Examples of Obligations – As good human beings, of course, we are often taught about obligations that apply to various things. If we don’t understand it, we will definitely feel that the various obligations are very many and troublesome. However, is it true to think like that?
In everyday life, we are sure to find obligations that we have to do at home, at school or at work, in public places, even in facilities that we can use ourselves. Not only that, we even have obligations related to ourselves and not others.
Obligations exist as a very important aspect of our lives. If we don’t know about obligations or how to carry out obligations, we will be confused about what to do and things in our daily lives will get messy. Moreover, does Sinaumed’s know about “Our obligation is the right of others ”?
That is, the obligations that we carry out may be rights that others should have received. So, it’s very unethical if we take other people’s rights unintentionally because of negligence of obligations, right?
So, what exactly is meant by liability?
Things You Should Know About Obligations
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), obligation as a derivative word from the word obligatory is something that is required, must be carried out, and must. In addition, this word is also interpreted as a duty in general and legally.
Meanwhile, Merriam Webster defines obligation as an act of obliging oneself to an action such as a promise or an oath, something (including a contract, promise, or demands of the heart) that obliges a person to perform certain actions, and something that a person must do.
According to Legal Academician, Sukamto Notonegoro , obligations are things that should be done by every individual. The goal is that we can receive or exercise our rights properly. Sukamto also said that obligations must be carried out wholeheartedly because this is not a burden that is simply burdened.
It can be said, obligation is an action or several actions that must be done by someone, either legally or morally. This obligation also restricts freedom and makes people choose to be free to act while still carrying it out. The existence of this obligation is also an option for society to do good things and avoid actions that are morally unacceptable.
Why Do We Have to Carry Out Obligations?
Is Sinaumed’s still wondering about other reasons why obligations must be carried out?
If an obligation is violated, we will be blamed. On the other hand, when carrying out an obligation properly, we will not think about the consequences if we do not carry out that obligation. We will only always think about how to properly fulfill an obligation. Why so?
People who respond to obligations by doing them without causing trouble must have good reasons. According to the sanction theory, obligations are perceived to be subject to the same pressures as social pressures to a person. It is this kind of pressure that strengthens people’s desire to fulfill obligations: so as not to be penalized and violate morals.
Types of Obligations and Examples
Sinaumed’s , now we know very clear reasons for the necessity of an “obligation”. However, what kind of obligations do we have to fulfill and what are some examples? Do we have to do all things that are labeled “mandatory” without understanding what obligations are and what their goals are?
Therefore, let’s study the types along with examples of obligations below.
Liability Based on Form
1. Written Obligations
Written obligations are contracts. Legally, they tie two people into an agreement. With this contract, everyone is responsible for doing their part. Meanwhile, a legal contract consists of an offer, acceptance, intention to bind one another in a legal agreement and consideration, as well as something of value to be exchanged.
Examples for written obligations, such as employment contracts, sales agreements, and so on. Of course, this written agreement fulfills the criteria for us to fulfill our obligation to comply with it.
2. Political Obligations
Requirements that bind people to follow a law in the political area of society are called political obligations.
There is a philosophical issue, however, about whether citizens should follow laws simply because they are laws. There are various views about whether a political obligation is a moral obligation. John Rawls, an American philosopher, argues that people do have political obligations because of the principle of justice.
Humanity in general benefits from the concerted efforts of governments. So, in the principle of justice, they must also be an active part and support this effort. However, apart from this view, there are also other philosophers such as Robert Nozick, who argues that enjoying the efforts of a community does not mean that there is an obligation towards that effort.
In beloved Indonesia, there are several things that exemplify political obligations, namely:
- Mandatory respect for human rights, this is explained in article 28j paragraph 1 of the 1945 Constitution.
- Must comply with law and government, this is explained in article 27 paragraph 1 of the 1945 Constitution.
- Mandatory participation in state defense, this is explained in article 27 paragraph 3 of the 1945 Constitution.
- Must comply with existing restrictions, this is explained in article 28j paragraph 2 of the 1945 Constitution.
- Mandatory participation in the defense and security of our country, this matter is spelled out in article 30 paragraph 1 of the 1945 Constitution.
- Obligation to respect the law and government. Comply with regulations made by the government such as paying taxes, paying electricity bills, and obeying traffic signs according to article 27 paragraph 1.
- It is mandatory to attend basic education in order to graduate and gain knowledge for a better life. This is in accordance with article 31 paragraph 2.
3. Social Obligations
Social obligations refer to the things that we, as individuals, acquire because of their collectively accepted nature. When people in a social environment agree to an obligation or agreement that affects other people in that environment, then other people in the same environment will collectively agree to this obligation. Humanity is also obliged to fulfill that promise for the welfare of society.
Here are some examples of social obligations that we often carry out in our daily lives, Sinaumed’s!
- Maintain security and public order by avoiding deviant attitudes.
- Obey other applicable regulations so that the social environment remains orderly.
- Respect others. Of course, we have to do this obligation, bearing in mind its relation to the etiquette and social comfort it creates.
- Maintain tolerance in various aspects, including those related to religion, race, culture, and various other backgrounds in order to create harmony and unity.
- Maintaining the natural environment in order to remain sustainable by not littering and routinely cleaning the personal environment.
Liability by Source
In addition to the form, the obligations are also divided based on the source. Here’s a review and an example of the liability:
1. Legal Obligations
This is the kind of obligation that must be obeyed. Because, if it is not implemented, we will receive legal sanctions that are already in force in a region or country. For example, a company or even an individual is required to pay taxes as part of the applicable law.
2. Moral Obligations
This type of obligation has nothing to do with law. Even so, it must still be implemented and its implementation obeyed because of the demands of our own conscience. For this reason, this obligation is called a moral obligation.
Examples related to this type of obligation, some of which are helping each other, respecting others both those who are older and of the same age and respecting those who are younger, and so on.
Obligations According to Experts and Examples
One popular commentary on class obligation comes from a British statesman named George Nathaniel Curzon. He suggested that there are five classes or types of obligations, namely:
1. Absolute Obligation
It is a type of obligation in which a person is responsible for himself and does not involve the rights of others. For example, we must take care of ourselves, safety, or worship ourselves.
2. Primary Liability
Primary obligation is a type that we are usually familiar with in terms of punishment or sanction, which is an obligation that arises as a result of an unlawful act such as a fine.
3. Universal Obligation
This type of obligation actually includes two parts, namely general and special obligations. General obligations apply to the wider community, while special obligations are only aimed at certain groups, areas of law, or agreements.
4. Public Obligations
Public obligations mean as a necessity that involves public rights, for example complying with rules and laws because if you violate them it will harm other people who are also included in the public. For example, we may not destroy public chairs in city parks because other people will find it difficult to use them.
5. Positive or Negative Liabilities
Just like universal obligations, these are two opposite obligations. Positive obligations oblige someone to do something whereas negative obligations actually prohibit it. Examples of this obligation abound in laws or even school regulations.
Examples of Obligations in the Environment
The following are examples of obligations that we usually encounter in certain environments in our daily lives.
At home, it is not common to find written regulations like those on the walls of schools, public facilities, or laws. In fact, usually obligations at home are formed on the habits and awareness of the family members themselves. Therefore, it is not uncommon for many different obligations depending on the main characteristics included in a family.
Even so, there are still obligations that we generally have to carry out at home, Sinaumed’s. Here’s an example:
- Mutual respect, respect and love one another.
- Adhere to family rules, such as curfews or simple after-meal rules.
- Maintain cleanliness and harmony in the house.
- Save electricity and water usage.
- Carry out worship according to belief.
At the Office, School, or Other Institutions
Apart from being at home, we are also used to consistently doing activities outside the home, usually in educational institutions such as schools or campuses, offices, or even courses. Sinaumed’s, this kind of rule must be known and obeyed in that environment!
- Carry out learning activities or work properly and orderly.
- Respect the teaching staff or superiors, and respect all individuals.
- Doing assignments or jobs and completing them on time.
- Comply with existing regulations.
- Maintain cleanliness, security, and security in the institution.
- Also report if there are violations committed by other individuals.
- Don’t cheat.
In the Community Environment
Living in society means we apply our nature as social beings who need each other. So, it is not strange if there are certain obligations that must be obeyed for the sake of common welfare. Because, in the obligation itself, there is a right for us to socialize comfortably.
Here are examples of obligations in society:
- Respect and appreciate everyone, be it from the same or different race, ethnicity, physical, soul, national origin, social status, and language.
- Participate in joint activities for the good, such as community service, mutual cooperation, and certain celebrations, for example the celebration of independence.
- Maintaining the environment, public facilities, and tranquility for a more comfortable and safe daily life and nature.
- No acts of vandalism.
- Helping other people who are in trouble or need our help.
Differences in Rights and Obligations
Every time we know about obligations, we must also hear about the term rights. Rights are also something that humans definitely get.
Rights and obligations are two things that are a package and cannot be separated. We must carry out obligations and earn rights. Why is that? This is because broadly speaking, our obligations may be one person’s rights, and our rights may be another person’s obligations.
The clearest and most important distinction between rights and obligations, namely rights related to what we have to get, while obligations refer to things that we have to do. Both intersect with the word “must”, right? That is an illustration of how important rights and obligations are.
Through efforts to defend rights and obligations, social life will become more stable. Not only that, the social awareness of each individual in the community is also getting higher. This is because rights are seen as property or must, and obligations are seen as full responsibility.
The simple definition of right is the necessity to have something. This allows us to be aware of the rights that should be ours and what are not.
Just like obligations, rights also exist in various environments and layers of society. For example, universal rights apply to all human beings, regardless of nation, gender, religion, race, and so on. These are human rights.
Rights are also believed to function effectively as the foundation of the stability of any society. For example, when we fulfill children’s rights, such as to be educated, loved, and cared for, they will learn to be good citizens and human beings in the future if we give them the opportunity to enjoy their rights. In fact, they will also perform their obligations towards others in the future.
As the name suggests, obligations are mandatory for everyone. In law, rights and obligations are only a small part of the various aspects that are more detailed. However, these two things are fundamental for us to understand why a law applies.
If Sinaumed’s wants to learn more about law, especially regarding rights and obligations, then there’s nothing wrong with learning through book references from sinaumedia . At sinaumedia, apart from being able to learn from trusted references, Sinaumed’s will also be treated to various attractive promos, events and discounts from #Friends Without Limits!
Author: Sevilla Nouval Evanda
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