Disaster Mitigation Material: Definition, Types, Strategies, Stages and Examples

sinaumedia Literacy – Mitigation is an effort to reduce the impact of environmental damage caused by disasters. There are four ways to deal with disasters, namely mitigation, preparedness, response and normalization. Let’s get to know more closely about Mitigation efforts, see a more complete explanation below, Sinaumed’s!

 

DEFINITION OF DISASTER MITIGATION

There are four important things that need to be considered in disaster mitigation, including the availability of information and maps of disaster-prone areas for each category of disaster, socialization in increasing public understanding and awareness in dealing with disasters, knowing what needs to be done and avoided and how to save yourself if a disaster occurs at any time. -time and arrangement, arrangement of disaster-prone areas to reduce the threat of disaster. Considerations in preparing a Mitigation Program (particularly in Indonesia) include:

  • Disaster mitigation must be integrated with the development process
  • The focus is not only on disaster mitigation but also on education, food, manpower, housing and even other basic needs.
  • Synchronize with local social, cultural and economic conditions
  • In the informal sector, the emphasis is on how to increase the community’s capacity to make decisions, help themselves and develop themselves.
  • Using local resources (according to decentralization principles)
  • Study the development of safe house construction for underprivileged groups of people, as well as options for additional cost subsidies in building houses.
  • Learn settlement remodeling techniques (patterns and structures).
  • Studying land use to protect people living in disaster-prone areas and losses, both socially, economically, and politically
  • It is easy for people to understand and follow.

To help Sinaumed’s understand disaster mitigation, the book Environmental Education and Disaster Mitigation Volume 1 comes in the form of stories, pictures and games that can make learning material more interesting.

TYPES OF DISASTER MITIGATION

The goal of mitigation itself is to reduce losses in the event of a hazard in the future, reduce the risk of death and injury to residents, including reducing damage and economic losses caused to public sector infrastructure. As in the example in the book Rumah Stilts which discusses how the stilt houses are used as disaster mitigation on the Aceh Coast.

Mitigation is divided into 2 types, namely structural mitigation and non-structural mitigation. What is the difference? Here’s the explanation Sinaumed’s!

STRUCTURAL Mitigation

Structural mitigation is an effort to minimize disasters by building various physical infrastructure using technology. For example, by building reservoirs to prevent flooding, making tools for detecting volcanic activity, creating early warning systems to predict tsunami waves, and building disaster-resistant buildings or buildings with structures designed in such a way that they can survive and not endanger the occupants if a disaster occurs at any time. time.

NON STRUCTURAL Mitigation

Non-structural mitigation is an effort to reduce the impact of disasters through policies and regulations. For example, the PB Law or the Disaster Management Law, making urban spatial planning, or other activities that are useful for strengthening the capacity of citizens.

DISASTER Mitigation STRATEGY

Understand that disasters can be predicted naturally and are interrelated with each other so that they need to be evaluated continuously. Disaster mitigation efforts must have the same perception from both government officials and the community. The strategies that can be implemented so that disaster mitigation efforts can be well coordinated are as follows.

MAPPING

Mapping is the most important thing in disaster mitigation, especially for disaster-prone areas. This is because it serves as a reference in making decisions in anticipation of disaster events. Mapping of regional spatial planning is also needed so as not to trigger disaster symptoms. Unfortunately in Indonesia spatial and disaster-prone mapping has not been well integrated, because not all of the areas have been mapped, the maps produced have not been socialized properly, the disaster maps have not been integrated and the disaster maps made use different base maps which makes the integration process difficult.

MONITORING

Monitoring the results of mapping the level of disaster vulnerability in each region will greatly assist in monitoring in terms of predicting the occurrence of disasters. This will facilitate rescue efforts when a disaster occurs. Monitoring can also be carried out for infrastructure development so that it still pays attention to the AMDAL.

SPREAD OF INFORMATION

Information dissemination was carried out, among others, by distributing posters and leaflets to district or city and provincial governments throughout Indonesia that were prone to disasters, regarding procedures for identifying, preventing and managing disasters. The aim is to increase awareness of geological disasters in certain areas. Regional government coordination plays a very important role in the dissemination of this information considering that Indonesia’s territory is very broad.

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SOCIALIZATION, COUNSELING, EDUCATION

Some layers of society may not be able to access information about disasters. Therefore, it is the duty of government officials to disseminate information to the community. The counseling materials are almost the same as the dissemination of information. The training focused on evacuation and rescue procedures in the event of a disaster. The aim of the exercise is to put more emphasis on the flow of information from field workers, technical officials and the community to the level of evacuation and rescue of disaster victims. With this training high preparedness against disasters will be formed.

EARLY WARNING

Early warning to report the results of continuous observations in a disaster-prone area, with the aim of making the community more alert. The early warning is disseminated to the public through the local government with the aim of raising public awareness in avoiding disasters. Early warning and the results of monitoring disaster-prone areas in the form of technical advice, diversion of road routes (temporarily or permanently), evacuation and other suggestions for handling.

You can understand these various disaster mitigation strategies through the book Environmental Education and Disaster Mitigation Volume 2 which comes with presentation of material that is packaged in an interesting way.

DISASTER RESPONSE STAGE

The most critical part of implementing mitigation is a full understanding of the nature of the disaster. Within each country and region, the types of hazards encountered will also be different. Some countries are prone to flooding, others have histories of tropical storm damage, and still others are known earthquake zones. Based on the time cycle, disaster management activities can then be divided into 4 categories. Mitigation as the initial stage of natural disaster management to reduce and minimize the impact of disasters, understand the following stages following Sinaumed’s’ explanation:

  • Mitigation is an activity before a disaster occurs. Examples of their activities include making maps of disaster-prone areas, building earthquake-resistant buildings, planting mangrove trees, reforesting forests, as well as providing counseling and raising awareness of the people living in these vulnerable areas.
  • Preparedness is planning how to respond to disaster events. Planning is made based on disasters that have occurred and other disasters that may occur. The aim is to minimize fatalities and damage to public service facilities. It also includes efforts to reduce the level of risk, manage community resources, and train residents in disaster-prone areas.
  • Response, is an effort to minimize the harm caused by the disaster. This stage takes place immediately after a disaster occurs. Disaster management plans are implemented with a focus on relief efforts for disaster victims and anticipation of damage caused by disasters.
  • Recovery is an effort to restore the condition of society to its original state. At this stage, the focus is on providing temporary shelter for victims and rebuilding damaged facilities and infrastructure. In addition, an evaluation of the disaster management measures undertaken is carried out.

In Indonesia itself, as an area prone to natural disasters, it has a GIS system or Geographic Information System which is a computer-based system used to analyze various geographic information. You can learn about using the GIS system in disaster mitigation in the GIS Modeling for Disaster Mitigation book.

EXAMPLE OF DISASTER Mitigation

Geologically, Indonesia is located at the confluence of three major world plates, namely the Indo-Australian Plate, the Eurasian Plate and the Pacific Plate. The country we live in is known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. This is a factor in Indonesia where disasters often occur. Disaster itself is defined as an event that can threaten and disrupt people’s lives such as loss of life and property. While Mitigation is a precautionary measure, here are some examples of Sinaumed’s Mitigation:

EXAMPLE OF NATURAL DISASTER MITIGATION

Natural Disasters are events caused by geological factors (movements of the earth’s plates), climatological (weather or climate conditions), and extra-terrestrial (space objects). Examples of Disaster Mitigation Natural disasters, for example, in Landslides. The disaster mitigation that can be done on landslides is as follows.

  • Build terraces with proper drainage system
  • Make a landslide hazard map
  • Making embankments retaining rock debris
  • Closure of the fracture on the slope
  • Reforestation in a deforested forest
  • Do not build buildings on cliffs or on unstable ground
  • Pay attention and create an early warning system
  • Monitor information on landslide symptoms from electronic media, for example the BMKG website

EXAMPLE OF NON-NATURAL DISASTER MITIGATION

Non-natural disasters or events resulting from epidemics, technological failures, and epidemics. For example, during a disease outbreak, what can be done is:

  • Prepare the public at large, including government officials, especially in the health ranks and across related sectors to understand the risks if an outbreak occurs and how to deal with it if an outbreak occurs through continuous outreach activities
  • Prepare adequate legal products to support prevention efforts, fast response and handling when an outbreak occurs.
  • Preparing infrastructure for handling efforts such as professional human resources, health service facilities, communication facilities, transportation, logistics and operational financing.
  • Efforts to strengthen epidemiological surveillance to identify risk factors and determine intervention and treatment strategies as well as early response at all levels.
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EXAMPLE OF SOCIAL DISASTER MITIGATION

  • Encouraging the participation of all levels of society in order to maintain stability, peace and order
  • Supporting the continuity of political democratization with a diversity of political aspirations, as well as instilling moral and ethical political culture based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution
  • Developing the rule of law by upholding the law consistently, with justice and honesty.
  • Increasing understanding and awareness as well as increasing the protection, respect, and enforcement of human rights
  • Improving the performance of the state apparatus in the framework of creating a state apparatus that functions to serve the community, professional, efficient, productive, transparent, free from Corruption, Collusion and Nepositism.

Mitigation IN VARIOUS SECTORS

Recognize climate change mitigation, as an effort made to reduce the risk of increasing greenhouse gas emissions. According to the data, the three countries that contribute the most to greenhouse gas emissions are America, China and Indonesia. Predictions regarding the impact of climate change include, in Southeast Asia in 2050 there will be a clean water crisis. In Europe, there will be a heatwave and a very rapid spread of disease. In addition, due to high temperatures there will be drought and crop failure. In Indonesia alone, it is predicted that 45% of agricultural land will be damaged and as many as 2,000 islands will be submerged due to rising sea water. This is also because Indonesia has disaster-prone geographic characteristics.

Mitigation is not only natural disasters, the following is the understanding of Mitigation in other sectors:

FORESTRY SECTOR

One sector that has contributed to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. This is the result of forest land conversion activities (deforestation), which are accompanied by large-scale forest destruction. One way that has been done to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia is by planting tree seeds. In addition, the government participates in developing Community Forests, Industrial Plantation Forests and Community Forests. In addition, managing water management and maintenance of the reclamation network in swamps.

AGRICULTURE SECTOR

In agriculture, one of the causes contributing to greenhouse gas emissions is burning, fertilizing, weathering, and respiration processes. Therefore mitigation projects for the agricultural sector have a focus on the application of plant cultivation technology, the use of organic fertilizers, the application of bioenergy and compost, as well as the use of biogas and feed technology to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

HOUSEHOLD WASTE SECTOR

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is an essential part of everyday life. For example, waste that has accumulated both organic and inorganic types. Therefore, several ways that have been carried out by the government and the community include improving waste water management in urban areas, applying the 3R technique (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in the process of dealing with waste piles, repair and rehabilitation at Final Disposal Sites (TPA), and the utilization of recycled waste into environmentally friendly energy production materials.

AQUATIC SECTOR

Other examples of mitigation efforts in an effort to reduce the impact of climate change on water resources include Weather Modification Technology (TMC) by sowing seeding agents in the form of powder or flare, rehabilitation of reservoirs and ponds, allocation of water through dry pattern reservoir operations, construction of irrigation networks, reforestation of critical lands and socialization of water-saving movements, increasing the reliability of raw water sources, increasing the construction of Water Treatment Plants (IPA), developing appropriate water treatment technologies, building and rehabilitating reservoirs and ponds and building irrigation networks.

TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

Several ways are used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the energy and transportation sectors, namely by using cleaner fuels or fuel switching. In addition, participating in optimizing renewable energy which includes wind energy, heat energy, and earth energy. Optimizing the substitute for petroleum and optimizing nuclear energy. In addition, mass transportation is expected to use a low emission and environmentally friendly. The strategy undertaken is to change the pattern of using private vehicles to a low-carbon transportation pattern.

This is an explanation of Disaster Mitigation: Definition, Types, Strategies, Stages and Examples. Hopefully useful Sinaumed’s. Eager to learn!

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