Morning call to prayer, Arabic, Latin and their meanings, complete with how to determine the time

Reading the Morning Adhan – The companions of the Prophet in his time often gathered in the mosque to wait for the prayer time to come. However, because of the distance and busyness, the markers for prayer times were proposed by his friends. Some suggest using a bell, sounding a trumpet, or lighting a fire.

For this reason, the Prophet Muhammad informed his revelation regarding the call to prayer. By order of the Prophet, Bilal bin Rabbah became a muezzin. Bilal was chosen because he has a loud and melodious voice. So since then, the call to prayer has become a marker of prayer for Muslims.

Meaning of Adhan

In language, the call to prayer means notification or call. As Allah has said in the letter At Tawbah Verse 3:

 وَأَذَانٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ

Meaning: “and this is a call from Allah and His Messenger to mankind”

There is a meaning of the call to prayer in terms of a call or invitation that marks the entry of the five daily prayer hours and is pronounced with certain words and readings.

 

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Azan law

Scholars have many disagreements about the law of the call to prayer. Most of the scholars say that the law on the call to prayer is sunnah muakkad, but another opinion that is stronger on this issue is the opinion that the law on the call to prayer is fardu kifayah. But keep in mind, this law only applies to men. Women are neither obligated nor sunnah to carry out the call to prayer.

 

Adhan terms

The following are the conditions for making the call to prayer, the conditions are:

1. Has Entered Prayer Times

The valid condition for the call to prayer is when the time for prayer begins, so that the call to prayer made before the time for prayer starts is invalid. However, there are exceptions for the dawn call to prayer. The morning call to prayer is only permitted to be carried out twice, namely before dawn arrives and when dawn arrives which is when the sadiq dawn rises.

2. Intend to call to prayer

For someone who is going to call to prayer, it is necessary to intend first in his heart (not with a certain lafazh), that he will carry out the call to prayer with a sincere feeling for Allah alone.

3. Pronounced using Arabic

According to some scholars, it is invalid for a call to prayer to use a language other than using Arabic. Among the scholars there are those who think so, namely scholars from Hambali, Hanafiah, and Shafi’i schools.

4. There is no mention in the pronunciation of the call to prayer that changes the meaning

The point is that the call to prayer should be free from pronunciation errors which in this case can change the meaning and meaning of the call to prayer. The adzan lafadz-lafadz must be pronounced clearly and correctly.

5. The lafadz are pronounced in order

The lafadz-lafadz adhan should be pronounced according to the sequence as explained in the authentic hadiths. As for how the order will be discussed below.

6. The lafadz are pronounced in succession

The point is that with the recitation of the call to prayer that exists one with another, it can be said in succession and not separated by a word or an action outside the order in which the call to prayer is performed. However, it is still permissible to say or do something light in nature, such as sneezing.

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7. The call to prayer is heard for people who are not at the muezzin’s place

The call to prayer echoed by the muezzin must be heard by people who are not at the muezzin’s place when giving the call to prayer. This can be done by raising the volume or using a loudspeaker.

How to Determine the Time of Fajr Adhan

So what is the right way to determine the time of the dawn call to prayer?

Based on the explanation from  the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia,  the determination of the time for the dawn call to prayer is carried out based on the paradigm of the dawn to occur. More specifically, fingerprint dawn occurs when the sun is at an altitude of -20° or around 3.52 in the morning. Meanwhile, the Tarjih Council assessed the point at -18° or 4.00.

The Ministry of Religion claims that the time for determining the dawn call to prayer which they explained is clear. In determining the time for the dawn call to prayer, the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia was supported by experts from BMKG, LAPAN, PBNU, PERSIS, BIG, Islamic universities throughout Indonesia, PUI, and Al-Irsyad.

Even so, the timing of the dawn call to prayer could be less or more, this is due to the movement of the earth and also the sun.

While the determination of the time for the dawn call to prayer still leaves little room for debate, the determination of the final time for dawn is relatively simpler, namely at sunrise. As mentioned in the following hadith.

God bless you

Meaning: From Abdullah bin Umar radhiyallahuanhu that Rasulullah SAW said, “And the time for the dawn prayer is from the rising of dawn (sadiq) until before the rising of the sun.” ( HR . Muslim )

The nature of a muezzin

There are several things that must be considered to become a muezzin, which are as follows:

1. Muslims

It is required that to become a muezzin a Muslim is required. The call to prayer is not valid if it comes from a non-believer.

2. Sincere only hope for the face of Allah

It is fitting for a muezzin to make the call to prayer with sincere intentions and hope for the face of Allah. Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said: “Stipulate a muezzin not to take the wages of the call to prayer.”

3. Fair and trustworthy

The point is that a muezzin should be fair and trustworthy at prayer times.

4. Has a good voice

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam once said to his friend, Abdullah bin Zaid: “go and teach what you see (in a dream) to Bilal, because he has a better voice than yours”

5. Knowing when prayer time comes

It is desirable for a muezzin to know when the prayer time will come so that he can call the call to prayer at the start of the time and avoid mistakes.

 

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Lafadz Reading the Morning Azan

Azan is a call for Muslims to notify when the obligatory prayer is entered by a muezzin every five daily prayers. When the sound of the call to prayer is heard, it is sunnah to answer the call to prayer. In accordance with what has been said by the muezzin, unless the muezzin says: “Hayya alash-sholah”, “Hayya alal-falah”, and “Assalatu khairum minan-naum” (in the morning call to prayer).

When the muezzin says “Hayya alash-shalah” or “Hayya alal-falah”, it is sunnah for us to answer it with the pronunciation “La haula wa la quwwata illa billahil ‘aliyyil ‘azhim” which means “There is no power and no strength except with Allah’s help” .

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When a muezzin says “Assalatu khairum minan-naum” in the dawn call to prayer, it is sunnah by answering with the pronunciation “Shadaqta wa bararta wa ana ‘ala dzalika minasy shahidin” which means “You are right and your words are good and I am one of those who have witnessed the truth.”

And below is the complete recitation of the morning call to prayer in Arabic, Latin and the meaning of Indonesian.

Lafadz reading the morning call to prayer

 

Allah

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar

Meaning: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest

 

أَشْهَدُ اَنْ لاَ اِلَهَ إِلاَّاللهُ ، أَشْهَدُ اَنْ لاَ اِلَهَ إِلاَّاللهُ

Ashhadu La Ilaha Illallah, Ashhadu La Ilaha Illallah

Meaning: I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that there is no god but Allah

 

O Allah

Ash Dudunamuhammadarosuulullah, Ash Dudunamuhammadarosuulullah

Meaning: I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

 

حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلاَةِ ، حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلاَةِ

Hayya is lazy, Hayya is lazy

Meaning: Come on, let’s pray

 

حَيَّ عَلَى الْفَلاَحِ ، حَيَّ عَلَى الْفَلاَحِ

Hayya alphalah, Hayya alphalah

Meaning: Come to victory, Come to victory

 

???

Assolatuhoiruminannaum, Assolatuhoiruminannaum

Meaning: Prayer is better than sleeping, Prayer is better than sleeping

 

Allah

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar la ilaha illallah

Meaning: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, There is no god but Allah

 

The way to answer the call to prayer is to answer the same lafadz as what has been mentioned in the sentence reading the call to prayer except for the call to prayer which reads “Hayya ‘alal falah” and “Hayya ‘alal falah”, then the way to answer it is by reading:

 

لاحول ولاقوّة الاّ بالله

 

“Laa haula walaa quwwata illa billahi.”

Meaning: There is no effort and strength, except with the help of Allah.

 

However, when we have heard the voice at the dawn call to prayer, then by answering the dawn call to prayer when the muezzin recites the sentence:

 

الصّلاة خير من النّو

“As shalaatu khairum minan naum.” 2x

 

So, those of us who heard it answered with the following reading:

 

صدقت وبررت وانا على ذلك من الشّاهدين

 

“Shadaqta wabararta wa anaa ‘alaa dzaalika minasy syaahidiina.”

Meaning: it is also true that what you say is good and I am also for that, including those who witnessed it.

 

When the sound of iqamah is echoed by a muezzin, it is sunnah for us to answer the iqamah with the sentences that have been heard answered exactly the same as those said by a muezzin, except for the sentence:

 

“Qad Qamatis Wrong”, then answered with reading or lafadz as follows:

 

أقامها الله وأدامها وجعلني من صالحي أهلها

 

“Aqaamahallahu wa adamaha ja’alna min shaalihi AKH.”

Meaning: “May Allah will establish the prayer eternally, and may Allah make me one of the best people to pray.”

 

Then, after hearing the sound of iqamah, we answer it by reading a prayer after iqamah, which is as follows:

الّلهمّ ربّ هذه الدّعوة التّامّة والصّلاة القائمة صلّ وسلّم على سيّدنا محمّد وآته سؤله يوم القيامة

Allaahumma rabba hadzihid da’watit taammati wash-shalaatil qaa-imati, shalli wasallim ‘alaa sayyidinaa muhammadin, wa aatihi su’lahu yaumal qiyaamati.

Meaning: “O Allah, who has the most perfect calling, and has upheld prayers, pour out all the grace of greetings on our lord the Prophet Muhammad, and grant all his requests on the last day.”

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