How to Make Conclusions According to Good and Right Rules

How to Make Conclusions According to Good and Right Rules – For those who are currently working in the world of education, the word conclusion will be familiar in every paper they write. Whether it’s papers, scientific papers, scientific articles, theses, and others, their existence is important given their vital function. However, there are not a few people who do not know how to make conclusions according to existing rules. So that sometimes the results of the work we write actually raises a lot of questions in the conclusion section because we don’t know how. It is in this section that the author should state the essence of what he has produced so that it adds to the understanding of anyone who sees it.

The conclusions we write at the end of a paper explain the whole or essence of an idea or research. This section will usually attract the reader’s attention because it contains a final discussion that is useful for increasing their knowledge. A writer must pay attention to this section, not only focus on prioritizing the beginning or introduction and content. Before knowing how to make good and correct conclusions, we need to understand the meaning of conclusions?

Definition of Conclusion

In KBBI (Big Indonesian Dictionary), conclusions are decisions taken from ways of thinking both deductively and inductively from an idea or discussion. The general definition of a conclusion is a brief statement taken from an analysis, discussion of a story, or the results of a conversation. The conclusion is the most important part in a work because it contains all the discussions in a short, concise, and clear manner that creates a good impression on the reader. With this, the reader will understand more deeply than what he read which can be found at the end.

Many writers have difficulty in making a conclusion, they usually find it difficult to determine or choose something interesting to serve as a climax. Especially if the results of the writing are research, the conclusions can provide answers to questions in the early part of the research. Usually one or two paragraphs are enough to provide an overview of research results as in thesis writing. But for some results, more than two paragraphs will be needed to explain how the final result will be described. So, how to make conclusions is an inseparable part of a writer.


Characteristics of a Good and Right Conclusion

How to determine a conclusion is not so difficult to find because there are several characteristics that describe a section. To know how to make a conclusion, first understand the characteristics of a sentence that shows a conclusion. The characteristics of the conclusions are as follows.

1. Simple, Short, and Clear

The first characteristics are that the conclusion must be simple, brief, and clear. In it, it summarizes some of the ideas or statements that were previously presented in the contents section. It is important not to elaborate on new ideas that were not conveyed in the previous sections so as not to create the impression of multiple interpretations.

2. Messages Can Be Delivered

In a text, there must be information or messages to be conveyed in order to increase the knowledge of those who enjoy it. Likewise with the conclusion, it must contain certain information or messages addressed to the reader.

3. Contains the essence of the writing

The essence is a summary whose content is the same as what has been explained, but uses its own language that has been developed. Even though it’s concise, don’t let any part not be listed because the conclusion must contain the entire contents of the text or reading.

4. Starting from Special Things Become General Things

The meaning of the special becomes general, that is, mention things that are characteristic of a concept in a few explanatory sentences. After that, at the end of the sentence, arrange sentences that include all of these characteristics in one general sentence.

5. Using Standard Vocabulary

The conclusion must contain standard vocabulary, avoid using phrases outside the Indonesian spelling guidelines. Don’t use terms that most people don’t know because they will raise contextual questions that may not be contained in the conclusion.

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6. Can join the main sentence

The conclusion can be found at the end of the sentence, but usually it will relate to the main sentence in a paragraph. To determine the core, then combine the main sentence with the final sentence of the paragraph to form a conclusion.

7. Can be a causal relationship or a causal effect

The causal relationship in a paragraph can be the key to getting a conclusion from the reading text. When one knows which causal relationships occur in it, one will have no trouble finding the core of the problem being discussed.

8. Made based on Key Words in Explanatory Sentences and Main Ideas

Conclusions must be built based on the main ideas in each paragraph. In addition, keywords in the explanatory sentence must also be included so that they can cover the contents of the entire section into a unified whole. Authors can use paraphrasing techniques or use their own sentences as long as the meaning does not change.

How to Make Conclusions

There are a number of ways that can be used as a guide in writing a conclusion at the end of the article. Guidance regarding making conclusions can be seen through the explanation below.

1. Re-read the Text

The first is to understand correctly what has been written by re-reading the contents of the text to make it easier to draw a conclusion. If you don’t understand the contents one time reading, then a writer must read it again until you really understand it.

2. Record the Main Idea in the Text

Find the main idea in the text or writing that has been compiled in the form of ideas or main ideas that are the focus of the writing. This is useful so that researchers can explain the conclusions of the writing and the message that will be conveyed to the reader.

3. Not Using Repeated Words

The conclusion essentially contains sentences that are basically the same as what was stated at the beginning. But in this section the writing is presented in a different language, not the result of a copy of what has been written. Avoid rewriting with previous discussions by using language developed or paraphrased while still conveying the main topic of the writing.

4. Use the Inference Technique

For a writer, there are many techniques that can be used as a way to make conclusions on the results of his writing. The method that can be used as a way of making conclusions is as follows.

a. Deduction Method

According to the origin of the word, the deduction method is a way of making conclusions by explaining the problem at the beginning and then making a summary of what has been described. The next step is to connect the data or facts that have been obtained with the core of the problem that will be sought to get an overview. Then explain the meaning and consequences of these conclusions both theoretically and practically so that they can attract readers to explore them as well. That way the results of our writing can contribute to being developed by others into even more interesting writing results.

b. Analogy Method

This method is carried out by providing ideas, views, or conveying the subject of research to make it simpler and easier to understand. This method is widely used in making scientific conclusions such as in writing a thesis or in certain research.

c. Correlation Method

Judging from the origin of the word, correlation means relationship which means connecting a concept with other concepts so that it becomes more cohesive in a study. The first step is to describe the topics that have been discussed in the initial section and look for causal relationships that occur between the two. This method is used with the intention of reaffirming the ideas in the earlier sections that have been described previously.

5. Write Opinions Regarding Existing Problems

In writing a conclusion, an author is allowed to write a personal opinion on the findings or facts obtained by an author. However, keep in mind that this opinion must strengthen existing data so that it does not give birth to a new concept that is different from before. In several scientific papers, this final section can be compiled based on research data or based on certain references. Avoid opinions that deviate from the content in the discussion which makes the weight of the writing decrease and cannot be used as a reference for readers.

6. Reveal Limitations

In a study, it is not uncommon for researchers to find several things that make their research not run optimally as previously expected. These things that are commonly found in research are referred to as limitations. Some limitations that cause a study to not be optimal, such as the use of inadequate theory, unsuitable research methods, and so on. The researcher should write down the limitations he found during the research in the conclusion section as a reference for future researchers who will investigate similar matters. The goal is of course one, so that it can be further developed in the future or can further expand the results of the research compared to previous findings.

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7. Place yourself as a reader

The end result of a writer’s work is the reader, because they are the ones who will enjoy what has been written, not themselves. The results of the writing are not media vent like in a diary, so think about what the reader can do after reading the conclusion. Position yourself as a reader so that you can draw a point that can motivate you to read the entire text.

How to make the right conclusions for the writer is needed because there are still some mistakes in making conclusions that are experienced by many people. Some mistakes that are still made by the author are as follows.

1. Using long-winded language

The use of language that is not brief and seems long-winded will make the end of the writing unable to express a clear general picture. Precisely this will make the audience wonder what kind of essence the author wants to convey. Finally, people’s interest in reading it decreases because they cannot catch the intent that the author describes.

2. Presenting ideas that are not explained in the content

The author’s second mistake is usually to present new ideas beyond the results of the writing in the contents section. If you want to explain new ideas in writing, it’s best to make one or two paragraphs that build on the contents. Such errors will usually make the reader feel confused about determining the essence after reading the conclusion.

3. Write down the data in the form of statistical results

Some people are still stuck with the use of data, especially the results of thesis research which present statistical results at the end of their writing. The results of data processing should not be presented in the conclusion section, because they are located in the contents section. It would be better if the conclusion at the end contains a summary of the entire content as stated in the previous paragraphs.

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Example Conclusion

The following is an example of how to draw conclusions based on the rules described in this article to provide a clearer picture. Examples can be seen in the following cases.

“Based on the results of research by several researchers, it was concluded that the corona virus is a new epidemic that is categorized as very dangerous because it can cause severe illness. Even people who have congenital diseases (comorbid) and are exposed to this virus, will further exacerbate their condition and become the cause of mass deaths. It is believed that this virus first appeared in China at the end of 2019 because so many people in Wuhan City suddenly became sick. The cause of the emergence of this virus still needs to be studied in more depth, but it is believed that it originated from the seafood market and the consumption of certain animals. Governments around the world are moving quickly to anticipate the further spread of this virus by making various policies and strict health protocols.

From the reading text above, the conclusion is at the beginning of the paragraph indicated by the concluded sentence. If you find words such as concluded, thus, therefore in the reading sentence, then you can be sure it is a concluding sentence.

The second example of how to draw conclusions from a paragraph can be seen in the example below.

“The event to commemorate the Republic of Indonesia’s Independence Day this year went lively even though the pandemic situation had not ended. Various competitions can still be held even though they have to comply with health protocols as regulated by health authorities and also the government.

Some of these competitions include tug of war, but the tug of war organized by several parties is different from the tug of war in the pre-pandemic situation. They take advantage of technological sophistication and progress to be used as a tug-of-war media, namely by using certain applications such as voting on Instagram. The trick is to pit the power of voting support between the two groups to be contested in several rounds so that later the superior party will qualify for the next stage. Thus, the spirit of nationalism and nationalism of Indonesian citizens can be maintained and a sense of unity can be preserved.”

The main sentence is located at the beginning of the paragraph which states that the event to commemorate Indonesia’s independence day can run lively even though the pandemic is not over. The final part of the paragraph is that in this way, the spirit of nationalism and nationalism is maintained and a sense of unity can be preserved. So it can be concluded as follows:

“This year’s commemoration of the Independence Day of the Republic of Indonesia can run lively even though the pandemic is not over yet, through a virtual tug-of-war competition that can maintain the spirit of nationalism and nationalism of Indonesian citizens.” This kind of conclusion technique is done by combining the main sentence with the sentence at the end of the paragraph.

How to make conclusions is important because it presents a review or essence of a work, be it writing or speaking. Don’t think that without a conclusion, someone’s work can still be judged well by those who read it. It is precisely in this section that the quality of the work can be seen and can move the reader to think or explore deeper.

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