Mental Verbs: Definition, Characteristics, and Examples

Definition of Mental Verbs – Verbs or verbs are units of words that function to describe an action performed by the subject or actor in a sentence. Generally, the verb in a sentence plays the role of a predicate. In Indonesian grammar, verbs are divided into several groups, one of which is mental verbs.

Mental verbs are types of verbs (verbs) that describe a response or reaction to an event or activity. These types of verbs are usually referred to as behavioral verbs because they describe the behavior or actions of a person. Examples of mental verbs themselves are commonly used by people in everyday conversations.

Besides that, mental verbs are also found in many kinds of texts, such as expository texts, and others. To find out the meaning and examples of mental verbs, see the explanation of mental verbs below.

Definition of Mental Verbs

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a verb or verb is a type of word that has the function of describing processes, actions or circumstances, while mental has a meaning concerned with the mind and human nature.

So, from the two meanings above, it can be said that the notion of a mental verb is a type of verb that describes an action related to the human mind in response to an action or event.

According to Fitri Itut Rahayu in the Indonesian Language Textbook for Class XI Vocational Schools, it states that the word meaning of mental verbs is a verb that describes one’s perception, affection, and cognition. A sentence that uses a mental verb usually consists of a sensor and an event. For example, father (sensator) is surprised to see (mental verb) a flood in front of the house (phenomenon).

In general, mental verbs are types of verbs that are used to describe a person’s reaction, response, or attitude towards an action or activity. This type of verb is also known as a behavioral verb or behavioral verb because it describes a person’s behavior towards an event or phenomenon that is experienced.

In the configuration of a sentence, the mental verb as a predicate cannot stand alone. The existence of a mental verb in a sentence is very dependent on the subject and the event or phenomenon described.

Characteristics of Mental Verbs

Based on the explanation above, mental verbs have a number of characteristics or characteristics that distinguish these verbs from other types of verbs. The characteristics of mental verbs are as follows.

1. Describe Human Perception, Affection, and Cognition

The main characteristic of mental verbs is to explain or describe actions related to one’s perception, affection, and cognition.

2. Cannot Stand Alone

Mental verbs are words that describe a person’s behavior or actions. Therefore, this verb cannot stand alone because it must have a subject as well as an object and a predicate as an event.

3. Triggered by Subject and Object

Another feature of mental verbs is that they must be accompanied by a subject as well as an object that triggers the birth of a response action. The object in question can be another person or a particular phenomenon that is the trigger.

Mental Verb Forms

Based on the available data, there are two types of mental verbs, namely basic verbs (monomorphemic) and derived verbs (polymorphemic). Based on its syntactic behavior, mental verbs are divided into two behaviors, namely behavior at the phrase level and behavior at the sentence level.

Based on its semantic meaning, mental verbs are divided into three meanings, namely mental verbs meaning circumstances, mental verbs meaning process, and mental verbs meaning attitude.

Example 1: We need superior human resources who are tolerant and have noble character.

The example above shows three constituents, namely we , need , and superior human resources who are tolerant and have noble character. Based on its form, the word need is a verb that is monomorphemic. The word need , without going through a morphological process, has been able to occupy one of the syntactic functions, namely the predicate.

Based on its syntactic behavior in terms of phrase level, the word need in example 1 can stand alone and occupy the function of the predicate. Based on its syntactic behavior in terms of sentence level, the word need in example 1 is a transitive verb with an object. It is called transitive because the word need which functions as a predicate requires the presence of an object in the form of the phrase “excellent human resources who are tolerant and have noble character”.

So, the word need includes an object transitive verb. The word need is a type of mental verb because based on its meaning in the sentence, the word cannot be done physically. Based on its semantic meaning, the word need is a verb which means ‘need’.

The meaning of the word need in example 1 is a condition related to emotions or feelings requiring superior, tolerant, and noble human resources.

Example 2: We have started with the B20 program, we will enter B30, a mixture of diesel fuel and 30 percent biodiesel.

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Example 2 consists of five constituents, that is , we have started , with the B20 program, will enter , and to B30 a mixture of diesel fuel with 30 percent biodiesel . In example 2 there are two mental verbs, namely start and enter .

Based on the form, the words start and enter are monomorphemic verbs. The words start and enter , without going through a morphological process have been able to occupy one of the syntactic functions, namely the predicate. Based on their syntactic behavior in terms of phrase level, the words start and enter in example 2 function as predicates, respectively, side by side with the words already and will , both of which are categorized as adverbs.

Based on the syntactic behavior in terms of the sentence level, the words start and enter in example 2 are non-transitive verbs without a complement. It is called intransitive because the words start and enter do not require the presence of an object. The sentence in example 2 also has no complements.

So, the words start and enter are non-transitive verbs without the complement. The words start and enter are types of mental verbs because based on their meaning in the sentence, these words cannot be done physically. Based on its semantic meaning, the word start is a verb which means the attitude of ‘to start doing’.

The meaning of the word start in example 2 is an attitude related to emotion or feeling to start an action. The action in question is a leap of progress with the B20 program and entry into B30. The meaning of the word entered in example 2 is an attitude related to emotion or feeling for coming to B30.

Example 3: Data is a new type of wealth for our nation, now data is more valuable than oil.

Example 3 consists of 7 constituents, namely data , is , a new type of wealth for our nation, now, data, is more valuable , and from oil . The mental verb in example 3 is the word valuable . Valuable verbs are polymorphemic verbs with the prefix ber -.

Valuable in example 3 has the base form price which gets the prefix ber -. The basic form of price belongs to the class of nouns, to change its status to a verb it is necessary to add the prefix ber -. Based on its syntactic behavior in terms of phrase level, the word valuable in example 3 functions as a predicate alongside more words which are categorized as adverbs.

Based on its syntactic behavior in terms of sentence level, the word valuable in example 3 is a non-transitive verb without a complement. It is called intransitive because the word valuable does not require the presence of an object. The sentence in example 3 also has no complements. So, the word valuable is a non-transitive verb without a complement.

The word valuable is a type of mental verb because based on its meaning in the sentence, the word cannot be done physically. Based on its semantic meaning, the word valuable is a verb that means the state of having a high value.

The meaning of the word valuable in example 3 is a condition related to the emotion or feeling of having high value. Something that has a high price is data. Data is referred to as a new type of wealth that has a higher price than oil.

Example 4: We should be grateful, in the midst of various challenges and the storms of history, Indonesia as our common big house is still standing strong.

Example 4 consists of 5 constituents, namely us ; should be grateful, in the midst of various challenges and the storms of history, Indonesia as our big home together , and still standing strong . The mental verb in example 4 is the word grateful .

The verb grateful is included in the polymorphemic verb with the prefix ber -. Thankful in example 4 has a basic form of gratitude that gets the prefix ber- . The basic form of gratitude belongs to the class of nouns, to change its status to a verb it is necessary to add the prefix ber -.

Based on the syntactic behavior in terms of the phrase level, the word grateful in example 4 functions as a predicate alongside a proper word which is categorized as an adjective. Based on its syntactic behavior in terms of the sentence level, the word grateful in example 4 is a non-transitive verb without a complement.

It is called non-transitive because the word gratitude does not require the presence of an object. The sentence in example 4 also has no complements. So, the word grateful is a non-transitive verb without a complement.

Examples of Mental Verbs

After understanding the meaning and characteristics of mental verbs, identify various examples. For those of you who are still confused about examples of this type of verb, see a collection of examples of mental verbs and their meanings below.

1. Perception

Perceptual verbs are a type of mental verb which aims to describe human perception, the process by which a person knows several things through his five senses.

Here’s an example of the verb:

  • Seeing: using the eyes to see, watch, know, prove, observe, predict, look, visit.
  • Enjoy: to feel, experience or something that is enjoyable or satisfying.
  • Hearing: being able to perceive sounds (sounds) with the ears.
  • Feel: feel, enjoy.
  • Seeing: seeing and noticing.
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Example of sentences:

“Galih saw Ratna waiting for public transportation behind the school with a somber face.”

In this sentence, ‘Galih’ acts as the subject, with the mental verb ‘see’ as the predicate. The phrase ‘Ratna is waiting for public transportation…’ is a trigger for Galih’s mental verbs.

“Oki felt cold air enveloping him as he walked down the dark alley.”

The phrase ‘cold air enveloped him…’ is the trigger for the predicate mental verb ‘feel’ which is done by the subject ‘Oki’.

2. Affect

Affect is a type of mental verb that describes or describes one’s feelings and emotions. Here’s an example of the verb:

  • Laughter: gives birth to a feeling of joy, pleasure, amusement, and so on with a crackling sound.
  • Grief: grieve, grieve, feel sad.
  • Crying: feeling sad (disappointed, sorry, and so on) by shedding tears and making noise.
  • To like: to love, to love, to cherish.
  • Worry: fear (anxiety, anxiety) of something that is not known with certainty.

Example of sentences:

“Citra is worried that Aji won’t be able to complete his mission this time.”

The predicate ‘worried’ in the sentence above is a variety of affective verbs that describe the subject’s feelings ‘Image’ towards the phrase “Aji can’t …” the event or phenomenon that triggers the mental verb.

“Kanaya regretted not being able to be by her father’s side in the last moments of her life.”

The phrase ‘unable to be by his father’s side …’ is the trigger for the predicate of the affective verb ‘sorry’ as the emotion felt by the subject ‘Kanaya’.

3. Cognition

Cognitive verbs are a type of verb that describes the process by which a person obtains information or knowledge. Here’s an example he said:

  • Understand: understand correctly, know correctly.
  • Knowing: realizing or realizing.
  • To ponder: to seek effort to resolve, to ponder, to consider.
  • Estimating: making calculations approximately, or surmising, making an estimate.
  • Opinion: having and expressing opinion.

Example of sentences:

“Father is thinking of registering our family car with the motor vehicle insurance program.”

The predicate ‘think’ is a mental verb that describes the cognitive activity of the subject ‘Father’ in response to the activity in the phrase “registering the family car…”

“Arumi understands that Malik’s decision not to allow her to work while pregnant is the result of Malik’s concern for her safety.”

In that sentence, the phrase “Malik’s decision…” triggers the subject ‘Arumi’ to react with the mental verb predicate ‘understand’.

Examples of Using Mental Verbs

The following is a collection of examples of the use of mental verbs in a sentence:

  • Rani thought back to Ratna’s words yesterday.
  • David realized that he had lost his cell phone while heading to the office.
  • Mother burst into tears when she saw my sister being taken to the hospital.
  • BMKG predicts that there will be a flood disaster in the East Jakarta city area after very heavy rains.
  • The audience really liked the traditional dance performed by the school’s dance team.
  • Mr. Budi was surprised to hear that his son had an accident.
  • The man regretted the way he treated his girlfriend after their relationship broke up.
  • Mrs. Rahmi is worried about the state of her son who is wandering outside the city.
  • I felt dad tuck me in last night.
  • Fira is sincere for her mother’s departure.
  • Danu was very happy because he got pocket money from his father.
  • Dinda felt sad because her test score this time dropped drastically.
  • Ratna refused Fadlan’s apology because she was already hurt.
  • Muslims believe that Allah SWT is the only God and Prophet Muhammad SAW is the messenger of Allah SWT.
  • Fani is desperate when the announcement of the end of the national olympics.
  • Danang got to know Duta when he was in the crowd at a concert.
  • Putra agrees with the opinion conveyed by Fahmi.
  • Mother expects me to be a successful person and willing to help others.
  • Andi enjoys the cooking made by his mother.
  • The concert goers were very excited when the concert started.
  • Adi scolds his younger brother for breaking his collection of favorite toys.
  • Dani is offended when his friends call him fat.
  • Fina understands the feelings of her grieving friend.
  • Indah believes that her lover will never betray her love.
  • Arin agreed with the opinion conveyed by the panelists on TV.
  • Anna had doubts about her final score when the grade announcement was about to be made.
  • Winda laughed out loud at the joke made by Dandi.

Closing

Indonesian grammar has various types of verbs that can be included in sentences to enrich writing. A variety of mental verbs is a variety of verbs that are often found in various kinds of writing. However, not many recognize this variety of verbs, even though the message in a sentence can be conveyed more precisely if it is applied correctly.

That’s a collection of examples of mental verbs and their use in a sentence. Hopefully it can be useful for all of you!