Figure of speech Metaphor which is part of the figure of speech which in Indonesian is defined as various types of figurative language. Broadly speaking, figure of speech is grouped into four types according to its function, such as the figure of speech for comparison, the figure of speech for affirmation, the figure of speech for contradiction, to the figure of satire. However, figure of speech itself has many names, such as personification, hyperbole, simile, litotes, metaphor, and so on.
Figure of speech is usually familiarly used in a literary work, whether it’s poetry or prose, even some drama literary works also often use figure of speech. The use of figure of speech or language style in literary works is actually to add flavor and impression to a literary work. In literary works, writers or poets usually use figure of speech as a style of conveying feelings as well as views in language so that they have a more optimal and effective impression on readers and listeners, so that they become more interesting and not boring.
Like the quotations from the books of Figures, Pantun and Poetry, Figure of speech is a figurative language in the form of figures of speech, definitions, similes, and parables that aim to beautify the meaning and message of a sentence. Figure of speech or figurative language is also understood as an activity of utilizing the richness of language elements and the use of certain varieties of language.
So, according to what was said above, if there are four types of figures of speech, in this article we will focus on one of the most frequently used figures of speech, namely metaphorical figures of speech. This figure of speech itself is included in the type of figure of speech comparison or figure of speech equation. The following is an explanation of the meaning and types of metaphors as well as examples of their use.
A. Definition of Figure of Speech Metaphor
Reporting from the Central Java Language Center, metaphor is a style of language that uses words or groups in the form of sentences to refer to a certain object, but not with the actual meaning.
This one figure of speech can also be explained as a figure of speech or figurative language which describes something in a direct and precise comparison on the basis of almost similar or perhaps the same characteristics. The metaphorical figure of speech itself is usually referred to as a comparative figure of speech or an equation figure of speech.
In the process of comparing or equating a particular object, this figure of speech does not use connecting words. For example, tub, like, and so forth. However, metaphorical figures of speech have the characteristics of directly addressing or using these figurative words.
B. Types of Figure of speech Metaphors
After recognizing and understanding the meaning of metaphor. Next, we will discuss three types of metaphorical figures of speech according to Nurgiyantoro (2017). The following is an explanation of the three types of comparisons of metaphorical figures of speech, among which are:
1. Explicit Metaphor (In Praesetia)
This type of explicit metaphor is a comparison of three things that are shown clearly against the comparison. In an explicit metaphor, the object to be compared is placed alongside the comparator. This makes the content of a meaning seem very explicit.
As an example:
I am a fish who wants to swim freely across the vastness of the ocean. In this sentence it is clear that ‘I’ makes a comparison or gives a description that he is a fish that can swim across the vast ocean.
2. Implicit Metaphor (In Absentia)
In accordance with the previous explanation, if the metaphor in praesetia contains a very explicit meaning. This type of metaphor is very different from the metaphor in absentia which has a very implicit way of expressing it.
This type of figurative language makes the comparison not shown directly, but by using hidden words. In figurative language in absentia, the comparison is not directly focused on the object being discussed. This can cause the reader or listener to experience confusion in understanding the meaning of the hidden expression.
As an example:
My wings are broken, but flying is not an option. This sentence does not clearly explain that ‘my wings’ are for the wings of a bird. Figures of speech in absentia use wings and flying objects as pointers or provide an indirect description of the comparison he makes with birds.
3. Old or Outdated Metaphor
This type of metaphor is an expression that provides a comparison that is commonly used. Comparisons used as expressions usually have many meanings understood by the majority of people without having to think about it long enough.
For example: Aisyah is the village flower in that village. In this sentence, it is clearly stated that Aisyah is the most beautiful girl in the village. However, the expression ‘flowers of the village’ is very common and some have been turned into poetry or songs. The use of figures of speech or metaphorical expressions that are common cannot be classified as metaphors in praesetia or explicit metaphors or metaphors in absentia or implicit metaphors.
C. Examples of Figure of Speech Metaphors
Now, after understanding the meaning and types of metaphorical figures of speech, You will be invited to find out some examples of metaphorical figures of speech. The following are twelve examples of this figure of speech and their meanings, among which are:
1. “Office rats are still roaming freely in this country”
Meaning: “Office rats” are corruptors.
2. “The red flame devoured dozens of houses in the village”
Meaning: “The red flame” is fire.
3. “Goddess of the night has shone a spark of light from behind the clouds”
Meaning: “Goddess of the night” is the moon.
4. “Dendi is the golden child of Mr. Udin, a charismatic lurah from the village of Butur”
Meaning: “Masson” is the favorite child.
5. “The mother looks gloomy because the baby is sick”
Meaning: “The baby” is a child.
6. “We must always instill in ourselves the character of openness in our daily lives”
Meaning: “Empty” means patience.
7. “You stone head! It is very difficult for you to stop smoking”
Meaning: “Stubborn” or stubborn has a meaning such as being difficult to advise.
8. “After returning from Japan, my sister brought a lot of souvenirs”
Meaning: “Handmades” are souvenirs.
9. “Rivaldi is a class star in his class”
Meaning: “Class star” is a smart student.
10. “In order to meet the needs of the family, he is willing to toil every day on the streets”
Meaning: “toil” is to work hard.
11. “Jundi always looks for faces when dealing with his teacher at school”
Meaning: “Looking for face” is doing good, but the deed only wants to be considered good because there is a specific purpose, not in the true sense of goodness
12. “The afternoon king has appeared”
Meaning: “The afternoon king” is the sun.
D. Examples of figurative language metaphors in literary works
As previously stated, metaphorical figures of speech are figurative language that use comparative words to represent a certain object or not. That particular object may be a comparison of another physical object, idea, trait, or action. One example of the use of this figure of speech which is often used in literary works is: “I am a bitch” by Chairil Anwar.
The word “I” in the title of this poem by the legendary Indonesian poet is not an animal, but a fully human being. The use of the word “I” in the sentence is an example of a metaphorical figure of speech in literary works. Chairil Anwar made a comparison between himself and an animal. We know for ourselves that animals are not creatures that have thoughts or feelings like humans.
In this sentence, “I” have become an animal and am no longer a human. This comparison that depicts humans as animals gives meaning to a human who is no longer like a despised human, does not have the same degree as humans. Meanwhile, “Bitch” becomes a reinforcement for the word “I” to further ensure that there is no beauty and beauty in the animal used as a comparison.
The metaphorical figure of speech in Chairil Anwar’s array piece above is very extraordinary, from just four sentences, there are many meanings contained in these sentences. However, what happens if the fragment of Chairil Anwar’s poem is changed by using the word explicit or as it is. Then the sentence would be something like: “I am a human who is despicable and shameless”. Of course, the sentence does not give any impression to the reader or listener. In addition, in accordance with the purpose of figure of speech in literary works, figure of speech will make literary works more beautiful and have a strong impression.
In addition, metaphors can add a dramatic effect to a sentence. This can have an impact on the idea that is commonly used to demean yourself to make a stronger impression. The dramatic effect of the figurative language of metaphor in making the power produced lies in the contrast of the comparisons that are made.
E. The Difference between Metaphor and Simile
According to Tarigan, figurative language is the use of words without actual meaning, but rather as an image based on a comparison or similarity. In figurative language there are brief comparisons arranged neatly to produce a certain meaning.
Apart from that, the metaphor is also an implicit and indirect comparison giving expressions like I look like a monkey, or you are like an angel. The metaphorical figure of speech has a difference that is almost similar to the simile figure of speech. The comparison between humans and monkeys and angels is actually an example of a simile, not a metaphor.
As previously stated, metaphorical figures of speech will directly express the object being compared as an angel, metaphors do not use demonstrative words such as: like, looks, like, etc.
The use of this figure of speech is in line with the opinion of Nurgiyantoro who argues that metaphor is a form of comparison or similarity between two things in the form of physical objects, characteristics, ideas or other actions that are implicit in nature. This confirms that metaphorical figures of speech do not use comparative pointers in connecting two objects.
In simple terms, metaphorical figures of speech and similes can be distinguished in the use of demonstrative words. If the simile figure of speech will use demonstrative words: like, looks, like, like, and so on. Meanwhile, metaphorical figures of speech do not use demonstrative words such as similes.
As an example:
Metaphor: I’m a bitch.
Simile: I’m such a bitch.