In Islam, chastity and self-cleanliness is an important concern. Every time you want to pray, every Muslim must be pure and clean. Both from themselves and places of worship.
When a woman finishes her menstrual period, after sexual intercourse, after childbirth and other major hadas, it is obligatory to take a large bath. Likewise with men, when they finish doing something related to a major hadas it is obligatory to take a large bath.
The obligatory bath or big bath is a way of purifying by washing the water all over the body with the intention of removing the big hadas or janabat. Mandatory bathing procedures have been explained in the Koran, namely in the letter An-Nisa verse 43. The following reads the verse.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تَقْرَبُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَٰرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا۟ مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِى سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسسِلُوا۟ ۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰٓ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَآءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ ٱلْغَآئِطِ أَوْ لَٰمَسْتُمُ ٱلنِّسَآءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا۟ مَآءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا۟ صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَٱمْسَحُوا۟ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا
It means: “O you who believe! Do not approach the prayer when you are drunk, until you realize what you are saying, and do not (you approach the mosque when you are) in a junub state, except just passing by the road, before you take a bath (bathe junub). As for if you are sick or are on a journey or after defecating or you have touched a woman, while you do not get water, then do your tayammum with good (holy) dust; wipe your face and your hands with it. Indeed, Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Forgiving.”
Nawaitul Ghusla Liraf’il Hadatsil Akbari Fardhan Lillahi Ta’ala.
Meaning: “By mentioning the name of Allah, I intend to take a bath to remove large hadas, obligatory for Allah ta’ala.”
وَيْتُ الغُسْلَ لِرَفْعِ الجِنَابَ
Nawaitul ghusla lirafil janabati.
Meaning: “I intend to take a bath to get rid of junub.”
Causes of Compulsory Bathing for Men
Summarizing from the Suara.com page, a man must take a mandatory bath or take a big bath when doing the following things.
- Releasing semen or sperm with desire.
- Having sexual intercourse, even if no semen is released, Sinaumed’s is obliged to take a big bath
- Not sure about the presence of semen that comes out unconsciously. If Sinaumed’s feels this way, he is advised to prioritize caution (ihtiyath), namely by taking a mandatory bath.
Requirements and Mandatory Bathing Procedures for Men
Mandatory bathing or junub is important and must be done in order to perform worship and be considered valid in the eyes of Allah. As stated in QS. Al-Maidah verse 6. The following is the sound of the verse.
يٰٓاَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْٓا اِذَا قُمْتُمْ اِلَى الصَّلٰوةِ فَاغْسِلُوْا وُجُوْهَكُمْ وَاَيْدِيَكُمْ اِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوْا بِرُءُوْسِكُمْ وَاَرْجُلَكُمْ اِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِۗ وَاِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوْاۗ وَاِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَّرْضٰٓى اَوْ عَلٰى سَفَرٍ اَوْ جَاۤءَ اَحَدٌ مِّنْكُمْ مِّنَ الْغَاۤىِٕطِ اَوْ لٰمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاۤءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوْا مَاۤءً فَتَيَمَّمُوْا صَعِيْدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوْا بِوُجُوْهِكُمْ وَاَيْدِيْكُمْ مِّنْهُ ۗمَا يُرِيْدُ اللّٰهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِّنْ حَرَجٍ وَّلٰكِنْ يُّرِيْدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمove
Meaning: “O you who believe! When you are about to pray, then wash your face and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your head and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are junub, then take a bath. And if you are sick or on a journey or returning from a place to relieve oneself (latrine) or touch women, then if you do not get water, then do tayammum with good (holy) dust; wipe your face and your hands with it. Allah does not want to make things difficult for you, but He wants to cleanse you and perfect His favors for you, so that you will be grateful.”
Before performing the obligatory bath, one must understand the conditions for the obligatory bath for men. These conditions consist of an intention in the heart, being Muslim, having common sense, the water used is pure and permissible, there are no things that prevent water from reaching the skin, and the things that require obligatory bathing have stopped.
Meanwhile, in several hadiths, the procedures and recommendations for obligatory bathing are different. According to HR. Tirmidhi, interrupting the roots of the hair is only reserved for men, women are not required to do this.
Meanwhile, in HR. Muslim said so, “From Aisha she said, “When the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam bathed because of junub, then he started by washing both hands. He poured water with his right hand over his left hand, then washed his genitals and performed ablution with ablution for prayer. Then he rinsed his hair while inserting his fingers into the roots of the hair until they were even. When finished, he washed his head three times, then he washed his whole body and finally washed his feet.”
Launching from the Suara.com page, in general, the procedure for taking a big bath for men is as follows.
- Reading the intention of bathing is mandatory
- A total of three times, hands are cleaned. Then, proceed with cleaning the rectum and genitals. Do this with your left hand.
- Then, clean your hands by washing them with soap until they are perfectly clean.
- Next, Sinaumed’s performs ablution in the same order as the prayer, namely from washing his face to his feet.
- Use your hands to clean between the roots of the hair. Sinaumed’s can use his fingers to touch the scalp like he is combing his hair.
- After that, splash water on the head three times. Make sure the water soaks up to the base of the hair.
- Next, splash all parts of the body with clean water. First, wash the right side of the body. Then, to the left side of the body.
- When washing the whole body. Sinaumed’s must ensure that every part of the body folds has been splashed with water and has been cleaned.
Other Mandatory Bathing Intentions
Mandatory bathing is not only aimed at men. Women also have to do the obligatory bath if they have a large hadas or are in a state of junub. This is the intention of taking a mandatory shower.
1. General Intentions
The following obligatory bathing intentions can be carried out by men or women who are in a state of junub or large hadas. The following is the intention of obligatory bathing and its meaning.
نَوَيْتُ الْغُسْلَ لِرَفْعِ الْحَدَثِ اْلاَكْبَرِ فَرْضًا ِللهِ تَعَالَى
Nawaitul Ghusla liraf ‘il hadatsil Akbari fardhal lillaahi ta’aala.
Meaning: I intend to take a big bath to get rid of the big fardu hadas because of Allah ta’ala.
2. Mandatory bathing intention after menstruation
Menstruation in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) is interpreted as a physiological event and cycle in women in the reproductive period with blood coming out of the uterus as a result of the release of the uterine mucous membrane; menstruation.
When a woman finishes her menstrual period, she has to do a mandatory bath or a big bath. The following is the intention of taking a mandatory bath after menstruation.
نَوَيْتُ الْغُسْلَ لِرَفْعِ حَدَثِ الْحَيْضِ ِللهِ تَعَالَى
Nawaitul ghusla liraf’i hadatsil haidil lillahi Ta’aala.
Meaning: I intend to take a mandatory bath to purify large hadas from menstruation because of Allah Ta’ala.
3. Mandatory Bathing Intentions After Postpartum
Puerperal in KBBI is interpreted as blood that comes out of a woman’s uterus after giving birth; the period from giving birth to the recovery of the production organs and limbs (40-60 days).
After childbirth, you have to do a mandatory bath or big bath so that it is legal to perform prayers, fasting and other worship. The following is the intention of taking a mandatory bath after childbirth.
نَوَيْتُ الْغُسْلَ لِرَفْعِ حَدَثِ النِّفَاسِ ِللهِ تَعَالَى
Nawaitul ghusla liraf’i hadatsin nifaasi lillahi Ta’aala.
Meaning: I intend to take a mandatory bath to purify the large hadas from the puerperium because of Allah Ta’ala.
The Story of Compulsory Bathing
Mandatory bathing is important for every Muslim when he finishes doing things that require mandatory bathing. Such as sexual relations, menstruation, junub, and so forth. This obligation has existed since the time of the Prophet. In the Handbook of Shalah An-Nisaa by Abdul Qadir Muhammad Mansur, published by Republika Publisher, it is stated that a descendant of Taimillah bin Tha’labah recounts his visit to Aisyah which is published on the Islamdigest.republika.co.id page.
He said: “I visited Aisha with my mother and aunt. Then one of the two asked Aisha: what did you do while taking a bath (junub)? Hearing this, Aisha replied: “Rasulullah SAW performed ablution as he did for prayer. Then he watered his head three times. While we splashed our heads five times because of the plaits of our hair.” This hadith was narrated by Imam Tirmidhi and is valid.
عن السّيدة عائشة رضي الله عنها في ذكر غُسل رسول الله – عليه الصّلاة والسّلام – من الجنابة قولها: (كانَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلَّمَ إذَا اغْتَسَلَ مِنَ الجَنَابَةِ يَبْدَأُ فَيَغْسِلُ يَدَيْهِ. ثُمَّ يُفْرِغُ بيَمِينِهِ علَى شِمَالِهِ فَيَغْسِلُ فَرْجَهُ. ثُمَّ يَتَوَضَّأُ وُضُوءَهُ لِلصَّلَاةِ. ثُمَّ يَأْخُذُ المَاءَ فيُدْخِلُ أصَابِعَهُ في أُصُولِ الشَّعْرِ، حتَّى إذَا رَأَى أنْ قَدِ اسْتَبْرَأَ حَفَنَ علَى رَأْسِهِ ثَلَاثَ حَفَنَاتٍ. ثُمَّ أفَاضَ علَى سَائِرِ جَسَدِهِ. ثُمَّ غَسَلَ رِجْلَيْهِ
In another history it is also stated that when Rasulullah SAW took a junub bath, he started by washing his hands. Next, use the right hand to pour water when washing the genitals. Then the Messenger of Allah performed ablution as ablution for prayer,”.
“Then Rasulullah SAW put his hands into the vessel and combed his hair. Until when he saw that the water had touched the skin or cleaned the skin, he watered his head three times. If there is still water left, he throws it again on his head.”
Then, when there is no water, can the obligatory bathing still be done? Or when in a state where the body cannot be exposed to water? As published on the Akurat.co page, the story of Amr bin Ash who replaced the obligatory bath with tayammum.
One night, Amr bin Ash’s friend experienced junub. However, he didn’t dare to touch the water for fear that the cold biting his skin would adversely affect his health.
The other companions knew about Amr bin Ash’s condition. Then, he took the initiative to ask the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Then, the Prophet asked directly to Amr bin Ash’s friend, “Yes Amr, did you lead the prayers for your friends in a junub state?”
Amr bin Ash also answered the question by mentioning one of Allah’s words,
Wa laa taqtuluu anfusakum innallaha kaana bikum rahiimaa.
Meaning: And do not kill yourself. Verily Allah is Most Merciful to you. (QS. An-Nisa: 29)
The answer said by Amr bin Ash shows that Allah SWT commands us to always take care of ourselves. As for Amr bin Ash, in this case it was protecting himself from the piercing cold so he did tayammum.
The Messenger of Allah, who heard Amr bin Ash’s explanation, just laughed and didn’t say anything. (Narrated by Abu Dawud)
Fiqh Book Recommendations
As Muslims, we should understand the laws in it, including procedures for worship. The following are book recommendations and their summaries as a reference for studying Islamic jurisprudence.
1. Sexual Jurisprudence
Prophet Saw. said, “Indeed a husband who looks at his wife and his wife looks at him (with lust), then Allah will look at these two people with a view of mercy. And if the husband holds his wife’s palm with the intention of kissing her or having sex with her, then the sins of the two people will fall from between his fingers.” (Reported by Maisarah bin Ali and Imam Rafi’i from Abu Said al-Khudri). Apart from continuing the lineage (procreation), sexual intercourse is also a source of pleasure (recreation).
* More than that, religion views sexual activity for husband and wife as worship. Even in other hadiths when a husband looks at his wife or vice versa with passion to make out or have intercourse, Allah looks at them with a look of mercy. Of course, this hadith is only meaningful if the sexual act goes beyond mere physical contact. So, a good Muslim needs to understand Islamic guidance regarding sex so that his sexual behavior and needs lead to pleasure, pleasure, health, and inner and outer beauty have value before Allah.
2. Law of Wealth
3. Women’s Jurisprudence Book
In full, this book reviews how islam gives sublime rules for women in order to raise their noble dignity in this life. The author examines the themes of women’s fiqh one by one: from the nakedness to the prayer priest; from abortion to polygamy; from worship to family; from education to career, from the headscarf to the role of women in the political, social and cultural spheres. In addition to being complete, the discussion method is accurate, thorough, and rigorous in proposing arguments and concluding laws.
In easy-to-understand language, various views of prominent fiqh and hadith scholars are presented in order to enrich the readers’ insights, then their relevance to the realities of today’s life is extracted. By combining the completeness of the material and the breadth of the discussion, this book is very worthy of being used as a reference for anyone, especially Muslim women. This book guides us to live life according to the guidance of Allah’s law in all aspects of life.
4. Moral Jurisprudence
“Very complete and detailed. That’s the added value of this book. The author does not only present problems, but also examines them intelligently, argumentatively, and mentions many new things that have not crossed our minds and minds when carrying out our obligations as parents in educating children.
“The only guide is Allah!” the author insists. Therefore, according to him, the task of parents in educating their children is to take them to get these instructions. And of course, efforts to do so require attention, serious determination, and special knowledge about how parents should educate their children as exemplified in the Qur’an, the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad, and the experiences of the Prophet’s prominent companions. In Saudi Arabia, Mustafa al-Adawy, the author of this book, is a respected scholar. He not only gives fatwa, but has also written many books which are quite inspirational and important for the progress of this ummah.”