Functions of Plant Parts – The world is not only filled with humans. In it also live animals and plants. Plants are fundamental things that must be preserved. It provides oxygen and food materials for humans.
Unfortunately, humans with all their greed injure the rights of others, both fellow humans and other living things. For example by cutting down trees on a large scale and in a way that is not environmentally friendly. Of course this will be bad for the environment.
Plants are also like us, humans who have pain when injured. It’s just that, plants do not have body parts that can express. We cannot see the injured parts of the plant directly.
We can only see torn leaves, broken branches, peeling bark, and so on. We can’t see the network inside. As a human being equipped with a mind, it is appropriate to respect the rights of others, including other living things.
To get to know plants better, Sinaumed’s can listen to the explanation below.
Definition of Plants According to Experts
Plants are members of the kingdom plantae, one of the abilities of plants that other living things do not have is the ability to create their own food.
Plants are multicellular organisms at the plantae kingdom level which are capable of photosynthesis to make their own food. For example trees, shrubs, and grass.
Meanwhile, according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), plants are living things that grow with nucleated cells containing chlorophyll or anything that is alive and has stems, leaves, roots, and so on (such as grass, bamboo).
Biology Online defines a plant as any eukaryotic organism from the biological kingdom plantae, which is characterized by photosynthesis and has a rigid cell wall. The plant itself is etymologically derived from the Latin planta which means bud, shoot, cut.
Plants have several characteristics or characteristics that we can recognize. The following are the characteristics of plants.
1. Multicellular Organisms with Eukaryotic Cells
Plants are living things that consist of many cells. Eukaryotic cells themselves are relatively large cells with a true nucleus and other organelles that carry out specific functions. For example Protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
Cells are distinguished from one another or separated by cell walls containing cellulose. In plants there are also chloroplasts that function in the process of photosynthesis. Water retainer and freshness keeper, plants have a large central vacuole.
Cells are also differentiated into prokaryotic cells which are small in size without a nucleus or true organelles except ribosomes which produce proteins. For example bacteria and archaea.
Plants have a waxy layer called cuticle. Its function is to maintain and protect itself from drying out.
Plants cook or produce their own food. Therefore, it is called an autotroph. The process of growth by making nutrients (such as sugar from solar energy and carbon dioxide) is carried out by photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis itself occurs in chloroplasts which contain carotenoids and chlorophyll, molecules that absorb sunlight energy and convert it into forms to be used. Due to their autotrophic nature, plants are the main producers in many ecosystems. It takes on an important role in maintaining the survival of most other organisms.
4. Vessel or Carrier Network
Xylem and phloem become vascular or transport tissues in plants. Xylem functions as a carrier of water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. The phloem functions as a carrier of the results of photosynthesis from the leaves to the entire plant body.
The existence of plastids in eukaryotic cells is more likely to occur in plants, not in animals, let alone humans. There are several types of plastids, one of which is chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are plastids that contain chlorophyll or green pigments that function in photosynthesis.
6. Reproduce Sexually or Asexually
Plants reproduce sexually or asexually by alternating generations. The haploid stage will be replaced by the diploid stage. Haploid itself is a condition in a tissue or stage where the cell nucleus has only one set of unpaired chromosomes.
Diploidy is a condition or trait characterized by the presence of two sets of chromosomes in one cell. In plant growth and development, two haploid gametes will join to form a diploid zygote.
The diploid zygote will divide via metosis to become a multicellular organism. This process is known as the sporophyte. Meanwhile, when it is an adult, it will produce haploid spores in an asexual way.
In its growth, haploid spores will germinate into multicellular organisms known as gametophytes. Gametophytes produce haploid gametes which function as forming haploid organisms. After that the switch between diploid and haploid will occur again from the beginning.
7. Breathe Through Stomata
Plants breathe with stomata. The carbon dioxide that is around goes into the plant cells. Then, through photosynthesis will come out into oxygen.
8. Does not have sense organs
Plants do not have senses like humans and animals. However, they can respond to stimuli though not as clearly as humans and animals.
Types of Plants
Each plant is unique in terms of structure, physiology, or physiological behavior. Not only that, diversity also exists in habitat, nutritional needs, and tolerance. Therefore, plants can be grouped into two, namely vascular and nonvascular.
The following is a general classification of plants.
Plants that are included in the vascular have a special tissue culture that helps transfer materials (such as water) in plants. Furthermore, vascular plants are further grouped into flowering and non-flowering plants. Trees, flowers and shrubs belong to the vascular group.
The following is a further classification of vascular plants.
Pteridophyta are seedless plants. It cannot pass genetic material to offspring through seeds or fruit. Instead, this plant classification produces spores on the underside of leaves called sporophylls.
Plants belonging to the pteridophyta, namely salvia natans, horsetail, clover, ferns, wire nails. Rane nails, and several other types.
Gynosperms are plants with open seeds in ovaries. Gymnosperm plants can be seen from their seeds which are not protected by fruit leaves, stems and will have cambium so that they grow big and are always thick, have taproots, and so on.
Gymnospermai is the tallest and oldest plant compared to other plant phyla. They are widely distributed on earth, but predominate in temperate and arctic regions.
Examples of plants included in gymnosperms include melinjo, resin, pilgrimage clothes, fir, pine, giant sequoia trees, rumbia, maidenhair trees, and so on.
Angiospermai are flowering plants and closed seeds. It has approximately 260,000 species. Not only does it have many species, there are also various types which include trees, shrubs, plants, bulbs, epiphytes (parasitic plants), and plants that live in marine and freshwater habitats.
Examples of angiosperm plants include sunflowers, lotuses, turmeric plants, ginger, tubers, roses, papaya trees, tomatoes, eggplants, paper flowers, manga, and so on.
Nonvascular are smaller plants, such as mosses, that use osmosis and diffusion to transport materials through the plant. Bryophyta belongs to the nonvascular plants.
The phylum bryophyta is the most diverse group with more than 10,000 plant species. For example liver lumyt, hedgehog moss, and moss. Moss does not have a network of blood vessels and wood that can support it structurally.
The most common and observable features are the lack of true stems, leaves, and roots that transport water and nutrients. Therefore, they are confined to a narrow range of habitats.
Functions of Plant Parts
In general, plants have several body parts as follows.
The function of the first part of the plant is the root. Roots function as plant supports, absorb water and mineral salts, and store food reserves in certain plants. Plant support means that the roots can hold the plant upright even if it is blown by the wind or washed away by rain water.
In some types of tubers, roots are used to store food reserves. There are two types of roots, namely taproots and fibrous roots. The taproot is part of a dicot plant. Meanwhile, fibrous roots in monocot plants.
The function of the second part of the plant is the stem. The stem functions as a link between the roots and leaves, where the leaves attach, upholds the plant, and as a food reserve in plants. Not only that, the stem also functions as a distribution channel for food essences resulting from photosynthesis to be distributed to all parts of the plant.
The function of the third part of the plant is the leaves. Leaves serve as a place for photosynthesis. It contains chlorophyll or green leaf substances to help the process of photosynthesis
The function of the fourth part of the plant is the fruit. The fruit functions as a food storage, wrapping, and seed protector. The pistil which is in the flower structure has three pistil parts, namely the stigma (stigma), the stigma (style), and the ovary (ovary).
The fruit will develop into fruit. The ovary will develop into seeds.
A complete flower consists of petals, stamens, corolla and pistil. Meanwhile, incomplete flowers can be seen from the absence of one of the flower parts.
Flowers are divided into 3 types based on the genitals. First, perfect flowers that have stamens and pistils. Second, the male flowers only have stamens. Third, female flowers only have pistils.
Seeds serve as storage of food reserves, breeding tools, and forming new plants. Seeds come from ovule.
As for the classification, seeds are divided into two, namely open seeds and closed seeds. Open seeds or gymnosperms are plants with seeds not covered with fruit. The closed seeds or angiosperms are plants whose seeds are closed and have flowers.
Plants have benefits for other living things (humans and animals). Given that plants can reproduce their own food. Here are the benefits of plants.
- Plants become producers in the food chain so that the survival of animals or humans depends on plants. Plants store starch, various mineral resources, and important compounds needed by humans and animals.
- Plants produce oxygen which supplies life to animals and humans.
- Plants become the home or habitat of certain organisms such as insects.
- Plants can be used as medicine for certain diseases. For example plantain leaves which can be used to reduce pain and inflammation.
- Plants can maintain the climate and prevent air pollution. On a small scale, plants become a shelter for other organisms. However, on a large scale, such as a tropical rain forest, vegetation will change rainfall patterns. Not only that, plants in open spaces are also useful for fighting pollutants.
- Plants are used as building materials. For example, teak wood is used as a house.
- As a raw material for making various products such as cosmetics, varnish, ink, rubber, resin, eucalyptus oil, and so on.
- Plants can conserve soil. Plant roots help hold the soil together so that it can help reduce erosion. Plants that have died and decayed can help the soil enrichment process.
- Plants provide habitat for other organisms either above, below, or inside the plant. For example, plants are used as a home for birds.
- Plants also play an important role in minimizing erosion along water bodies, carrying out the water cycle, regulating forest nutrition, and regulating temperature in permafrost. One of the plants that play some of these roles is moss.
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