Intentions of the Votive Fast: Procedures, Consequences, and its Kinds

Intention of Fasting Nazar – Nazar comes from Arabic which means promise. Promises made can be both good and bad. More specifically, a vow is a promise that we make to undertake an act of worship that was originally not obligatory to become obligatory. As we know that promises must be kept, let alone promises with Allah SWT. to perform an act of worship. If not definitely have to accept sanctions or consequences.

Nazar was originally a sunnah fast, but it becomes an obligatory fast if someone promises or vows to perform worship because of a vow. Most of the scholars also say that votive fasts are obligatory fasts because of paying promises. However, a vow will not be valid if someone makes a vow on the basis of behavior that is permissible, makruh or unlawful.

Regarding the vows, it has also been written in the hadith narrated by Bukhari, where Rasulullah SAW. said, “Whoever vows to obey Allah, then fulfill that vow. Whoever vows to disobey Allah, then do not disobey Him.” (Reported by Bukhari).

Islam allows its followers to make vows. Even Allah SWT. He also praises those who make vows and fulfill their vows. Allah SWT. once said that, “And let them perfect their vows.” (QS Al-Hajj: 29).

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Intention of Nazar Fasting

The intention of fasting vows can be said in the heart or verbally for someone who has made a vow before. In this case, votive fasts include acts of worship. A Muslim who wants to carry it out must read his intention first. Here is the intention of fasting vows.

نَوَيْتُ صَوْمَ النَّذَرِ لِلّٰهِ تَعَالىَ

Nawaitu shaumannadzri lillâhi ta’a la

Meaning: I intend to fast vows because of Allah ta’aala

The intention of the votive fast must be recited at night, that is, the night before the votive fast. In the opinion of Fuqaha Syafii said that the votive fast will not be valid if someone reads his intention during the day.

Ordinances of the Votive Fast

This votive fast is the same as fasting in general, where we are required to endure hunger and thirst during fasting. In addition, we are also prohibited from doing things that break the fast from sunrise to sunset. For more details, the procedure is as follows.

  • It is obligatory to recite the intention of fasting vows at night before starting the fast;
  • Then, fasting begins with sunnah sahur before the time for imsak arrives;
  • Enduring hunger and thirst and other things that cancel it;
  • Then, breaking the fast at sunset or when the maghrib call to prayer resounds.

After hearing the maghrib call to prayer, of course, you have to read a prayer to break your fast before eating the food. Here is the prayer for breaking the fast.

اللهُمَّ لَكَ صُمْتُ وَعَلَى رِزْقِكَ أَفْطَرْتُ فَتَقَبَّلْ مَنِّي إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ السَمِيْعُ الْعَلِيِ

Allâhumma laka shumtu wa ‘alâ rizqika afthartu, taqabbal minnii innaka antassamii’ul aliim

Meaning: “O Allah, for You is my fast and for Your sustenance I break my fast, so accept it from me, verily You are All Hearing and All Knowing.”

As it is said that those who are obliged to fast vows are those who make vows, or agreements with Allah SWT. for what he wants to do. If not, of course he must accept the consequences and sins, and must pay expiation.

For example, someone vows that he will fast Monday – Thursday for two months if he is accepted at a college he wants. In this case fasting Monday – Thursday which was originally a sunnah fast becomes a mandatory fast because of a vow from that person.

Not only for Monday – Thursday fasting, vows fasting can also be intended with other fasts such as David’s fast, Ayyamul Bidh fast (white days), Ashura fast (10 Muharam), Arafah fast (9 Zulhijah), six days of fasting in the month of Shawwal, and others. What is not permissible is the vow of fasting during Ramadan, because fasting during Ramadan is a mandatory fast for Muslims in the month of Ramadan.

Kinds of Nazar

In general, vows are divided into two, namely vows lajjaj and vows tabarrur. Here is an explanation of both.

1. Nazar Lajjaj

Nazar lajjaj is a vow that aims to motivate someone, prevent someone, or to convince someone about a news that has been delivered.

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An example of a vow that is intended as motivation is like, “If I don’t finish this reading book within three days then I will give charity worth IDR 500,000.” The vows that are spoken have a motivational basis for oneself. Where will he be excited to finish his reading book with that vow, because if not he has to pay the vow with alms worth IDR 500,000.00.

The next example is a vow that aims to prevent, “If I am lazy to study again, I will give charity worth IDR 500,000.” This vow certainly means that someone is not lazy when studying. With this, someone who makes a vow will always study hard, because if not he will give charity worth Rp. 500,000.00.

The next example is a vow with the aim of convincing someone about a news such as, “If the news that I convey is false, then I will help with your school assignments.” With someone making this vow, the other person will feel confident that the news he gets is true, even though he may not believe it at first.

2. Nazar Tabarrur

Nazar tabarrur is also known as votive mujazah. Nazar tabarrur is someone who intends to undertake a service ( qurbah ) without expecting anything else or by relying on it ( marghu fih ).

An example of a tabarrur vow that does not expect anything else is something like, “I vow to give 1 million rupiah in alms.” After someone says this, it is obligatory for that person to give 1 million rupiah in charity if he already has the money.

The obligation of the vow that he has said that wanting alms is a broad obligation, where a person is not obliged to immediately give alms, unless he is ready with the money he wants to give alms. However, if he is sure that he will not have 1 million rupiah other than that time, then he is obliged to donate the money before it runs out for other purposes.

Then the example of tabarrur vows that are hung with something expected, such as “If Allah heals the disease in my body, then I will fast David for one month.” This means that if someone who makes a vow has recovered from his illness, then he is obliged to fast David for one month.

This book explains the benefits of fasting Monday – Thursday and David’s fast. the benefits obtained include being able to stay young, the body becomes slimmer, more beautiful naturally, the body becomes healthy, is blessed with husnul khatimah, and enters heaven through the door of Ar-Royan.

Violable and Unbreakable Votives

Of the various vows, such as the lajjaj vow and the tabarrur vow, the vow that someone who has made a vow can break is the lajjaj vow. This is because the lajjaj vows have the objectives of the vower such as motivation, self-prevention, and to convince others.

As for tabarrur vows, it does not appear that these vows can be violated. This is because the vows have a specific purpose, so a person who makes a vow must carry out his vows after his goal is achieved.

In lajjaj vows, the three examples of his behavior can be violated, but of course he must pay a fine according to what he has vowed. As in a motivation vow, if a person does not reach his target then he must carry out his vow, the same goes for self-prevention vows and also vows with the aim of convincing others.

When you say a lajjaj vow, you are given a choice when you break that vow. You can carry out as the vow says, for example donating 1 million rupiah in alms or you pay a fine of vows, namely yamin expiation .

Even though someone who utters a lajjaj vow is given two choices when they break it, it is still best to have the one with more value. For example, if someone vows to give 1 million rupiahs in alms, while paying a penalty of expiation by feeding 10 poor people only costs 200 thousand rupiahs, then it is best to do what is promised. Vice versa.

Consequences of Breaking the Votives

Saying a vow is not an obligation, but if you make a vow then there will be obligations that you must fulfill according to the vow you made. If you violate the vows that have been spoken then you have to pay a penalty of expiation.

Some scholars even say that making vows is something that is makruh. This is as written in a hadith which says that, “The Prophet Muhammad Saw. forbidding to say, vows are absolutely not able to refuse something, vows are only issued from people who are curmudgeonly or stingy.” (Reported by Bukhari).

Another hadith in the hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah says that Rasulullah SAW. said, “Indeed, vows do not bring someone close to what Allah has not predestined.”

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“The outcome of the vows is what God wills. Nazar is only issued by people who are stingy. The person who made the vow took out treasure that he did not really want to spend.” (Reported by Bukhari).

So, it’s better when you have made your vows, you should immediately pay what has been vowed or promised to Allah SWT. This must be done because Allah SWT. have granted your request and now it’s your turn to keep your promise.

In QS Al-Hajj verse 29 it is also said that, “Then, let them remove the dirt that is on their bodies and let them complete their vows.”

If someone has violated his vow, it is obligatory to pay the penalty for expiation which has been explained in QS Al-Maidah verse 89 which reads, “Allah will not punish you because of your unintentional oaths (to swear), but He will punish you because of your unintentional oaths. what you did on purpose. So, the expiation (fines for breaking an oath) is to feed ten poor people from the food you (usually) give to your family, clothe them, or free a slave.

Whoever is unable to do so, then (his expiation) fasts three days. That is expiation of your oaths if you swear (and you break them). Keep your vows! Thus Allah explains to you His laws so that you may be grateful (to Him).”

Following are details regarding the expiation fines that must be paid when violating a vow according to QS Al-Maidah verse 89.

  • Feeding 10 poor or underprivileged people;
  • Freed one slave;
  • Giving clothes to 10 poor or underprivileged people.

If a person cannot carry out the payment of the fines of the three expatriates because of violating a vow, then someone who violates the vow must fast for three days.

Conclusion

Nazar is a promise, namely our promise to God to carry out an act, whether it’s worship or alms and other good things. When you want to make a vow, of course it must be based on intention, both in prayer and with a sincere heart. If someone makes a vow with bad intentions then the vow will not be valid.

The procedure for fasting vows is the same as for other fasts. A person who fasts because of a vow must say his intention at night before fasting, then do sunnah sahur before imsak, hold back hunger and thirst and other things that break the fast, and also break the fast after the call to prayer echoes.

Nazar is divided into two, namely Nazar Jallaj and Nazar Tabarrur. Both have different purposes. Nazar jalaj has a goal of self-motivation, self-defense, and convincing others. Meanwhile, vows of tabarrur aim to undertake an act of worship by placing hope behind it or not placing any hope, just making a vow.

If you break your vows, of course you have to carry out what was said in your vows. However, if you don’t do it, you will have to pay the penalty of expiation that was mentioned earlier. If you can’t either then you have to be willing to fast for three days.

  • Procedure for Ablution
  • Names of Angels and Their Duties
  • Definition of Al-Quran and Hadith
  • Definition of Morals
  • Noble Qualities
  • Honest Behavior in Islam
  • Definition of Zakat
  • Pillars of Hajj
  • Understanding Faith In Angels
  • Understanding Aurat
  • List of 99 Asmaul Husna
  • Zakat Fitrah and Zakat Mal
  • Meaning of Tablighi
  • Definition of Zakat Mal
  • The Meaning of the Title Al-Amin Rasulullah SAW
  • Definition of Faith in Language and Terms

Sinaumed’s, this is a brief explanation regarding the intention of the vows, the procedures, consequences, and also the types of vows. Nazar is certainly a good thing to do, but one must also be responsible for what has been said. If not, then the consequences must be to pay the fines that have been mentioned.

For those of you who want to learn more about votives and other Islamic laws, you can buy and read books that have been provided by sinaumedia. sinaumedia as #Friends Without Limits has provided books that you can get. Come on Sinaumed’s, buy the book now!

This book is structured “as” Islamic Law with its branches, but limited to Islamic Civil Law, all of which are an introduction to Islamic Law as a whole.