Definition of Figure of Speech and Examples – During the pandemic, apart from enjoying time at home by watching movies or Korean dramas, it is not uncommon for many people to choose to read novels. Then, have you ever heard of the term figurative language?
For literary activists or people who often read novels by great Indonesian writers, they may be familiar with the term ‘figure of speech’. Because figure of speech has a close relationship with language style. However, of course there are still many who are unfamiliar and wonder “what is figurative language?”
Some of you may have often heard everyday sentences expressed using figure of speech, but you just don’t realize it.
“He brought his children and wife lots of gifts.”
Well, you must have often heard the term “handicap”, right? Hand fruit has become a common expression used in everyday conversation. It turns out that “handicap” is an example of figurative language, you know!
To understand and learn more about figure of speech, you can listen to the following article.
Because it will be explained comprehensively starting from what is a figure of speech, types of figure of speech, various types of figure of speech, to examples of its use in everyday conversation. Keep reading the following article to get new insights, ok! Happy reading!
What is Majas?
Meanwhile, according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), figure of speech is a way of describing something by equating it with something else; or in figurative form. So if summed up simply, figure of speech is figurative language that is used to compare or explain something so that sentences become more lively and sound convincing.
For a writer, especially a writer of literary works, mastering various kinds of figures of speech can make the resulting work more resonant with the reader. And also shows the level of intellect and language style of the author.
Figure of speech can make a sentence sound more beautiful and dramatic. However, it still does not eliminate the original meaning of the sentence that uses the figure of speech.
According to experts, the main function of figure of speech is to make expressions in a sentence more elegant, beautiful, lively, and have a deeper impression. In the following, a more complete description of the function of a figure of speech will be mentioned. Please pay attention!
1. Make Sentences Easier to Remember
By using figure of speech, sentences that are spoken or written in a literary work will feel more relevant and pervasive. For example, when someone says “he is a confidant of Mr. Philips” and says “he is an accomplice of Mr. Philips”, the sentence that is easier to hit and sink in is one using the figure of speech ‘accomplice’.
2. Able to Give Birth to Imagination
The next function of the figure of speech is to be able to create an imagination. The figure of speech used often creates different understandings and perceptions for each person.
These different meanings depend on each person’s point of view, way of thinking, experience, and insight.
When we find the use of figure of speech that may sound foreign and the meaning of which is unknown, then we will imagine and imagine the meaning of the figure of speech.
3. Make Sentences More Meaningful and Impressive
Figure of speech is able to make a sentence have an essential meaning. While something essential will produce a deeper impression. When reading a book or novel that has many figures of speech, it will be less boring and more enjoyable, right?
4. Increasing the Appeal of a Literary Work
Writers who understand various types of figure of speech tend to be more creative and imaginative. In addition, the use of figure of speech in literary works is able to attract attention and give life to the literary work.
A novel or a book that is written is not a film that is visually depicted through real scenes of the cast that are recorded.
Novels or other literary works are only written in written form. Therefore, to make it easier for readers to understand and imagine stories in novels, writers often use figures of speech.
5. Get closer between writers and readers
Figure of speech is able to show the author’s character, soul, and personality clearly. Through a figure of speech that flows beautifully in sentences in literary works, the reader will know and understand the author better, judging from the type of figure of speech that is often used.
The types of figures of speech are very diverse. So that the choice of figure of speech can describe the character and habits of the writer.
Types of Figure of Speech
1. Figure of Comparison
Comparative figure of speech is the most popular and frequently used type of figure of speech. This figure of speech serves to juxtapose or compare two objects. Included in comparative figure of speech are metaphor, personification, association, hyperbole, allegory, metonymy, pars pro toto, totem pro parte, and euphemism. That’s a lot, right?
2. Figure of Contrast
Unlike the figure of speech for comparison, the figure of speech for opposition describes two objects that are opposite and contradictory. Contradictory figure of speech is a type of figure of speech that is often used even in general everyday conversations.
Included in the figure of speech of contradiction are litotes, paradox, oxymoron, interminus contradiction, anachronism, and antithesis.
3. Majas Affirmation
Emphasis is figurative language used to clarify and emphasize an object in a sentence. The style of language used in affirmation can influence the opinion and approval of the reader or listener.
Examples of various types of figurative language are rhetoric, pararhyme, apophasis, tautology, inversion, enumeration, ellipsis, correction, allonym, collocation, parallelism, and alliteration.
The affirmation figure of speech has two sub-majas, namely Pleonasm and Repetition.
The hallmark of pleonasm is the use of figurative language in the form of words that are repeated so that it seems very ineffective to read. However, the use of pleonasm is to emphasize an object through a figurative word that is written or spoken repeatedly.
Examples of Majas Pleonasm
“He’s already inside.”
(The sentence above when read seems ineffective because of course if there is the term “in” it means into without having to add the word “into” to the sentence).
The repetition figure of speech repeats the meaning of a word using different figurative words continuously. The goal is the same, a figurative word used to emphasize.
Examples of Repetition Majas
“He will continue to work hard, he works and works, until the night he sweats to support his family.”
(In the example sentence above, the writer wants to emphasize that the subject of the sentence is actively working. So the term work is used repeatedly in various figures of speech, namely “toil hard” and “sweat”).
4. Figure of Satire
Satire is a figurative word used to satirize an object in a subtle and implicit way. Examples of satire are irony, cynicism, satire, inuendo, and sarcasm.
Kinds of Majas
In the previous discussion, the types of figurative language have been explained. Furthermore, in this section, we will explain in detail about the various types of figures of speech according to their type.
1. Figure of Metaphor
Metaphor is a figure of speech that compares two different objects but these objects are similar. The similes used in metaphorical figures of speech are in the form of an analogy in the form of an expression message. The following will give examples of the use of metaphorical figures of speech. Words that include metaphorical figures of speech will be in bold.
Examples of Majestic Metaphors
- The state needs to fix its government system when it starts being controlled by rats with ties .
- Ridwan is a descendant of blue blood .
- The sound of laughter from the children filled Buya’s living room.
- When you fail, don’t be discouraged .
2. Figure of Personification
The hallmark of personification is the use of inanimate objects to express comparative analogies. Inanimate objects used in personification figure of speech act like living things (humans). The following will give examples of the use of personification figures of speech. Words included in personification will be bolded.
Examples of Personification Majas
- The wind whispered melodiously as if it wanted to invite me to tell a story.
- The loud chirping of seagulls broke the morning silence.
- Ambulance sirens wailed breaking the silence that night.
3. Majas Association
Association figure of speech is a figurative language that compares two different objects, but is considered the same by giving figures of speech in the form of conjunctions “as”, “like”, “should”, and “bak”. The following will give an example of the use of the association figure of speech. Words included in the association figure of speech will be in bold.
Example of Association Majas
- Rina and Rani are twins, but have very different characteristics, like heaven and earth .
- Mother and child are very similar , like a betel nut in half .
- Even though they are siblings, Rima and Ranti often fight and can’t mix like oil and water .
4. Figure of Hyperbole
- Andri ran as fast as lightning for fear of arriving late to school.
- As a result of years of illness, Damar’s body was left with only bones and skin .
- I have sky high ideals .
- Father toils every day so he can send his children to school.
5. Figure of speech allegory
Allegory is a figure of speech that compares two objects using figurative words. In a literary work, this figure of speech is usually written in the form of a sentence or even in the form of a full paragraph. The following will give an example of the use of allegory. Words that are included in allegory will be bolded.
Examples of Allegory
- Life is like a wheel that is always turning .
- A child born into the world is like a white paper . The old man in charge of writing and painting something on it.
- Technological progress is like two sides of a coin that has positive and negative sides.
6. Majas Metonymia
Metaphors of metonymy usually use a trademark to describe something in a sentence. For example, replacing the use of the word ‘car’ with ‘deer’, replacing the use of the word ‘mineral water’ with ‘aqua’, and others. The following will give an example of the use of metonymy. Words included in metonymy will be bolded.
Examples of Majestic Metaphors of Metonymy
- Pilgrims depart for the holy land of Mecca using Garuda .
- Uncle was accompanied by his father using a deer to go to the hospital.
- Aunt Risa won a raffle prize from Kapal Api .
7. Majas Pars Pro Toto
Majas Pars Pro Toto uses some of the elements of an object to show and describe all parts of the object. The following will give an example of the use of the pars pro toto figure of speech. Words which include the pars pro toto figure of speech will be in bold.
Example of Majas Pars Pro Toto
- They should get out of this house immediately.
- Dimas never showed his nose even though I had been waiting for him for hours.
- Riswanda has long had a crush on Aisyah.
8. Majas Totem Pro Parte
The figure of speech totem pro parte is the opposite of the figure of speech pars pro toto. Where this figure of speech uses all parts of an object to refer to a particular object or situation. Actually, the figure of speech totem pro parte and the figure of speech pars pro toto are sub-masonages of Sinekdok . The following will give an example of the use of the totem pro parte figure of speech. Words included in the totem pro parte figure of speech will be in bold.
Example of Totem Pro Parte
- Indonesia managed to draw against Vietnam in the semifinal match of the 2016 AFF Cup.
- Djarum Indonesia awards educational scholarships to outstanding people in the country.
- Women do not like men with temperamental traits.
9. Figure of Euphemism
Figures of euphemism are used to replace harsh or unethical terms to make them sound more refined and polite. In the following, an example of the use of euphemism will be given. Words which are euphemisms will be printed in bold.
Examples of Figure of Words of Euphemism
- Bi Jamilah has been a household assistant for the Abdullah family for eight years . ( household assistant = maid )
- The underprivileged people this year received staple food assistance and cash from the government. ( underprivileged = poor )
- Many TNI have died in order to protect the borders of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. ( fall = die )
10. Majas Litotes
Litotes figure of speech is a figure of speech for conflict which is used as a figure of speech to humble oneself. In other words, litotes figure of speech is the opposite of hyperbole because it uses figurative language in the form of reducing the quality of the object in question.
Examples of Majas Litotes
- Please stop by the shack where I live is small and shabby.
- My face is so ugly compared to other people out there.
- This padang restaurant is just my small business .
11. Figure of Paradox
Paradox figures of speech use figurative language to compare a fact with something that is quite the opposite. In the following, an example of the use of paradox will be given. Words that include paradox will be bolded.
Examples of Paradox Figures
- I always feel lonely even though I’m in the crowd of the capital.
- The father is blind but he can see the incomparable grace of Allah SWT .
12. Figure of Rhetoric
The characteristic of rhetorical figures of speech is in the form of interrogative sentences. Although this figure of speech is in the form of a question sentence, it does not require an answer because it is used as an affirmation.
Examples of Rhetorical Figures
- Who doesn’t feel sad when the team they are supporting loses?
- How can someone who has died come back to life?
- Who doesn’t want to live in abundance?
13. Majas Alliteration
Alliteration is a type of figure of speech that uses repetition of consonant letters at the beginning of each word to emphasize the sentence.
Examples of Majestic Alliteration
- Rawe rawe rantas.
- Cross the sea, cross the valley.
- Finish your sadness, prepare your smile.
14. Figure of Irony
Irony figure of speech includes satirical figure of speech that uses satirical language style to hide facts by using words that are contradictory.
Example of Irony
- This food is so good, that I don’t want to taste it anymore.
- Today you were extremely punctual, showing up to the meeting only to hear the closing.
- It’s so cold in here, I’m sweating like a corn ear.
15. Figure of Sarcasm
Almost the same as the irony figure of speech, it’s just that the sarcasm style of language has a style of sarcasm that is more harsh.
Examples of Majestic Sarcasm
- You’re so stupid, basic knowledge like this you just don’t understand.
- You sing in a discordant voice, my ears hurt so much.
Well, enough discussion about the various figures of speech here. You already know in detail starting from the meaning of figure of speech, function, types, types, to examples of using figure of speech in everyday life. Don’t forget to read and keep up with the latest articles published by sinaumedia because there will be interesting and up to date topics to be discussed. See you!