3 Food Substances As a Source of Human Energy

Food Substances as a Source of Energy – Does Sinaumed’s realize that any food we consume contains a variety of substances which can function as an energy source? Yep, that’s why eating activities, especially eating nutritious food, is important because it makes the body have sufficient energy sources for daily activities. Try Sinaumed’s, imagine if you don’t eat all day, you will feel weak, right?

So, when consuming a food, it is highly recommended to eat foods that contain a variety of important substances, starting from carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and so on, so that the body can always be healthy. However, the intake of these nutrients must have good control, if it is excessive then of course it will actually make the body unhealthy. Remember, everything in excess is not good, right?

Then, what are the nutrients that can function as a source of energy so that our bodies are always strong for daily activities? What are the proper limits for the intake of these food substances? So, so that Sinaumed’s has knowledge about nutritious food that functions as an energy source, let’s look at the following review!

Food Substances That Serve As Energy Sources

If there is a question about “what food substances have a function as a source of energy so that the body can be strong in carrying out daily activities” , then the answer is carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Yep, these three types of nutrients play an important role so that the body doesn’t always feel tired when on the move. Well, here is a description of the three nutrients as a source of energy for the body!

1. Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are one of the substances contained in food and function as a source of energy for the body. Carbohydrates are a group of compounds that can go through the process of hydrolysis (breaking down of chemical compounds by adding water) into polysaccharides, aldehydes and ketones. If in plants, carbohydrates will be starch or starch. Starch is a polymer formed from monomer types of glucose, which when connected by chains are similar to maltose, for example amylose and amylopectin. When dissolved in iodine, amylose will usually be blue in color, while amylopectin will be red-purple. In short, carbohydrates are a type of substance contained in food, whether it is still in raw or cooked form.

The existence of carbohydrates certainly plays an important role in everyday life, because it is a source of energy for both humans and animals that consume them. Carbohydrates have several elements, including carbon, hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). In humans with high carbohydrate conditions alias in a state of not starving, the concentration of glucose increases its function.

Types of Carbohydrates

a) Monosaccharides (Simple Sugars)

Monosaccharides are compounds that contain six or five carbon atoms. This type of carbohydrates cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler ones, but instead results in the hydrolysis of the other three groups. Compounds in this monosaccharide are colorless, have a sweet taste, are crystalline, and can dissolve in water.

One type of monosaccharide that is important for the body is glucose, aka sugar, which has six carbon atoms. Glucose has the chemical formula C. Glucose is the most common type of carbohydrate as well as the most common organic compound found in nature.

b) Oligosaccharides

Namely a compound that contains two or more of the simple sugars which are then linked by the formation of acetals. The formation of acetal occurs between aldehyde groups (ketones) and hydroxyl groups. If two simple sugars are combined, it will become a disaccharide, while if three sugars are combined, it will become a trisaccharide. Well, the bond connecting the sugar compound is called a glycoside.

Glycoside bonds can be hydrolyzed by dilute acids to produce monosaccharide components. Disaccharides found in nature such as sucrose, lactose, and maltose.

c) Polysaccharides

Namely compounds consisting of many simple sugar bonds and then connected in glycosidic bonds. These polysaccharides include the presence of cellulose, starch, and dextrin, namely the main substance that cannot dissolve in water and has no taste.

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Carbohydrate Characteristics

  • It consists of the elements C, H, and O with a ratio of 1 atom of C, 2 atoms of H, and 1 atom of O.
  • Usually found in plants and animals that act as a structural and metabolic.
  • Carbohydrates in plants are usually used for photosynthesis, namely CO2 + H2O and produce starch or cellulose.
  • Carbohydrates cannot be produced by animals.
  • Through the process of metabolism, carbohydrates can be the main substance as a source of energy and energy reserves.

Examples of Carbohydrates

a) Sucrose

Plants that contain sucrose carbohydrates are sugar cane, pineapple, and apricots. Unfortunately, the existence of this type of carbohydrate when consumed in excess will actually damage dental health. Not only that, consuming sucrose without any control will also be associated with metabolic syndrome causing diabetes mellitus.

b) Maltose

Also known as malt sugar, which is made up of two glucose molecules joined together. Usually, maltose will go through a process of hydrolysis by maltase in the intestine.

c) Lactose

Usually called milk sugar because it is found in milk. Lactose is a large sugar molecule made up of two smaller sugar molecules, namely glucose and galactose. As with maltose, this carbohydrate also goes through hydrolysis in the intestine.

Sources of Carbohydrates in the Form of Food

  • Corn

Apart from rice, corn is also often used as a source of carbohydrates for the body, especially in the areas of Madura and East Nusa Tenggara. This corn food is usually processed by boiling and contains folic acid and fiber which is good for the body.

  • Sweet potato

Similar to cassava, sweet potato is also a plant root which turns out to contain large amounts of carbohydrates. Orange-colored sweet potatoes contain beta carotene which can act as vitamin A while preventing cancer. Meanwhile, the purple sweet potato which is usually used as a food coloring is also good in preventing blood clots and contains antioxidants. Sweet potatoes will usually be processed in various ways, for example steamed, fried, or even made into cakes.

  • Oats

This oat actually comes from wheat and plays an important role in lowering the body’s cholesterol. Usually, oats will be brewed or boiled until they resemble mush. However, Sinaumed’s can also add it to cakes or bread.

  • Potato

Potatoes contain carbohydrates with low calories so they are suitable for diet programs. How to process it also varies, for example fried, baked, boiled, and pounded. When implementing a diet program, usually potatoes will be served with vegetables and side dishes.

Functions of Carbohydrates for the Body

  • As a balance of acids and bases in the body.
  • As the main element in the process of metabolism.
  • Can prevent the imperfection of fat oxidation process.
  • As a supplier of body energy.
  • Helps expedite the digestive process.
  • As the main element in optimizing protein work.
  • Gives a full effect because it contains cellulose.
  • Prevents the formation of ketosis.
  • Helps absorption of calcium.
  • Forming other compounds, such as fatty acids and amino acids.
  • As a constituent of the gel in the cell nucleus.

2. Proteins

Protein is a polypeptide macromolecular compound composed of a number of amino acids which are then linked by peptide bonds. Protein compounds can be found in humans, animals and plants. Protein is more similar to other organic substances such as fats and carbohydrates, but protein is more nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron.

Classification of Proteins

Based on their molecular structure, proteins can be classified into two types, namely:

a) Globular Proteins

Namely proteins that are round or elliptical in the presence of folded polypeptide chains.

b) Protein Fiber

Namely proteins in the form of fibers or fibers with the presence of polypeptide chains extending on one axis.

Source of Protein

Basically, protein sources that are useful as a source of human energy can be classified into 2 types, namely conventional and non-conventional protein sources.

a) Conventional Proteins

Conventional protein is a source of protein in the form of agricultural and animal husbandry products, as well as processed products. Based on its nature, this protein source can be further divided into groups, namely vegetable protein and animal protein.

  • Vegetable protein

Namely protein that comes from vegetable ingredients, aka plant products, especially grains and nuts. Meanwhile, vegetables and fruits do not contribute sufficient amounts of protein.

  • Animal protein

Namely protein derived from animal products, such as meat (be it beef, chicken, goat, and buffalo), chicken eggs, duck eggs, cow’s milk, and fishery products (be it fish, shellfish, shrimp, crab, and others).

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This animal protein is touted as a type of protein that has high quality, because it contains complete essential amino acids. Not only that, animal protein also has high digestibility so that the amount absorbed by the body will also be high.

b) Unconventional Protein

Is a new source of protein which is currently being developed through high standard technology, in order to meet the needs of the world’s population for protein. The source of this protein usually comes from microbes (be it bacteria, yeast, or mold) and is known as a single cell protein. Unfortunately, until now the product has not been developed as food for consumption.

Function of Proteins

  • Helps the process of growth of body cells, especially in children and adolescents.
  • Helps the body work in neutralizing foreign substances that enter the body.
  • Regulate body metabolism.
  • As the main intake, especially for those who are on a low sugar diet.
  • Maintaining the balance between acid base and fluids in the body.
  • Plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the pH of body fluids.
  • The main ingredient in the synthesis of substances, such as hormones, antibody substances, and others.

Features of Proteins

  • Has a unique chemical composition, because it is a pure compound.
  • Has a typical molecular weight.
  • Has a distinctive amino acid sequence, detailed in genetics.

Protein Needs for the Body

The human body’s need for protein can be calculated by knowing the amount of nitrogen lost. If someone consumes food without protein, then the nitrogen in the body will come out. Therefore, the amount of wasted protein will represent the amount of nitrogen. This nitrogen will usually come out with urine, with an average of 16 mg/kg body weight and feces 12 mg/kg body weight.

3. Fat

Fat is a molecule consisting of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and sometimes also nitrogen and phosphorus. Fat can also be referred to as a condensed energy source. Humans certainly have a balanced fat content as a permanent energy reserve. However, if the fat in the body has an amount that exceeds normal limits, it will actually cause the body to become obese and will eventually cause various types of chronic diseases. Therefore, excess fat levels in the blood must be removed by exercise and diet.

There are 4 molecules in fat, namely 1 molecule of glycerol and 3 molecules of fatty acids. In fatty acids there are hydrocarbon chains and carboxyl groups.

Fat Classification

Based on chemical composition, fat in the body can be classified into 3 types, namely:

a) Saturated Fat

In the form of bond moieties of fatty acids in a single bond. For example, palmitic acid and stearic acid which can usually be found in lard or animal fat.

b) Monounsaturated Fats 

This type of fat contains one double bond. For example oleic acid which is usually found in olive oil.

c) Polyunsaturated Fats

Which type of fat contains more than one double bond. For example linoleic acid which is usually found in seed oil, soybean oil, and corn oil.

Fat Function

  • As an energy source. Especially in oxidized fat, which can also be useful for maintaining body temperature.
  • Build body tissue, namely with some fat that enters the body’s cells.
  • Body protector. About 45% of fat is in the abdominal cavity and protects these organs from impact or harm from outside the body.
  • Prevents heat loss from the body.
  • Prevent hunger, especially after eating.
  • Helps absorption from the intestine, because it usually contains fat-soluble vitamins.
  • Save protein, especially when the body is sick.
  • As a lubricant in the digestive process.

Fat Source

a) Animal Fat

Includes lard from various animals, such as cows, goats, and chickens. This salary is also usually found in poultry, for example eggs, milk, and other processed products. Dark fleshy fish tissues, for example sardines, salmon also contain animal fat.

b) Vegetable Fats

Includes olive oil, coconut oil, corn oil, palm oil, and others. All of these vegetable fats contain plant sterols which are not easily absorbed by the intestines, but not cholesterol.

Well, that’s a review of any food substance that functions as a source of energy for the body. Sinaumed’s must regularly consume foods that contain these three nutrients so that they can be strong in their daily activities, ok?

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