Meaning of Report – Report is a general term that is often used in everyday life. Not only in the work environment, but also at the school level and even RT or RW. However, do you know what the report actually means?
In the academic world, there is often overlapping information about the meaning of report and essay. The two words are sometimes used interchangeably.
In general, reports are more needed for business, scientific, technical subjects, and in the workplace. Reports concentrate on facts, while essays present arguments and reasoning.
In order to better understand the report, here is a complete explanation. Starting from the meaning of reports according to experts, functions, benefits, characteristics, structure, types, to things that need to be observed in making reports.
Meaning of Report
The word report in Indonesian is the meaning of the word report in English. However, the word report itself originally comes from two Latin words, namely the word re which means loaded or backward and the word portare which has the meaning of carrying or conveying.
The two words were combined to form the word reportare which means to convey complete information from what has been obtained before. Meanwhile, in the Indonesian Language Dictionary (KBBI), the word report has the meaning of everything that is reported or a piece of news.
The report itself is a reflection of 5W1H. Contains about what ( what ) happened, where ( where ) the event took place, when ( when ) the event happened, why ( why ) it could happen, and who ( who ) is responsible for something that has happened , as well as how it happened.
In carrying out the activities of an organization or company, reports are of course very important. Because, reports can be one of the official tools to convey information in a simple and objective manner, about all relevant problems.
In simple terms, a report is a form of information delivery that contains facts about a matter, both verbally and in writing. The information conveyed through the report can also have various contents, depending on the needs. Starting from news information, information, notifications, to accountability.
The facts presented in the report are of course based on objective conditions that have been experienced by the person in charge of making the report. Especially when he is doing a job or activity.
The Meaning of the Report According to the Experts
The definition of a report can also vary, depending on the person making it. Here are some meanings of the report according to the experts.
1. Himstreet (1998)
A report is a message delivered systematically and objectively. It is used to convey information from one division of the organization to another department or other institution, to help make decisions or solve problems.
2. JC Denyern
A report is a communication tool where the writer presents information in an organized format, which is in the form of some conclusions about the situation that has been investigated for a specific audience and with a specific purpose.
3. Dr. Prejudi Atmosudirjo
A report is any writing that contains the results of processing data and information in the form of a short, sharp, and concise document for a specific purpose and audience.
A report is information made by an officer or official to be given to other officials in an administrative system.
Reports are accounting information in the form of computer printouts. The data is stored neatly in the computer.
6. Craft (2001)
A report is a means of communication carried out by the report maker in conveying information to a person or business entity that is responsible for receiving the report made.
7. Rama & Jones
A report is a group of data that has been arranged in such a way with a good format, so that it is easy to understand.
A report is an information whose content is in accordance with the facts that happened, supported by complete data, and arranged in an organized manner.
A report is a document that contains information in the form of narrative, graphics, or tables, which are arranged repeatedly and regularly. Reports can refer to a specific time period, event, event, or subject, and can be displayed or presented in verbal or text form.
A report is one type of document written by an individual or a group of people, to announce the results of research or something to the authority.
11. Oxford English Dictionary
A report is a statement of the results of an investigation of any problem that requires definite information, and is made to help others.
Well, that was some definition of the report according to the experts. Now, let’s talk about the function of a report, let’s go.
1. As a material in decision-making
In certain situations or circumstances, a manager or company leader sometimes has to make important decisions in a short time. In such conditions, authentic sources are needed to obtain clear information, so that the best decision can be taken. Well, those decision-making materials are reports.
2. As analysis material
Reports are also a very important resource. Because, every time there is a problem in the company. So their team should try to find the cause and make detailed information about the problem in the form of writing a report.
3. As a monitoring tool and evaluation material
In companies based on a large scale and involved in many different activities. It is not possible for management to supervise everyone in the company. Therefore, reports are very necessary to monitor the actions of each department and individual.
4. As a matter of accountability
Through reports, a fact can be revealed or known after there is accurate data and/or evidence that accompanies it. Of course, those facts should be written in the report, so that they can be used as material for accountability.
5. As a tool to convey information
Although the meaning of report is quite diverse, basically the report contains a topic that is explained, both in written and oral form. Reports can cover a variety of topics, but usually focus on delivering information with a clear purpose to a specific audience. A good report is accurate, objective, and complete, so that the report becomes a tool to convey information.
Earlier we discussed about the function of the report. Well, here are the benefits of having a report.
- The report can guide improvements in planning further activities.
- Assist in policy setting quickly.
- Reports are all sources of information.
- Helps to know the process and progress of improving an activity.
- Assist in recording documentation.
- Help solve problems.
Next, let’s get to know the characteristics of a report. Here are six features of the report.
In writing a report, we only need to present the main points. However, of course we write all of that in brief and must be related to what we are going to report, so that the recipient of the report will later be able to easily find out what the actual problem is from the report that we have made.
2. A report should be logical
A report will be considered logical when the information presented can be traced with reasonable reasons.
3. The report should also be complete
As people who are in charge of making reports, we must also include information as complete as possible in certain points related to our reporting.
If it is incomplete, then it is not a report anymore. Our report can also be more perfect when equipped with sources of results or bibliography.
4. Reports are written systematically
A report will be considered systematic when the written information is arranged in interrelated units and sequentially.
5. The report should be oriented towards objectivity
Because reports are often used to help make decisions or solve problems, then reports must be made objectively.
6. Even if there is a report that can be seen by the general public
In reality, the initial report was only prepared for a limited number of people. That is, the report is not for everyone to read, but only those who have authority in the organization and then it is decided to publish it or not.
Before we write a report, we must know the structure or framework of the report we will write. So that our reports can later be organized in an orderly and good manner. Here is the structure of the report that you must understand.
In the introduction, we can include the meaning and purpose of writing the report, the main problem reported, as well as the systematics of the report.
In the content section of the report, we can write down the data and facts of the implementation of the activity. In addition, it is also about the suitability of the implementation with the planning, the problems that occur, and the discussion of the problems.
Then in the closing part as the end of the report. We also need to write down the conclusions from the report we made along with suggestions that will later be read by the recipient of the report.
Things to Consider in Making a Report
After knowing the structure of the report. It is good that we also need to pay attention to the following things in making a report.
- Reports should be clear and concise.
- The report should be complete.
- Contains the value of objectivity.
- Directly on the target or to the point .
- Accompanied by some suggestions.
- Consistent and firm in his explanation.
- On time, that is not long from the specified reporting time.
- Delivered to the right person or audience at the right address and purpose.
Steps to Make a Report
After understanding what a report is, its functions, benefits, features and structure. Now we learn the steps to make a report in general.
- First, we should define the problem to be reported. We can certainly get that problem from the observations we have made during the activity. In addition, we can also catch a problem from whatever is being observed and related to the activity.
- After finding the problem. We need to gather material for the report which is data and facts.
- Next, we continue by classifying the data we have already obtained.
- Then evaluate and process the data.
- Then enter the data that has been processed into the report by creating a report structure or framework first.
Types of Reports
Friends Reader, up to this point we have studied and understood all kinds of reports. In fact, until the way it is made in general.
However, to make it easier for us in making reports. Here are the types of reports you should know, so that Reader can write a more specific report.
1. Reports based on Time
Reports based on time are divided into two specific reports, namely incidental reports and periodic reports.
- Incidental report, which is a report made if needed. For example, an unexpected problem occurs and for its solution there must be detailed information about the problem. In order for it to be completed immediately, the incident report should also be made immediately.
- Meanwhile, a periodic report is a report that is compiled routinely or periodically in a certain period of time. For example, such as daily reports, weekly reports, monthly reports and annual reports.
For example, employee activity reports every month. This activity report refers to a summary of activities carried out by employees during a certain period of time (one week or one month). This kind of report provides details about employee performance, the number of projects that have been successfully completed and are being dealt with, income and expenditure, the number of clients or customers, and so on.
This type of report is compiled based on summary data from the weekly report. Sometimes, the monthly report not only contains this month’s report, but also the previous month.
2. Reports based on Properties
Reports based on attributes are also divided into two types. There are normal reports and important reports.
- A normal report is a report whose content is normal and non-confidential, so that when the report is read by others it will not cause a negative impact.
- The opposite of the usual report. This important report is of course a report that contains important and confidential matters, so this type of report can only be known by certain people who are the purpose of the report.
3. Reports based on Submissions
Different from the previous two types of reports. This type of report is more focused on the way it is disclosed. There are three types of reports based on their presentation.
- An oral report is a report delivered orally or directly.
- A written report is a report delivered in writing such as memos, letters, and manuscripts.
- A visual report is a report delivered through vision. An example of a visual report is a report through power point media in a presentation.
4. Report based on Form
Although impressed similar to the type of report based on the presentation. This type of report focuses on the form of the report itself. There are three types of reports based on their form.
- A report in the form of a memo is a report written using a memo. Because it is in the form of a memo, the content of the report is of course very short. Usually this report is used for internal interests and is done between leaders or officials.
- A report in the form of a letter is a report made in writing in the form of a letter. The content of this report is in the form of a letter, which is between one and four pages. An example of a report in the form of a letter, for example a report on the number of students who leave school.
- A written report is a report delivered in the form of a manuscript, either in the form of a short or long manuscript. Examples of written reports are meeting minutes or committee activity reports.
5. Report based on Content
Aside from time, nature, delivery, and form. Because the report is a source of information from many things. Of course, there are also types of reports based on their content, which are divided into five types.
- An informative report is a report that only contains information.
- An analysis report is a report that contains the results of an in-depth analysis.
- A qualification report is a report that contains the results of the selection, which is the best or as a qualification determination.
- Accountability report is a report that contains the responsibility for the tasks of a person or a group to the superior who gave the assignment.
- A recommendation report is a report whose content is a cursory assessment, without further discussion.
Those are the five types of reports, each of which is also divided into several more types. Well, now Reader can be more specific in making reports, right?