Read the funeral prayer – Islam regulates adab in almost every aspect of human life, even in treating dead bodies. The Islamic religion regulates how to properly bury, clean and pray the body. In Islam, it is obligatory to wash the body and pray for the body. Therefore, it is important for all Muslims to know the correct procedure for praying the funeral.
As with washing the corpse, the law in carrying out the funeral prayer is fardhu kifayah and this has been agreed upon by the scholars. Fardhu kifayah is an obligation which means that if it is not carried out, then all Muslims will suffer sins, but this obligation can be represented by only a few people. In order to better understand the procedure for praying the funeral, here is an explanation of reading the prayer for the funeral, complete with the method.
The Law of the Corpse Prayer
The law of the funeral prayer is fardhu kifayah based on the general order of the Prophet Muhammad to pray over the body of a Muslim. This law is in accordance with the hadith of Abu Hurairah ra which was narrated by Muslim. Here’s the hadith.
أنَّ رسولَ اللهِ صلَّى Allah, عليه وسلَّمَ كان يُؤتى بالرجلِ الميتِ ، عليه الدين فيسأل ( هل ترك لدَينه من قضاءٍ ؟ ) فإن حدث أنه ترك وفاءً صلَّى عليه . وإلا قال ( صلُّوا على صاحبِكم)
Meaning: Rasulullah Shallallahu’alaihi Wasallam once brought to him the body of a man. The man still has debts. So the Apostle asked: ‘Does he have any inheritance to pay off his debts?’ if someone said that the man had wealth to pay off his debt, then the Prophet would pray for him. But if there is none, then he then said, ‘Pray your brother. (HR. Muslim No 1619)
From this hadith, it can be interpreted that the legal funeral prayer is fardhu kifayah which means it is obligatory to do it and if it is not done, then all Muslims will sin. However, if there are several people who have carried it out, then the obligation is dropped.
Even though the obligation to offer the funeral prayer will fall after some people perform it, it is still recommended that as many Muslims as possible perform the funeral prayer, so that they receive intercession. This is in accordance with the following hadith of the Prophet.
مَا مِنْ مَيِّتٍ تُصَلِّي عَلَيْهِ أُمَّةٌ مِنْ الْمُسْلِمِينَ يَبْلُغُونَ مِائَةً كُلُّهُمْ يَشْفَعُونَ لَهُ إِلَّا شُفِّعُوا فِيهِ
Meaning: It is not a Muslim who dies, then the Muslims who number up to one hundred pray for him, all of them will pray for him, surely they can give intercession for the deceased. (HR. Muslim no. 947)
مَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ مُسْلِمٍ يَمُوتُ فَيَقُومُ عَلَى جَنَازَتِهِ أرْبَعُونَ رَجُلا ، لا يُشْرِكُونَ بِالله
Meaning: It is not a Muslim who dies, then is prayed for by forty people who have not committed shirk in the slightest against Allah, unless Allah will intercede for the corpse with their cause. (HR. Muslim No. 948)
Legal Requirements and Pillars of the Funeral Prayer
When going to perform the funeral prayer, a Muslim must know the legal requirements and pillars of the funeral prayer. The goal is that the prayers performed are valid and acceptable to God. Here’s an explanation.
Requirements for Legitimacy of the Funeral Prayer
There are three legal conditions in carrying out the funeral prayer which are as follows:
- The funeral prayer is the same as other prayers, namely that the first legal requirement is covering the private parts, being clean from large and small hadas, being clean in body, clothing and place and facing the Qibla.
- The body is clean, meaning it has been washed and shrouded.
- The location of the corpse must be on the Qibla side of the person who lit it, except when the prayer is performed near the altar or performing the occult prayer.
In addition to these three legal requirements, there are several people who have the right to take care of the body, including the following:
- The person who is bequeathed with conditions, the person who is bequeathed is neither a wicked person nor a heretic.
- Scholars and religious leaders.
- The parents of the corpse.
- The children of the corpse.
- Closest family and relatives.
The pillars of the funeral prayer
In addition to the legal requirements for the funeral prayer, here are some pillars of the funeral prayer that must be known. Because if someone who performs the funeral prayer does not know the pillars of the prayer, then the status of the prayer being performed becomes invalid or cancelled. This is the pillar of the funeral prayer.
- Stand up if you can
- Do takbir four times
- Raise your hand at the first takbir
- Read Surah Al Fatihah
- Read blessings
- Pray for the corpse
- Say greetings
The intention of the funeral prayer, the time and place for it
In addition to the legal and harmonious requirements, Muslims also need to know the reading of the intention for the funeral prayer, the time for its implementation and the place for performing the funeral prayer. Here’s an explanation.
The intention of the funeral prayer
Actually, the intention of this funeral prayer is enough just to say it in the heart. According to the scholars, there is no obligation to recite the prayer intention before carrying it out.
However, some scholars are of the opinion that reciting intentions is a sunnah, especially for scholars from the Shafi’i school of thought. Besides that, to add solemnity when performing prayers, it is permissible to say it.
The following is the reading of the intention of the funeral prayer for the bodies of women and men.
The intention of the funeral prayer for a woman’s corpse
Usholii ‘alaa haadzihill mayyitati arba’a takbirootin fardhol kifaayati ma’muuman liillaahia ta’aalaa.
Meaning: I intend to pray over this deceased four times takbir fardhu kifayah, as a makmum because of Allah Ta’ala.
The intention of the funeral prayer for a male body
Ushollii ‘alaa haadzal mayyiti arba’a takbirootin fardhol kifaayati ma’muuman lillaahi ta’aalaa,
Meaning: “I intend to pray over this deceased four times takbir fardhu kifayah, as a makmum because of Allah Ta’ala.”
Time and Place of Implementation of the Funeral Prayer
The Time of the Funeral Prayer
In contrast to the five daily obligatory prayers which have a specific time for their implementation, this funeral prayer can be performed at any time and the time is not specifically determined.
The funeral prayer can be performed at any time, except for the following three times:
- When the sun rises until the sun rises slightly
- The sun is right in the middle of the sky
- When the sun is almost setting
The exception to the funeral prayer time is based on the following histories:
“There are three times, where the Prophet Muhammad gave us a prohibition to pray or to bury the body, namely at these times.
(first), when the sun rises until it rises slightly, (second) when the sun is right in the middle of the sky (noon until the sun is leaning to the west, (third) when the sun is almost setting until the sun has completely set.” (HR. , Muslims).
Place of Implementation of the Funeral Prayer
In addition to the time of carrying out the funeral prayer, a Muslim must also know the place or location for carrying out the funeral prayer.
Although actually, this funeral prayer can be done anywhere, as long as the place is proper and clean. However, it is better if the funeral prayer is held in the mosque.
This is in accordance with a hadith narrated by Muslim, as follows:
“That when Sa’ad bin Abu Waqash died, Aisyah said: Put him in the mosque so that I can pray for him.
However, they did not agree with this, so he said: By Allah, the Prophet Muhammad really prayed for the bodies of two of Baidla’s sons in the mosque, namely Suhail and his brother.
Muslim then said: Suhail bin Da’d is Ibnul Baidla’ and his mother is Baidla’” (HR. Muslim).
Procedures and readings of the funeral prayer
The funeral prayer is a prayer that is fardhu kifayah and must be carried out in congregation. Therefore, a Muslim must know the procedures and readings of the funeral prayer whether as an imam or as a congregation. The following is the procedure for praying the body and its reading.
The priest must stand parallel to the head of the male corpse, but if the corpse is female then the priest can stand in the middle. Then the congregation stands behind the priest. This is explained in a hadith narrated by Abu Daud, along with the contents of the hadith.
قال العلاءُ بن زياد: يا أبا حمزةَ، هكذا كانَ يفعَلُ رسولُ اللهِ صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم؛ God bless you قال: نعم
Meaning: Al ‘Ala bin Ziyad said: O Abu Hamzah (Anas bin Malik), did the Prophet SAW practice in carrying out the funeral prayers like you did? Takbir three times, standing at the head of the man and in the middle of the woman? Anas bin Malik replied: Yes. (Narrated by Abu Daud no. 3194 At Tirmidhi no 1034, authenticated by Al Albani in Sahih Sunan Abi Daud)
Number of shaf
In addition to the position of the imam when carrying out the funeral prayer, Sinaumed’s also needs to know the number of rows when carrying out the funeral prayer. Some scholars recommend making three rows or rows, even though the first row is still loose. This suggestion is in accordance with the following hadith:
مَنْ صَلَّى عَلَيْهِ ثَلَاثَةُ صُفُوفٍ فَقَدْ أَوْجَبَ
Meaning: Whoever prays the corpse by making three rows, it is obligatory for him (to get forgiveness) (HR. Tirmidhi no. 1028)
The number of takbir and raised hands
The takbir of the funeral prayer is performed four times. The scholars of ijma on this one thing. According to the following hadith.
أنَّ رسولَ الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم صلَّى على أَصْحمَةَ النجاشيِّ، فكبَّر عليه أربعًا
Meaning: Rasulullah SAW prayed for Ash-hamah An Najasyi, he recited the takbir four times.
The scholars of ijma regarding its shari’ah raised their hands to read the first takbir. Ibn Munzir stated:
God bless you
Meaning: Ulama ijma that people who pray the corpse are prescribed by raising their hands at the first takbir (Al Ijma, 44)
However, according to another hadith it is sunnah to raise your hands at each takbir in the funeral prayer. This is in accordance with the history of Nafi’ about Ibn Umar ra, Nafi’ said:
“Ibn Umar ra raised his hand every time takbir in the funeral prayer.” (Reported by Ibn Abi Syaibah in Al Mushannaf (11498), stated by Shaykh Ibn Baz in his Ta’liq on Fathul Baari (3/227).
Another narration, from Ibn Abbas:
“That he used to raise both hands at every takbir at the funeral prayer.” (authenticated by Ibn Hajar in Talkhis Al-Habis, 2/291)
The first takbir
As with other prayers, after reading the intention for the funeral prayer, immediately perform the first takbir, namely takbiratul ihram, by placing your hand above the navel. Then read Surah Al Fatihah.
After the first takbir, while raising your hands to ear level and shoulder level, then place your hands again above the navel. After that, recite the Prophet’s blessings, Sinaumed’s can have the following Abrahamic blessings.
“Allohumma sholli ‘alaa Muhammad wa ‘alaa aali Muhammad kamaa shollaita ‘alaa Ibroohiima wa ‘alaa aali Ibroohim, innaka hamiidum majiid.
Allohumma baarik ‘alaa Muhammad wa ‘alaa aali Muhammad kamaa baarokta ‘alaa Ibroohiima wa ‘alaa aali Ibroohim, innaka hamiidum majiid.”
Read the takbir while raising your hands to ear level and shoulder level. Then place your hand again above the navel. After that, Sinaumed’s can read the following prayer for the body:
Funeral prayers in general
“Allohummaghfirlahu warhamhu wa’aafihi wa’fu ‘anhu wa akrim nuzulahu wawassi’
Mudkholahu waghsilhu bil maa-i wats tsalji wal barod,
Wa naqqihi minal khothooyaa kamaa naqqoitats tsaubal abyadho minad danas,
Wa abdilhu daaron khoiron min daarihi, wa ahlan khoiron min,
Wa adkhilhul jannata wa a’idzhu min ‘adzaabin qobri au min ‘adzaabin naar.”
Women’s funeral prayer
“Allohummaghfirlahaa warhamhaa wa’aafihaa wa’fu ‘anhaa wa akrim nuzulahaa
Wawassi’ mudkholahaa waghsilhaa bil maa-i wats tsalji wal barod,
Wa naqqihaa minal khothooyaa kamaa naqqoitats tsaubal abyadho minad danas,
Wa abdilhaa daaron khoiron min daarihaa wa ahlan khoiron min akhoiron,
Wa zaujan khoiron min zaujihaa wa adkhilhal jannata wa a’idzhaa min ‘adzaabin qobri au min ‘adzaabin naar.”
Raise your hands to earlobe level and in line with your shoulders, then place your hands above your navel again. Then pray by reciting prayers for the bodies and those left behind. The following is the reading of the funeral prayer from the hadith narrated by Abu Daud:
“Allohumma laa tahrimnaa ajrohu wa laa taftinnaa ba’dahu waghfirlanaa walahu.
Meaning: “O Allah, do not forbid us from the reward and do not tempt us after his death. Forgive us and forgive him.”
If the corpse is a woman, then the prayer for the funeral prayer after the fourth takbir will be:
“Allohumma laa tahrimnaa ajrohaa wa laa taftinnaa ba’dahaa waghfirlanaa walahaa),”.
The last stage of carrying out the funeral prayer is saying greetings to end the funeral prayer, namely by saying greetings while turning your head to the right and left, as when carrying out other prayers.
That is the procedure for praying the corpse and reading the prayer from the first takbir to the greeting. It should be noted that when going to carry out the funeral prayer, the condition of the body must be clean, that is, it has been washed and properly shrouded.
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