Intentions to Change Fasting and Procedures for Making Up the Fasting of Ramadan

Intention to Change Fasting – For Muslims, enduring hunger and thirst from sunrise to sunset is an activity that is better known as fasting. Fasting itself is mandatory and some are sunnah.

Fasting is obligatory in Islam, it is in the month of Ramadan and if it is abandoned, it must be paid for at a later date. As for the intention of fasting to replace the obligatory fast, not all Muslims know about it. On this occasion, we will discuss the intention of fasting for Ramadan and the procedure for making up Ramadan fasts.

Understanding Fasting

Before discussing the intention to replace the obligatory fast, we will discuss the meaning of fasting first.

For Muslims must know about fasting. Fasting is worship that requires humans to carry out worship to hold hunger, thirst, and everything based on Islamic law. Fasting is often carried out by Muslims in order to fulfill the obligatory worship and Sunnah in Islam.

In Islam, fasting is one of the obligatory acts of worship because it is proven by the fact that fasting is one of the pillars of Islam, which in this case is third.

Obligatory fasting in Islam is fasting during Ramadan. As the name implies, this Ramadan fasting is carried out in the month of Ramadan when it enters the 1st of the month of Ramadan according to the Hijri calendar.

Literally, the implementation of Ramadan fasting is carried out for a full month in Ramadan, which means around 29-30 days. In Islam, to carry out fasting, Muslims are obliged to refrain from hunger, thirst and various things that have the potential to cancel fasting.

The period of fasting itself begins at sunrise which is marked by the entry of the Subuh call to prayer and ends when the sun has set which is marked by the call to prayer for Maghrib. As stated above that fasting is one of the acts of worship that is carried out by enduring hunger and thirst by hoping for the pleasure of Allah SWT alone.

In addition, fasting itself has other meanings, both the general understanding and the meaning of fasting in Islam.

In general, fasting is an activity that is considered as a voluntary activity carried out by refraining from food, drink or both, bad behavior and all things that have the potential to break the fast.

Pure fasting is usually done by refraining from eating and drinking within one day or for 24 hours, or it can also be several days. The length of this fasting period depends on the conditions of the fast.

Please note that there are other fasts that only limit a person from consuming certain substances or foods. In addition, we also need to know that fasting can also limit a person from various activities related to daily activities or sexual activity.

Because generally fasting is carried out to perform worship in the Islamic religion, when carrying out fasting the aim is to increase our faith as Muslims in Allah.

Fasting with such a purpose is usually carried out by someone who has often meditated or monks. In conclusion, fasting is done to restrain oneself by restraining oneself from various kinds of goals and desires.

In Islam, fasting is often interpreted as an activity that is very useful for suppressing or restraining worldly desires in humans. According to Islam, fasting is called Shaum which comes from Arabic which is an obligatory worship to be carried out when the month of Ramadan has arrived. Therefore, Muslims, especially men, may not leave fasting if their bodies are still healthy.

Fasting is also carried out for a full month, then it will be closed with the celebration of Eid al-Fitr. The implementation of fasting in accordance with Islamic law is to refrain from eating, drinking and all actions that can break the fast from sunrise to sunset.

When you want to carry out the obligatory fast, it must begin with the intention that has been stated in the holy book of the Qur’an. Fasting is intended to be able to form and instill exemplary attitudes and increase a Muslim’s piety to Allah SWT.

Fasting itself is a translation of the original term which comes from Arabic, namely the word Shaum . The word literally means to prevent or restrain.



Types of Fasting in Islam

Fasting in Islam is divided into two laws, namely obligatory fasting and sunnah fasting.

Compulsory Fasting

Compulsory fasting is a type of fast that must be observed by Muslims. If a Muslim performs this fast, then he will get a reward. On the other hand, if Muslims do not observe this type of fast, they will be subject to sin. As for what is included in the obligatory fasting in Islam, namely:

  • The obligatory fasting of Ramadan, namely the fasting of Ramadan is carried out throughout the holy month of Ramadan, with an amount of approximately 29 to 30 days.
  • Fasting caused by vows. By making a vow, worship which was originally ruled by sunnah or fardhu kifayah becomes obligatory for that person.
  • Fasting fine or expiation. Penalty fasting is a fast of penance for sins. Kafarat fasting is fasting that is obligatory for someone who intentionally has sex during the day while fasting during Ramadan.
  • Alternate fasting or qadha fasting of Ramadan
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sunnah fasting

Sunnah fasting is a type of fasting that if done will get a reward. But if you don’t do it, you won’t get sin and reward. The following is a list of fasts that are included in sunnah fasting, namely:

  • Fasting Monday Thursday
  • The six-day sunnah fasting is carried out in the month of Shawwal, except during Eid al-Fitr.
  • Sunnah Fasting of Arafah which is carried out on the 9th of Dzulhijjah for Muslims who do not perform the pilgrimage.
  • Tarwiyah fasting on the 8th of Dzulhijah for Muslims who do not perform the pilgrimage.
  • Fasting of David or a day of fasting a day not, this fast is carried out to emulate the fast of the Prophet David.
  • Tasu’a fast on the 9th of Muharram.
  • Ashura fast on 10 Muharram.
  • Yaumul Bidh fast, around the 13th, 14th and 15th of each month.
  • The Nisfu Sha’ban fast is held in the middle of the month of Sha’ban.
  • Asyhurul Hurum fasting which is done in the month of Dzulqa’dah, Dzulhijjah, Muharram and the month of Rajab.

Groups of People Who Can Leave Fasting

Fasting in the month of Ramadan is certainly an obligation for all Muslims who have reached puberty or are adults. However, there are some Muslims who may not be able to fast for the entire month during the month of Ramadan.

Ramadan fasting is mandatory for all Muslims who meet the requirements. However, for those who cannot complete the full Ramadan fast, Allah SWT provides relief for his people by fasting qadha.

It’s just that, someone may leave the fast of Ramadan due to certain circumstances. Women who are menstruating cannot fast, someone who is sick is certainly not obliged to fast, as well as those who are on a journey. Here are some people who may leave Ramadan fasting along with their explanations.

There are four groups that are allowed not to fast during Ramadan and one group that is prohibited from fasting. Even though it is permissible not to fast, these four groups are still required to make up for their fast at a later date. Here are four groups that are allowed to leave fasting:

1. A sick person

Sick people who are allowed not to fast are sick people who, when fasting, can worsen the condition in question. Although not fasting, but the person must pay for the fast.

2. People who are on a long journey

The Prophet Muhammad SAW said in a hadith narrated by Muslim, “The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam while traveling saw people jostling. Then, there is someone who is given shade. Then the Prophet Shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam said, “Who is this?” People also say, “This is a person who is fasting”. Then the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam said, “It is not good for someone to fast when he is traveling”.

So, if someone is traveling long distances while fasting, it is permissible not to fast if his condition is severe and difficult. However, the person is obliged to make up for his fast at a later date.

3. Elderly people

Parents who are unable to fast are given leeway not to fast. Instead, the person is required to pay fidyah, namely by feeding the poor every time that person is not fasting. The size of one fidyah is half a sha’ , dates or wheat or rice, which is equal to 1.5 kg of rice.

4. Pregnant and lactating women

The Prophet said in the hadith narrated by Ahmad, “Indeed, Allah ‘azza wa Kalla removes half of the prayer from the traveler. Allah also eliminates fasting on travelers, pregnant women and nursing women.

If a mother who is pregnant and breastfeeding is unable to fast, Allah makes it easy for her not to fast and make up for it at a later date. While one group prohibited from fasting is women in a state of menstruation and childbirth. The Prophet said in the hadith of Bukhari’s history, “Isn’t that during menstruation, a woman doesn’t pray and also doesn’t fast. This is the lack of religion.”

Women who are menstruating and postpartum are prohibited from fasting during these menstrual and postpartum periods. However, they still have to make up for fasting at a later date.

Even though it is permissible not to fast during Ramadan, you must make up for it on another day after Ramadan. That is, the debt of fasting must be paid according to the number of missed fasts. This fast is also known as the qada fast. Replacing the Ramadan fast should be done immediately so you don’t forget, so it doesn’t become a sin in the future.

There is no need to fast consecutively, so the schedule can be adjusted according to one’s own abilities. The procedure for paying the debt of fasting is the same as fasting in general. This activity begins with reading the intention to pay the debt of fasting at night or at dawn.

The intention to pay the debt of fasting is different from the intention to fast during Ramadan. The intention to pay the debt of fasting must be said because the intention is a mandatory requirement of the fast itself. If you have a fasting debt, pay attention to the reading of the intention of fasting to pay off the debt, along with the procedures summarized in various sources.

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Understanding and Procedures for Compulsory Fasting

For Muslims who want to pay their fasting debts, they can do it on any day, as long as that day is not an unlawful day for fasting or, it can also be done on Monday or Thursday to get several fasting rewards at once.

There are two opinions of scholars regarding the payment of qada fasting. First, the deadline for making up the fasts of Ramadan is until the next Ramadan fast comes. In this case, if someone does not make up the fasting of Ramadan until the next Ramadan arrives, then he is sinful.

On the other hand, the person is still obliged to make up his fast. In addition, he is also obliged to give fidyah to the poor as much as one mud in every day of fasting as a ransom for negligence because he has passed the deadline for making up the fasts of Ramadan.

The second opinion is that there is no deadline for making up the fasts of Ramadan. This opinion is the opinion of Hanafiyah scholars, who say that the fasting of Ramadan can be made up at any time, either after the abandoned fasting year of Ramadan or the following years.

According to Hanafiyah scholars, if a person does not make up the fasts of Ramadan until the next Ramadan fast arrives, then he is not sinful and he is not obliged to give fidyah. So, it is permissible to make up the fast at any time, without a certain deadline.

Intentions to Change Fasting and Procedures to Change Ramadan Fasts Due to Menstruation, Long Travels, and Sickness

The reading of the intention to fast for Ramadan due to menstruation is the same as the intention to make up the fast due to other emergency factors such as illness, long trips and so on. The reading is:

نَوَيْتُ صَوْمَ غَدٍ عَنْ قَضَاءِ فَرْضِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ لِلهِ تَعَالَى

Latin pronunciation: Nawaitu shauma ghodin an qadha’i fardhi syahri Ramadhana lillahi ta’ala.

Meaning: “I intend to face the fasting month of Ramadan tomorrow because of Allah SWT”.

The main thing in replacing Ramadan fasting is intention. After making the intention, the Muslim community in question may not do things that are prohibited, and continue to carry out other obligations, such as praying. The qadha fast ends when the Maghrib call to prayer resounds. The prayer for breaking the fast is as follows:


Latin reading: Allahumma lakasumtu wabika amantu wa’ alaa rizqika afthortu birohmatika yaa arhamar roohimiin .

Meaning: O Allah because of You I fast, with You I believe. To You I surrender and with Your sustenance I break my fast (fasting), with Your mercy, O Allah, the Most Merciful God.

It is better if the fasting of Ramadan qadha is done as soon as possible. Even so, in the book Smart Fasting Obligatory and Sunnah written by Nur Solikhin, there are two opinions regarding the order of its implementation, namely:

  1. If the fasts are missed consecutively, they must be replaced sequentially
  2. Qadha fasting does not have to be carried out sequentially.

The Meaning of Sacrificing Fasting

The person who is obliged to perform the expiation of fasting is the person who intentionally has sexual intercourse through the genitals or anus. Meanwhile, the person who has sexual intercourse is not subject to a fine for expiation. This applies to both men and women.

The person who is obliged to fast for expiation is for the person who deliberately breaks his fast with intercourse. Where the person has intercourse even though he knows he is fasting and knows that this act is prohibited during fasting.

Someone who is obliged to replace a fine or expiate fasting is a person who has had special intercourse during the month of Ramadan. Sexual intercourse in question also includes anal sex, both with humans, corpses and animals, even though sperm does not come out.

Fines or expatriate fasting are imposed with clear and unquestionable time rules. Where someone has intercourse during the day during Ramadan, it is different if it is already night time, then it is legal for him to have sexual activity.

Intentions to replace fasting and procedures for changing expatriate fasting

1. Reading Intentions

The intention of fasting instead of what is recited for someone who wants to fast kifarat is:

‘Nawaitu shauma ghadin likafarati fardlon lillahi ta’ala’.

Meaning: “I intend to fast tomorrow to carry out fardhu expiation because of Allah Ta’ala.”

2. Doing Sahur

Sahur in exchange for fasting for expiation is almost the same as fasting in general, that is, it is not permissible to eat, drink, and things that are prohibited during fasting, from the dawn call to prayer to the Maghrib call to prayer.

3. Resist Self Lust

A person who replaces the fast of expiation must be able to restrain his desires so that the fast is not invalidated.

4. Iftar

Break the fast according to the advice of the Islamic religion so that you can keep your body healthy.


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