We often hear about the Founding Figures of the United Nations – the United Nations (UN) in various information about international issues. As the largest international organization in the world, the United Nations has a central role in maintaining relations between countries in the world, including relations between countries and individuals who are citizens of the countries concerned.
The United Nations also has a major role in maintaining world peace which in this case includes preventing any potential conflicts that might arise between its member countries.
In addition, the United Nations has a major role in protecting the Human Rights (HAM) of every individual in the world, not only because it considers the individual as a citizen, but also because it recognizes that every individual is a person with human rights inherent in himself as a human being.
Through the founding of the United Nations, the countries in the world that are members have seriously committed to creating a cooperative atmosphere between countries, not only in the political and military fields, but also in the economic, social and cultural fields. The cooperation built by UN member states now is not only meaningful as maintaining national security stability, but also includes increasing the prosperity and welfare of each member country, which in this case has an impact on the progress of all civilizations in the world.
In this article, we will briefly explain how the UN was formed as a reaction to the second world war so that it has survived to this day as the largest international organization in the world, as well as who are the founding figures of the UN. Furthermore, this article will also discuss the characteristics of the United Nations as an international organization in terms of various classification aspects.
In addition, this article will also discuss the role of the United Nations as an international organization that maintains the stability of world peace, including protecting the human rights of every individual and community group in the world.
Apart from that, to make it easier to understand how the UN works, we will also discuss the organizational structure of the UN and the functions of each of the bodies in it. Here’s the full discussion.
History of the Founding of the United Nations as an International Organization
Long before the United Nations was formed, the League of Nations (LBB) had been born as a reaction to World War I. LBB was the result of the Versailles Peace Conference on April 28, 1919 which then prompted the formation of an international organization that had higher power than the state. Here, LBB has the goal of maintaining international solidarity and preventing a repeat of world wars.
In its development, the LBB failed in carrying out its role, partly because it did not have the authority to punish the aggressor , authoritarian countries such as Japan and Germany left the LBB, the LBB’s covenants contained many weaknesses and the country’s lack of political will for peace. -member countries, member countries still adhere to the doctrine of absolute sovereignty, and are unable to prevent the Japanese aggression against Manchuria, the German aggression against Austria, and the conquest of Ethiopia by Italy, triggering World War II.
LBB’s failure to maintain world peace eventually led to the formation of a new international organization, namely the UN or United Nations (UN) on June 26, 1945, where the UN Charter itself came into force on October 24, 1945. The UN was born with improvements in several aspects, including: structure cooperation; work procedures and authorities; technical cooperation/special institution which is revived; detailing purposes more or less the same but improved.
The formation of the United Nations itself had been planned since World War II, by the President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, who opened the discourse regarding the international organization to succeed the LBB with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill aboard the warship Augusta in Newfoundland Bay.
The General Assembly was first held on January 10, 1946 in London and was attended by representatives from 51 countries after previously the United Nations Charter was ratified by five permanent security members, namely France, the United States, the Soviet Union, China and the United Kingdom, as well as 46 other countries.
As an institution that plays a major role in the international world, the United Nations recognizes several official languages that can be used in its institutional activities, including English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese and Arabic. The main headquarters of the United Nations itself is located in New York, United States. The number of countries that are members of the United Nations itself has so far reached 193 countries.
United Nations Founding Figures and Main Countries in the Formation of the United Nations
The formation of the United Nations cannot be separated from the role of the founding figures of the United Nations who initiated the birth of this international organization. In the history of the formation of the United Nations, there were founding figures of the United Nations who played an important role in planning to form the United Nations.
The first founding figure of the United Nations to play a role in the formation of the United Nations was the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was the first figure to propose the formation of the United Nations. Prior to the birth of the United Nations, Roosevelt promised a world organization after the LBB failed to prevent world wars. From this promise, he finally initiated the formation of the United Nations with the aim of creating international peace after World War II and preventing another world war from happening again.
Roosevelt’s dreams and ideas were later supported by Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister who served from 1940-1945. His meeting with President Roosevelt at the Arcadia Conference led him to participate in supporting the formation of the United Nations to maintain world peace and prevent another world war from happening again. Churchill and Roosevelt finally agreed to resolve post-war international disputes through peace negotiations without involving violence that could trigger war.
To strengthen his intention to form the United Nations, Roosevelt finally met Joseph Stalin, the supreme leader of the Soviet Union at that time, in Tehran, Iran in November 1943. During that meeting, Roosevelt put forward his desire to form the United Nations and was welcomed by Stalin. The support from the three great founding figures of the United Nations from the three giant countries eventually became the forerunners of the founding of the United Nations.
The three major founding figures of the United Nations finally represented the support of the three major countries, namely the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union. the founding of the United Nations so that the three countries are referred to as “The Big Three”. The deal establishing the United Nations continued at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington DC, where US, British and Soviet diplomats negotiated with Chinese diplomats.
The four major countries which became known as “The Big Four” also agreed to formulate the goals, structure and functions of the United Nations, despite the fact that each party still disagreed on several matters, including those related to voting.
In understanding the founders of the United Nations, of course we need to get to know the key founding figures of the United Nations in more detail. Here we have summarized a brief profile of the founding figures of the United Nations.
1.Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States, was born in Hyde Park, New York on January 30, 1882. At the age of 63 he died in Warm Springs. He is better known as FDR by the people of the United States and even the international community. Roosevelt succeeded in becoming the only president of the United States who was elected four times in elections during his term of office from 1933 to 1945. This figure who had worked as a lawyer at the age of 25 became a key figure in the international world, including as one of the founder of the United Nations.
Roosevelt is a figure who was born from a family with an affluent economic background. However, he has also faced difficult times that made him sick until he experienced a disability phase. When he was 39 years old, he was poisoned by Rony Dappit, resulting in leg paralysis caused by Guillain-Barre syndrome .
The incident that happened to him in 1921 made Roosevelt have a patient character and the ability to control himself. In 1924, he finally recovered from his illness.
Roosevelt is a Harvard University graduate who then made himself move in the forefront of reform supporters. Before successfully initiating the founding of the United Nations, Roosevelt was famous for his leadership in bringing the United States to recover from the “Great Depression “ , namely a period in which the level of the economy decreased dramatically throughout the world. This event first started in 1929 which was marked by the event “Black Tuesday” or can be interpreted as the event of the fall of the New York stock market.
2. Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born to Lord Randolph Churchill, a well-known political figure, and Lady Randolph, a daughter of the United States millionaire, Leonard Jerome. He was born in Oxfordshire, England on 20 November 1874 prematurely when his parents were traveling on horseback.
Winston Churchill is a political figure best known as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. He is highly skilled in war strategy, speech, diplomacy and politics, making him a popular figure in Great Britain as well as a key figure in world history.
With all this reputation, Churchill was very involved and experienced in the military field to international politics, especially those related to World War II and the founding of the United Nations.
Judging from his academic history during his education, Churchill was not a child with a myriad of achievements. He is better known as a revolutionary rebel figure. He served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940-1945 and 1951-1955.
3. Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin was a leader of the Soviet Union after the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. He is known for his dictatorship during the lead of the Soviet Union. The international world gave him the title of man of steel or steel man . During his tenure, he is estimated to have killed an estimated 30 million people in Russia and surrounding countries. In addition, as a follower of Charles Darwin’s The Origins of Man , he is also known for not believing in the existence of God or religion.
Prior to occupying the highest peak of power in the Soviet Union, Stalin served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In fighting for the position of party leader, Stalis had to face his main opponent, namely Leon Trotsky. In the struggle for power, he finally succeeded in embracing all the forces within the communist party to support him, then expelled Trotsky from the territory of the Soviet Union and in the end Stalin made an order to hunt down his political opponent.
From there, Trotsky was killed while on the run in Mexico in 1940. Stalin did not hesitate to kill people who were dangerous to the continuation of his political career, including colleagues in his party. Those who do not agree with Stalin will be regarded as enemies of the state and must be eliminated and killed.
In World War II (1939-1945), the Soviet Union under the leadership of Stallin sided with the Allies against Nazi Germany. In its peak event, he mobilized all available troops to carry out the invasion of Stalingrad in order to fight Nazi Germany. From this incident, many victims fell, especially Soviet Union civilians.
United Nations Specialized Agencies
In an effort to achieve its goal of maintaining world peace as well as the welfare of member countries, the United Nations has various special agencies that have roles and tasks in their respective fields. Some of these specialized agencies include the following:
1. International Labor Organization (ILO)
The International Labor Organization (ILO) has the task of formulating international standards in the field of labor. This body also plays a role in helping workers around the world to organize and negotiate with the companies where they work and local governments. The agency, which is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, also provides support for the movement to abolish forced labor and strives for equal rights and opportunities for every worker from various backgrounds.
2. International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
This special agency headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland handles a variety of communications, technology and information affairs in an international scope. ITU also has a big role to play in connecting various communities spread across the world.
3. World Health Organization (WHO)
WHO is a UN special agency that deals with international health issues which aims to achieve equal and quality health standards for all member countries. This special agency headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland also has an important role in helping various health problems faced by member countries.
4. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Headquartered in Washington DC, United States of America, the IMF has a role in providing loan funds for UN member countries that have financial difficulties. This special agency contributes to investing in various projects planned and to be implemented by member countries.
5. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
UNESCO has a role to play in supporting the advancement of education and science throughout the world. In addition, this special agency headquartered in Paris, France also has a role in protecting various cultural and historic sites around the world.
6. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
UNWTO plays a role in promoting tourism destinations around the world. This special agency is based in Madrid, Spain.
7. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
UNIDO plays a role in industrial development to alleviate poverty while promoting sustainable globalization in member countries. This special agency is headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
8. World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
WMO plays a role in facilitating the exchange of information and meteorological data for aviation, goods delivery, security, and agriculture between member countries. This UN special agency is based in Geneva, Switzerland.
9.Universal Postal Union (UPU)
Headquartered in Bern, Switzerland, UPU accommodates all the activities and operations of postal companies in each member country. This special agency is tasked with ensuring that postal products and services are up-to-date.
10. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
WIPO plays a role in protecting intellectual property rights for individuals and organizations originating from UN member countries.
11. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
FAO has a role in fighting hunger worldwide, connecting developed and developing countries in terms of food supply and agriculture, and supporting the development of agricultural technology in member countries. This special agency is based in Rome, Italy.
12. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
ICAO plays a role in the development of international standards for the aviation industry in member countries. This special agency is headquartered in Montreal, Canada.
13. International Maritime Organization (IMO)
IMO plays a role in drafting regulations related to the framework for shipping and shipping goods by international sea routes. This special agency also has a focus on security, legality, technical, security, and efficiency issues. In carrying out its duties, IMO is headquartered in London, England.
14. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
IFAD is tasked with overcoming poverty in underdeveloped and underdeveloped areas, hunger in poor countries, and malnutrition in the international community by increasing productivity, quality and standard of living. This special agency is based in Rome, Italy.
The World Bank has a role in providing loans with low or no interest to developing countries so that these loans can be used as capital to improve the welfare of the country concerned. It is hoped that the role of the loan can also encourage the borrowing country to improve the economy. This special agency is headquartered in Washington DC, United States of America.
Characteristics of the United Nations as an International Organization
As an international organization, the United Nations has several characteristics in terms of several aspects of classification, starting from the aspect of time, membership, the mechanism for recruiting members, the nature of the organization, and the scope of functions which are detailed as follows:
1. Classification Based on Time
The United Nations is a permanent international organization, which is established for an indefinite period. In general, the articles of association do not mention a clause when the organization will be disbanded. This is the opposite of non-permanent international organizations, which are established within a predetermined period of time, for example in 3 years, 5 years or if the goals of the organization have been successfully achieved then the organization will disband. In this kind of international organization, generally the articles of association include the rules regarding the dissolution of the organization.
2. Classification based on who is a member
PPB is included in a public international organization, which was founded by countries in the world or its members are the legitimate governments of countries in the world. This type of organization has three characteristics, namely being established based on international agreements, having equipment/organs, and the law that applies is international law. This is different from private international organizations whose membership is not a state, but are international corporations and international non-governmental organizations.
3. Classification Based on Member Recruitment Mechanism
The United Nations is an example of an organization of universal character , whose membership consists of various countries without distinguishing their government system or economic system. This type of organization is the opposite of closed organizations, where membership is based on certain criteria, for example based on region, the same background, and limited functions and goals.
4. Classification Based on the Nature of the Organization
The United Nations is part of supranational organizations, which have the authority to make decisions or issue regulations that are directly binding on member countries, and some are even directly binding on individuals from member countries or member state companies.
This type of international organization has requirements, including: having the authority to make decisions so that it is not entirely dependent on the cooperation of all members; the organization has the power to make rules binding on member states; the organization can enforce its decisions; and has an autonomous financial organization. This type of international organization is the opposite of intergovernmental organizations, in which the organization obtains legal status from its member countries and is coordinative in nature.
5. Classification Based on Scope of Function
The United Nations is included in an international organization that has a versatile ( comprehensive ) function, which is an organization whose goals cover all the problems faced by its member countries.
United Nations Organizational Structure
The United Nations has six main organs in carrying out its functions, including:
1. General Assembly (General Assembly)
The General Assembly is the main deliberative assembly of the UN which consists of all UN member states. This assembly meets annually under a leader elected from member countries with the provision of one vote per member (one vote for one member).
2. Security Council (Security Council)
The Security Council consists of 15 member countries, each of which comes from 5 permanent members who have veto rights (absolute rights), namely China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States and 10 non-permanent members, which are replaced every two years , which is currently Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Colombia, Gabon, Japan, Germany, India, Lebanon, Nigeria, Portugal, and South Africa. The Security Council plays a role in maintaining international peace and security among UN member states.
3. Secretariat (Secretariat)
The UN Secretariat is led by a UN Secretary General who in carrying out his duties is assisted by a staff of international civil servants who come from all over the world. The Secretary-General has several duties, including providing research, information and facilities required by UN agencies for their meetings.
In addition, the Secretary-General is responsible for assisting in resolving international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information on implementing Security Council decisions, and consulting member governments on various initiatives. In carrying out his duties, the Secretary General serves for five years.
4. Economic and Social Council (Social and Economic Council)
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ECOSOC consists of 54 members, all of whom are elected by the General Assembly for a term of three years. The President of ECOSOC is elected for a term of one year. ECOSOC’s institutional functions include gathering information, advising member countries, and making recommendations.
5. Trusteeship Council
The United Nations Trusteeship Council is a further international trusteeship system that has been established by members of the United Nations to administer local governments placed under United Nations supervision through individual trusteeship agreements. The council which consists of five members regulates that areas without self-government are managed by paying attention to the local population so as to achieve international security and peace.
6. International Court of Justice (International Court)
The International Court of Justice or ICJ has a role in adjudicating and resolving disputes between UN member states and providing advisory opinions to the official organs and specialized agencies of the UN to resolve problems. The ICJ judges consist of 15 judges, who are elected for nine-year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council. These judges are assisted by the Registry, their administrative organ. Apart from that, ad hoc judges can also be formed to handle several cases where it is deemed necessary to present them.
We have seen how the United Nations was formed, the founders of the United Nations, including knowing the characteristics of the United Nations as an international organization. Apart from that, Sinaumed’s also knows more about the United Nations with various organs that are part of the United Nations, including a number of special agencies that support the role of the United Nations. Hopefully this article is useful.
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