Intentions, Terms, and Pillars of the Complete Body Prayer

Pillars of the Body Prayer – The funeral prayer is one of the fardhu kifayah or collective obligations. Therefore, if one person somewhere has carried out the obligation of the funeral prayer, then the obligation for other people has dropped.

Even so, carrying out the funeral prayer is a recommendation for anyone who knows that a Muslim relative has died. When going to carry out the funeral prayer, there are several pillars that must be carried out, the goal is that the funeral prayer is valid. The following are the complete intentions, terms and pillars of the funeral prayer.

Requirements for the funeral prayer

There are several conditions for the funeral prayer that you need to know, here are some of the conditions.

  • As is the case when performing the obligatory and sunnah prayers, when performing the funeral prayer one must cover the private parts, be clean from small and large hadas, be pure in terms of clothing, body and place and must face the Qibla.
  • The corpse that will be prayed must have been washed and shrouded in accordance with the Shari’a.
  • The location of the corpse that will be prayed is next to the Qibla of the person praying it. Except when the corpse prayer is performed over the grave or the unseen prayer.

The intention of the funeral prayer

The intention to perform the funeral prayer can be recited in the heart and must coincide with the implementation of takbiratul ihram when praying, as is the case when reading the intention when performing fardhu prayers.

The following is the pronunciation of the intention to perform the funeral prayer, alone and the male body.

Ushalli ‘alâ hâdzal mayyiti fardlan lillâhi ta’âlâ 

Meaning: I intend to perform this man’s funeral prayer fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala.

If the corpse to be prayed for is a woman, then the following is the intention to perform the funeral prayer.

Ushalli ‘alâ hâdzihil mayyitati fardlan lillâhi ta’âlâ

Meaning: I intend to carry out this woman’s funeral prayer fardhu because of Allah Ta’aala.

When carrying out the funeral prayer in congregation and Sinaumed’s becomes a congregation, then the following are the intentions that must be recited in the heart when carrying out the funeral prayer, whether the corpse is male or female.

Ushalli ‘alâ man shalla ‘alaihil imâmu ma’mûman fardlan lillâhi ta’âlâ

Meaning: I intend to perform prayers over the bodies that are prayed by the priest, fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala.

Pillars of Performing the Body Prayer

When going to carry out the funeral prayer, there are several pillars that must be carried out so that the funeral prayer is valid and acceptable to Allah. According to Sheikh Muhammad Nawawi Al Bantani, in a book he wrote entitled Tausyih ala Ibni Qasim explains several pillars of the funeral prayer. Here’s an explanation. 

1. Read intent

As previously explained, when going to perform the funeral prayer, the intention must be recited in the heart along with the takbiratul ihram.

 

2. Stand up 

When performing the funeral prayer, it is obligatory to perform the prayer standing up. This is because the funeral prayer is included in the class of fardhu prayer, whereas when performing fardhu prayer it is obligatory to carry it out standing up.

However, of course the law of praying standing is different if someone is unable to stand. Therefore, he can perform the funeral prayer sitting down, as is the rule when performing the five daily obligatory prayers.

3. Perform takbir four times

When carrying out the funeral prayer, it is included in it to say the takbir four times, including the takbir said when takbiratul ihram.

Therefore, the funeral prayer will be invalid if the number of takbirs uttered is less than four takbirs. When reading the takbir, it is sunnah to raise both hands parallel to the two shoulders, this movement is the same as when doing the takbir in the five daily fardhu prayers.

4. Read Surah Al Fatihah

As with the fardhu prayer, when carrying out the funeral prayer it is obligatory to read the letter al-Fatihah. Read the letter al-Fatihah when the funeral prayer is performed after the first takbir or when takbiratul ihram.

When reading Surah Al-Fatihah, it is best to lower your voice or read slowly. Reading slowly what is meant is, if you can only hear the reading of the letter al Fatihah yourself, even though the funeral prayer is performed at night.

According to the sunnah, before reading the letter al Fatihah after takbiratul ihram , it is better to read ta’awwudz in accordance with the strongest opinion, but when praying the body is not sunnah to read iftitah prayers such as fardhu prayers.

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In addition, the funeral prayer should be carried out briefly, therefore it is better not to read the iftitah prayer because it is considered too long to read when carrying out the funeral prayer.

5. Read blessings

The fifth pillar of the funeral prayer is reading the sholawat which is read after saying the second takbir. At the funeral prayer, the sholawat can be read briefly, at a minimum, it is in accordance with the validity of the funeral prayer, namely the following.

Allâhumma shalli ‘alâ sayyidinâ Muhammad

Meaning: O Allah, give abundance of mercy to the Prophet Muhammad.

Meanwhile, the perfect sholawat reading is the Abrahamic sholawat, which is a prayer that is read at the end of the final tasyahud when the fardhu prayer is recited, along with the Abrahamic sholawat reading.

Allâhumma shalli ‘alâ sayyidinâ Muhammad wa ‘alâ âli sayyidinâ Muhammad, kamâ shallaita ‘alâ sayyidinâ Ibrâhîm wa ‘alâ âli sayyidinâ Ibrâhim, wa bârik ‘alâ sayyidinâ Muhammad, wa ‘alâ âli sayyidinâ Muhammad, kamâ bârakta ‘alâ sayyidina Ibrâhîm wa ‘alâ âli sayyidinâ Ibrâhîm fil ‘âlamîna innaka hamîdun majîd.

It means:

O Allah, give abundance of grace to the Prophet Muhammad and to the family of the Prophet Muhammad. As You gave an abundance of grace to Prophet Abraham and the families of Prophet Abraham. Give abundance and blessings to the Prophet Muhammad and to the family of the Prophet Muhammad, as You have given an abundance of blessings to the Prophet Abraham and to the families of the Prophet Abraham. Because actually in this universe, only You are the Most Praised and the Most Great.

6. Pray for the corpse that is prayed for

The sixth pillar of the funeral prayer is to pray for the body that is prayed for. Praying for the corpse is done after the third takbir during the funeral prayer. Prayers for the bodies, can be read briefly, here is a short prayer for the bodies of men.

Allâhumaghfir lahu

Meaning: O Allah, forgive him men.

Meanwhile, a short prayer when praying for a female body is as follows.

Allâhumaghfir laâ

Meaning: O Allah, forgive women.

However, if you want to read a complete prayer for the body, of course it is permissible. Here is a prayer with the perfect reading for the body of the male sex.

Allâhummaghfir lahu warhamhu wa ‘âfihi wa’fu anhu wa akrim nuzulahu wa wassi’ madkhalahu waghsilhu bilmâ’i wats tsalji wal baradi, wa naqqihi minal khathâyâ kamâ naqaita ats-tsauba al-abyadh minad danasi, wa abdilhu dâran khairan min dârihi wa ahlan khairan min experthi wa zaujan khairan min zaujihi wa adkhilhu al-jannata wa a’udhu min ‘adzâbil qabri wa min adzâbinnâr

It means:

O Allah, forgive him, have mercy on him, set him free and forgive him. Give him a glorious place, widen his grave and bathe him with water, snow or ice. Cleanse him from all faults, as You clean a white garment from all dirt. Then, give him a better home than the house he has in the world, give him a better family than his family in the world, and a better partner than his partner in the world. Then enter him into heaven and give him protection from the torment of the grave and the torment of hell.

As for the complete prayer addressed to the woman’s corpse during the funeral prayer, it is as follows.

Allâhummaghfir lahâ warhamhâ wa ‘âfihâ wa’fu anhâ wa akrim nuzulahâ wa wassi’ madkhalahâ waghsilhâ bilmâ’i wats tsalji wal baradi, wa naqqihâ minal khathâyâ kamâ naqaita ats-tsauba al-abyadh minad danasi, wa abdilhâ dâran khairan min dârihâ wa ahlan khairan min experthâ wa zaujan khairan min zaujihâ wa adkhilhâ al-jannata wa a’idzhâ min ‘adzâbil qabri wa min adzâbinnâr

It means:

O Allah, forgive him, have mercy on him, and set him free and forgive him. Give him a glorious place, widen his grave and bathe him with water, snow or ice. Cleanse himself from all faults, just as you clean a white shirt from all dirt. Then give him a better home than the house he has in the world, give him a better family than his family in the world, and a better partner than the partner he has in the world. Then, enter him into heaven and protect him from the torment of the grave and the torment of hell.

After reading the complete prayer for the body according to gender, the person who prays can continue his prayer by saying the fourth takbir. After that, it is sunnah to read a prayer. Here’s the prayer.

Prayer after the fourth takbir, for a male corpse.

Allâhumma lâ tahrimnâ ajrahu wa la taftinna ba’dahu waghfir lanâ wa lahu

It means:

O Allah, do not forbid us the reward and do not give us slander or trials after his departure. Then forgive us and forgive him.

Prayer after the fourth takbir, for a woman’s corpse.

Allâhumma lâ tahrimnâ ajrahâ wa la taftinna ba’dahâ waghfir lanâ wa lahâ

It means:

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O Allah, do not make it forbidden for us to reward and do not give us slander or trials after his departure. Forgive us and forgive him.

7. Read greetings

Greetings can be said after carrying out the fourth takbir and after reading the prayer said after the fourth takbir during the funeral prayer, if the person praying for the corpse reads the sunnah prayer.

The reading of the greetings during the funeral prayer is the same as the reading of the greetings that are read when carrying out the five daily fardhu prayers. In addition, according to the sunnah when saying greetings, the face can be turned to the right during the first greeting. Then in the second greeting, the face can be turned to the left. This also applies when carrying out the funeral prayer.

When reading greetings, it is recommended to read greetings perfectly without abbreviating them as follows.

Peace be upon you, and Allah’s mercy and blessings 

Meaning: may safety, love, and blessings that come from Allah will pour out on you.

Those are the seven pillars that must be carried out when performing the funeral prayer. If one of the seven pillars is left out, it is feared that the funeral prayer will become invalid.

 

Prayer for the Body When the Body’s Gender is Not Known

Previously, Sinaumed’s already knew the correct intention and pillars to carry out the funeral prayer, both when the body being prayed for was male or female. So, what if you want to pray a corpse, but don’t know the gender of the corpse to pray for?

According to scholars from the Syafi’iyah school of thought, when one does not know the gender of the corpse to be prayed over, it is free for someone to pray over the corpse. Both the people who recited the opinion that the body was a man or a woman.

So, intentions, prayers and others can also be adjusted according to the assumptions of the person performing the funeral prayer. This law is also in the Mughnil Muhtaj Book .

In Asy Syarbini’s book, Mughnil Muhtaj on page one page 343, it is explained about a corpse whose sex is unknown. The following is the description of the book.

In qiyas, actually if it is not known whether the corpse is male or female, then the word corpse can be pronounced using the word mamluk or other similar pronunciations. Apart from that, it is permissible in prayer to use dhamir mudzakkar or men by wanting the word, namely As Syakhs or Al Mayyit. As well as, it is also permissible to use dhamir muannats or women by using the word al janazah. 

In accordance with the opinion of scholars from the Shafi’iyah school, it is permissible to use dhamir ‘hu’ or ‘ha when reading a prayer after the third takbir.

When using dhamir ‘hu’ in someone’s pronunciation in Arabic grammar, it will be classified as a mudzakkar pronunciation or a word that denotes a man. Apart from using dhamir ‘hu’, it is also permissible to say a prayer after the third takbir and use dhamir ‘ha’ in the pronunciation of the corpse because in Arabic grammar, it is classified as the word muannats which refers to women.

Referring to the contents of the book, therefore the intention that can be pronounced to pray for the corpse if the gender is not known is to use the pronoun for deceased.

As for the following intentions that can be uttered when going to perform the funeral prayer, if the sex of the corpse is not known, it is sufficient to read the following intention.

Usholli ala hada mayyiti fardhu lillahi taala. 

Meaning: I intend to pray for this deceased, as a fardhu prayer for Allah Ta’ala.

So, by using the choice of the word corpse, it is enough to show the corpse in front and is considered sufficient. Although the person who will pray for him does not actually know the gender of the corpse.

This is because the deceased’s kara in the intention of the funeral prayer is considered to accommodate the gender of the corpse. Both the corpses were male or female.

That is an explanation of the intention, pillars and procedures for praying the funeral in accordance with Islamic law and also equipped with the method of praying the funeral, if the sex of the body to be prayed for is not known.

If Sinaumed’s still wants to find out more about funeral prayers, readings or other cases such as wanting to pray for a corpse at a cemetery, Sinaumed’s can find information and material in the books available at sinaumedia.com

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