Direct & Indirect Speech : Definition, Types, Example Sentences and Questions

Direct & Indirect Speech : Definition, Types, Example Sentences and Questions – In sentences both orally and in writing there are such things as direct sentences and indirect sentences. The term in English is referred to as direct and indirect speech. Knowing the use of direct and indirect speech is necessary in order to understand the conversation context correctly. Then how does Sinaumed’s differentiate between the two and when to use them? Let’s see until it’s finished!

Definition of Direct Speech

The things that must be considered in the form of Direct Speech, namely:
a. Reporting Verbs (which report) and Reported Words (which are reported) are separated by a comma (,).
b. Reported words in direct sentences are written in quotation marks.
c. Reporting Verbs can also be called Reporting Sentences (reporting sentences), Reported Words can be called Reported Speech (sentences that are reported).
d. The Reporting Verb does not have to be at the beginning of the sentence, but can be at the end of the sentence. Consider the following examples:

He said, “It is time to go away.”
He said, “It’s time to go.”

He said : Reporting verb, “It’s time to go away.” : Reported words

Can be:

“It is time to go away,” He said.
“The time has come to go,” He said.

“It’s time to go away.” : Reported words, He said : Reporting verb

Definition of Indirect Speech

Indirect speech (indirect sentence) is a sentence that is spoken to convey someone’s statement.
Example:
She says that she is a clever student.
He said that he was a good student.

The things that must be considered in indirect sentences, namely:
a. Between Reporting Verbs and Reported Words are connected by conjunctions.
b. In indirect speech (Indirect Speech), quotation marks (quotation marks) are not needed.

Forms of Indirect Speech

Indirect Speech can be divided into two, namely:

a. The form of an indirect sentence where the introductory word is in the form of Present Tense, the direct sentence does not change tense.
Example:
She says, “I am a clever student.”
He said, “I am a good student.”

b. In the form of an indirect sentence where the introductory word is in the form of Past Tense, the sentence changes, namely tense, personal pronouns, and adverbs of place.

Indirect Speech is related to the use of the past tense.

Time Description Changes

1. Adverbs of Time

now becomes then
today becomes that day
yesterday becomes the day before, the previous day
last night becomes the night before
last week becomes the week before
a week ago becomes a week before
a month ago becomes a month before
tomorrow becomes the following day, the next day
next week becomes the following week
next month becomes the following month
next year becomes the following year

2. Adverb of Place

here becomes there
this becomes that
these becomes those

Change from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech

A. Statement
– ​​A declarative sentence using an introductory word

– If the speaker reports back what the other person is talking about, then the noun
in the sentence must change.
Direct Speech:
Ana says to nana, “I am late.”
Ana said to Nana, “I’m late.”
Indirect Speech:
Ana says to Nana that she is late.
Ana said to Nana that she was late.

– If the speaker reports himself, then the personal pronouns (I, My, Me) are fixed.
Direct Speech:
I said, “I will leave the country.”
Indirect Speech:
I said I would leave the country.

B. Questions (Question)
1. Questions begin with question words: who (who), what (what), when (when), where (where), with the following provisions:

– The question word is still used in indirect questions.

– The order of indirect questions uses the structure of statement sentences, not in interrogative sentences.

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– Changes in tenses follow the usual provisions as in indirect sentences derived from statements.
Example:
Direct Speech (DS):
Ronald said to Aning, “What are you doing?”
Ronal said to Aning, “What are you doing?”
Indirect Speech (IS):
Ronald asked Aning what she was doing.
Ronal asked Aning what he was doing.
Direct Speech (DS):
He wanted to know, “How did you do this?”
He wanted to know, “How do you do this?”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He wanted to know how I had done that.
He wanted to know how I had done it.

2. Questions without using question words, with the following conditions:

– Using if or whether in indirect questions.

– The composition of the questions using the composition of the sentence statement (statement). Example:
Direct Speech (DS):
Rani asked me, “Can you help me?”
Rani asked me “Can you help me?”
Indirect Speech (IS):
Rani asked me if (whether) I could help her.
Rani asked me if I could help her.
Direct Speech (DS):
He asked me, “Are you very busy?”
He asked me, “Are you very busy?”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He asked me if I was very busy.
He asked me if I was very busy.

C. Command/Request (Imperative/Request)
Provisions that need to be considered:
1. If Reported Words (reported words) are command/request sentences, then the Reporting Verb (reporting verb) in the form of say or tell must be changed to certain verbs that indicate, among others:
– Command (command), for example: ordered, commanded which means to order or order.
– Precept (instruction, guidance, education), for example: advised which means advising.
– Request, for example: asked which means asking or begging.
– Entreaty (a very urgent request), for example: begged which means asking or begging (very much).
– Prohibition (prohibition), for example: forbade which means to prohibit.

2. Using the verb (verb) form I or To Infinitive in indirect sentences.
3. Add the word please which is used to say a more polite command.
4. Using not + to infinitive for command (command) or prohibition (prohibition).
5. Pronouns change in first person (first person) and second person (second person) to become third person (third person).
Example:
I -> He or She
We -> They
You -> Me, He, She, or They

Example:
– Command (command)
Direct Speech (DS):
She said to her servant, “Go away at once.”
He said to his maid, “Leave immediately.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
She ordered her servant to go away at once.
He ordered his maid to leave immediately.
– Precept (guidance, guidance, education)
Direct Speech (DS):
He said to his young brother, “Study hard.”
He said to his younger brother, “Study hard.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He advised his young brother to study hard.
He advised his younger brother to study hard.
– Request (pelapan)
Direct Speech (DS):
He said to his friend, “Please come to my house.”
He said to his friend, “Please come to my house.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He asked his friend to come to his house.
He begged his friend to come to the house.
– Entreaty (a very urgent request)
Direct Speech (DS):
He said to his master, “Pardon me, sir.”
He said to his mistress, “Excuse me, sir.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He begged his master to pardon him.
He begged his employer to forgive him.
– Prohibition (ban)
Direct Speech (DS):
He said to his sister, “Don’t go there.”
He said to his brother, “Don’t go there.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He forbade his sister to go there.
He forbade his brother to go there.

Examples of Direct and Indirect Speech

1. Examples of Direct Speech in English

He said, “I will come here”

She says to her friend, “I have been waiting”

He said to me, “Where are you going?” (He said to me, “Where are you going?”)

“You must not forget what I told you”, Dani said (“You must not forget what I told you”, said Dani)

“I will ask Mr. Harris about that word”, Tiara told me (“I will ask Mr. Harris about that sentence”, Tiara told me)

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You said, “He is a teacher”

Dewi said, “I want to eat pasta” (Dewi said, “I want to eat pasta)

“We can speak Korean”, They said (“We can speak Korean”, they said)

2. Examples of Indirect Speech in English

She asked him to help her

She advised Bili not to be lazy

Rani asked me whether i was going away that day

Mama said that she would go there

Desi ordered her friend to go away at once (Desi asked her friend to go away)

She said that she had to do her homework

Dad said that he had written a letter

Fasha said that he would call me

Examples of Direct and Indirect Speech Questions

1. Which of the following sentences is correctly punctuated?
a. The headmaster warned the students, ‘pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month’.
b. The headmaster warned the students: pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month.
c. The headmaster warned the students, ‘pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month!’
d. The headmaster warned the students, pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month.
e. The headmaster warned the students, pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month!

Discussion: Correct writing of punctuation marks in direct speech is enclosed in quotation marks (‘) or quotes (“) and the first letter of a direct sentence must be in capital (uppercase), an exclamation mark at the end of a direct speech sentence indicates the type of command sentence. .

2. The secretary asked me … with Mr. congratulations.
a. did I have an appointment
b. how was my appointment
c. whether I had an appointment
d. when is my appointment
e. that I had an appointment

Discussion: Indirect speech that comes from interrogative (statements) and not, the structure is always affirmative (statements) and does not use an auxiliary verb before the subject, then A, B, and D are wrong. Interrogative indirect speech always uses questions, answers and discussion keywords or if or whether as conjunctions and this is only fulfilled by (C) whether I had an appointment.

3. … is not yet known.
a. Can he be involved in the trade of narcotics
b. He is involved in the trade of narcotics
c. Whether he is involved in the trade of narcotics
d. When he is involved in the trade of narcotics
e. Why is he involved in the trade of narcotics

Discussion: This is a matter of reported speech. … is not yet known = … is not yet known. What best fits the sentence in question is whether = whether he is involved … is not yet known.

4. He said, “Don’t speak until you are spoken to.”
The indirect speech of the above statement is …
A. He didn’t tell me to speak until I am spoken to
B. He told me not to speak until I am spoken to
C. He told me not to speak until I was spoken to
D. He told me not to speak until I was spoken to
E. He didn’t tell me to speak until I was spoken to

Discussion: For indirect sentences of a prohibition, it can be done simply by adding NOT TO in front of the sentence, and if the direct sentence is in the present tense, then the indirect sentence becomes past tense.

5. Mr. Johnson asked Mary, “When can you finish the letter?”
Mr. Johnson asked Mary …
A. When can you finish the letter
B. When can she finish the letter
C. When can you finish the letter
D. When can she finish the letter
E. If she can finish the letter

Discussion: If the direct sentence uses the question word WH Question+How, then the indirect sentence still uses the same question word, only the tenses change. The present tense becomes past tense and the order of questions in direct sentences changes to statements in indirect sentences.