non-scientific work. In addition, works that have been shown to the public will also receive praise and criticism.
So, this researcher also needs a lot of time to make a work. In the sense of observation, the observer has a general purpose and depends on the various objects being observed.
Observation Strengths and Weaknesses
Observers then make observations about various methods such as tests, questionnaires, recorded images, and sound. Complete the observation by using blanks regarding the events or behavior of the various objects observed.
Then, the observer only needs to give a check mark to the contents of the column according to the results of the observation. Conducting research on objects using the observation method also has advantages and disadvantages that you must understand. Below are the advantages and disadvantages of observation that you need to know:
1. Excess Observation
The following are the advantages of observation.
- Noting growth behavior and things related to object phenomena when an event takes place.
- Can obtain data from the subject directly either verbal communication or not.
- Observation of young children is also easier than adults. The reason is, children can reveal honest behaviors or answers while adults can give invalid or pretend answers.
2. Lack of Observation
Not only advantages, observation or observation also has disadvantages that need attention, namely:
- It takes a long time to make observations for certain events or events.
- This observation then takes longer and cannot be done directly.
- This observation activity can also be disturbed for incidents, incidents or things that are personal.
For example, in observing the behavior of children who experience problems with parental quarrels or certain conflicts. In addition, the personal domain is also a weakness of observation, so that this activity cannot be observed optimally.
One example of observation is conducting research in an elementary school. Then, observations were made in the form of observations of student behavior towards the way of teaching a teacher. You can observe every learning process in class for a certain period of time by applying several methods.
For example, by applying group methods for one week and individual methods at other times. Then, later you will draw conclusions about the behavior of students during the teaching and learning process.
In a book entitled Accurate in Indonesian (2019) by Sutarno, there are three types of observations that are often used in research. This is an explanation of the types of observation:
1. Participatory Observation
Participatory observation is a type of observation that is carried out by being actively involved in the things being observed. The observer must also go directly and carry out the process he directly observes. So then get a clear picture of what is observed.
2. Systematic Observation
Systematic observation is a type of observation that is also carried out with appropriate procedures or provisions that have been designed beforehand without violating these provisions. In order to be able to carry out systematic observations, observers must also determine in advance what factors underlie their observations.
3. Experimental Observations
Experimental observation is a type of observation that is carried out by holding an action to control the situation, and then making this observation of the phenomenon or phenomenon being studied.
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