Meaning of Junub: Causes, and Procedures for Purifying It

Definition of Junub – Cleanliness is part of faith. All provisions have been regulated by Allah SWT in the Al-Qur’an and hadith. It is stated that Allah SWT really loves His holy servant and always purifies himself. This is in line with His words in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 222 which reads as follows:

….اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِيْنَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِيْنَ

“… Indeed, Allah SWT loves those who repent and loves those who purify themselves ”.

A Muslim can be said to be holy if he is clean from hadas and unclean. Conversely, a person who is still in a state of impurity and exposed to uncleanness is called a junub condition and is prohibited from performing obligatory worship such as prayer.

The term junub is a familiar thing among Muslims. Junub is a condition when a person has large hadas in his body. For example, a husband and wife who have had sexual intercourse are prohibited from performing acts of worship such as praying, fasting, reading the Qur’an, and so on.

In order to be able to return to worship again, the husband and wife are required to perform the junub bath or also known as the obligatory bath or big bath. Junub bath is different from bathing in general because there is an intention that must be read first and the procedure for doing a junub bath.

So, what is junub and what is the law in Islam? To find out more, see the following explanation.


Meaning of Junub

In language, junub comes from the word janabah which means far away, while junub in terms is the state of a person after emitting semen ( al-inzal ) for women and men, due to wet dreams or sexual intercourse.

While still in a state of junub, a Muslim is required to take a big bath. If not, he is prohibited from approaching places of worship and performing certain worship. The command to take a junub bath or take a big bath is contained in Surah Al-Maidah verse 6. Allah SWT says as follows:

وَاِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوْاۗ

” And if you are junub, you should purify .”

Meanwhile, according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), junub is a dirty condition due to discharge of semen or intercourse which requires a person to take a bath by wetting (cleaning) the entire body from the tip of the hair to the toes or a condition with hadas which requires mandatory bathing.

Conditions Requiring Junub Bathing

In the book Having to Take a Mandatory Bath Again, written by Ustadz M. Saiyid Mahadhir mentions Ibn Faris in the Maqayis Al-Lughah dictionary explaining that janabah itself means far away, as opposed to the word near. It is called distant because someone with janabah status is in a remote position (unable to perform) some of the rituals of worship, such as praying, reading the Qur’an and staying silent in the mosque.

The term janabah is used to indicate the condition of someone who is having a big hadats because he has had a husband and wife relationship, or for other reasons, janabah and big hadas are two words that have the same meaning.

If someone says he is in a state of janabah , it means he is in a state of great hadas. There are seven reasons why a person has janabat and is obligated to take a big bath, among them.

First , discharge of semen. Semen is a liquid that comes out of the genitals with a distinctive aroma, slightly fishy, ​​slightly thick and dries easily like an egg when it dries. Usually, the discharge is accompanied by a feeling of pleasure by radiating.

Regardless of how it came out, intentional (masturbation) or dream, or by way of husband and wife intercourse, all must wash. It turns out that this does not only apply to men. Women can also release semen, and women also have the same obligation if semen comes out of them.

From Umm Salamah RA that Umm Sulaym, the wife of Abu Talhah RA, asked RA, ” O Messenger of Allah, really Allah SWT is not ashamed when it comes to the truth, is it obligatory for a woman to take a bath when she dreams?” Rasulullah SAW replied: ” Yes, if he finds semen ” (HR Bukhari and Muslim).

Second, related husband and wife. If intercourse between husband and wife is accompanied by discharge of semen or not, even if it is only limited to the meeting of the two genitals, then this condition makes a person obliged to take a bath. Rasulullah SAW said:


” If two genitals meet or if the genitals touch the other genitals, it is obligatory to bathe .”

Third , women who have finished their menstrual period. The obligation to bathe is as stated by Allah SWT in Al Baqarah verse 222:

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ ۖ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُوا النِّسَاءَ فِي الْمَحِيضِ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىٰ يَطْهُرْنَ ۖ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

“ And they ask you (Muhammad) about menstruation. Say, “That is something dirty.” Therefore, stay away from your wife during menstruation, and do not approach them until they are pure. When they are pure, interfere with them according to (the conditions) that Allah has commanded you. Indeed, Allah loves those who repent and loves those who purify themselves .”

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Fourth , finish the puerperium. Puerperal is the blood that comes out accompanying the release of the baby as well as the blood that comes out afterwards. The discharge of puerperal blood obliges to take a bath even though it turns out that the baby who was born died. After the blood has stopped, then hurry up to take a shower, so that you can carry out the worship activities that have been left behind.

Fifth, women who have given birth. The obligation to bathe is based on the ijma (consensus) of the scholars, as emphasized by Ibn Al Mundzir. Part of the things that oblige a person to take a bath, even though giving birth is not accompanied by childbirth. According to the narrative of some of the husbands, there are indeed some of their wives who give birth without giving birth.

Sixth, people who died. This is the last condition that makes it obligatory for a person to bathe, because he has died and is unable to bathe himself, the obligation to bathe rests on the shoulders of those who are still alive.

Rasulullah SAW said when one of his daughters died, ” Wash her three times or five times or more from there ” (HR Bukhari and Muslim).

Seventh , people who have just converted to Islam. The Islamic issue of a non-believer is still being debated among scholars as to whether they are obliged to bathe or not. Scholars from the Maliki and Hanbali schools are of the opinion that infidels who convert to Islam are obliged to take a bath.

Abu Hurairah RA narrated that Tsumamah bin Atsal RA had just converted to Islam, then Rasulullah SAW said, ” Take him to one of the walls of the so and so, and order him to take a bath ” (HR Ahmad).

Apart from that, it is very likely that those who disbelieve have experienced a major hadith status, either because of a dream or a husband and wife relationship, so it is on this basis that they are obliged to take a bath. And in these two schools of thought the obligation to bathe does not differentiate between those who are true disbelievers and those who are apostates.


Hadiths that Explain about Junub

Apart from being explained in the Al-Quran, discussion of junub is also explained in several hadiths. The following are hadiths about junub that Sinaumed’s friends need to know:

First Hadith

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها ق الت : كان رس ول الله صلى الله عليه وس لم إذا اغتسل من الجنابة غسل يديه ، ث م توضأ وضوءه للصلاة ، ثم اغتسل ، ثم يخلل بيده شع ره حتى إذا ظ ن أنه قد أرو ى بشرته أفاض عليه الماء ثلاث مرات ، ثم غسل سائر جسده

It means:

“From Aisyah radhiyallahu ‘anha; he said, “ That if the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was taking a bath from the janabah then he would start by washing his hands, then do his ablution as he would for prayer, then put his fingers in the water and then interrupt the roots of his hair, until he thought the water was down to the base of his hair then watered his head with both hands three times then he splashed his entire body ” (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim).

Second Hadith

God bless you

It means:

“Aisyah radhiallahu ‘anha also said, “ I bathed with the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam from a jar, and we both took water from the jar ” (HR Muslim).

Third Hadith

عن ميمونة بن ت الحارث رضي الله عنها ز وجة النبي صل ى الله عليه وسلم أنها قا لت : وضعتُ ل رسول الله صل ى الله عليه وسلم وَضوء ا لجنابة ، فأك فا بيمينه عل ى يساره مرتي ن أو ثلاثا ، ثم غسل فرجه ، ثم ضرب يد ه بالأرض أو الحائط – مرت ين أو ثلاثا – ثم تمضمض و استنشق ، ثم غسل وجهه وذر اعيه ، ثم أف اض على رأسه الماء ، ثم غ سل سائر جسده ، ثم تنحّى فغسل رجليه ، قالت : فأتي ته بخرقة فلم يُردها ، وج عل ينفض الما ء بيده

It means:

From Maimunah bint Al-Harith radhiyallahu’anha; he said, “ I prepared water for the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam to bathe junub. Then he  poured (the water)  with his right hand over his left hand twice – or three times, then he  washed his private parts , then  rubbed his hands on the ground or on the wall  twice – or three times. Next, he  rinsed his mouth and took istinsyaq  (breathing water), then he  washed his face and his hands up to the elbows Then he  flushed his head and then his whole body . Then he took a position/place, shifted, then washed his feet . Then I gave him a cloth (a kind of towel, pen.) but he didn’t want it, so he wiped the water (on his body) using both hands “(HR Bukhari and Muslim).

Mandatory Bathing Prayer According to Sunnah

The Islamic religion requires its followers to remove major hadas by means of a mandatory bath or large bath. Hadas besar is the condition of someone who is not pure because after sexual intercourse, semen comes out for men, menstruation and childbirth for women.

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It is obligatory for Muslims to take a large bath after having hadas. If a Muslim does not perform the obligatory ghusl when he has a large period, it can prevent him from doing some acts of worship such as praying, reading the Qur’an, and thawaf.

As a form of worship, of course there are prayers and procedures for bathing obligatory according to the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad. Prayers and procedures for bathing must be known by all Muslims so that this matter of purification can be carried out correctly. Prayers and procedures for bathing are obligatory in accordance with the sunnah to be carried out with the aim of cleaning oneself after menstruation, childbirth, semen and after intercourse.

Here are the obligatory prayers and procedures for bathing that you need to know.

1. Mandatory Bathing Prayer After Junub

“Bismillahirahmanirahim, nawaitul ghusla liraf’il hadatsil Akbari minal janabati fardlo lillahi ta’ala”.

It means:

” By mentioning the name of Allah SWT, I intend to take a bath to remove large hadas from jinabah, fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala “.

2. Obligatory Bathing Prayer After Postpartum

During a major hadas in a woman who is in childbirth or bleeding from the sex organs after giving birth, the obligatory bath prayer that must be read is as follows:

“Bismillahirahmanirrahim, nawaitu ghusla liraf’il hadatsil Akbari minan nifasi fardlo lillahi ta’ala”.

It means:

” By mentioning the name of Allah SWT, I intend to take a bath to remove large hadas from childbirth, fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala “.

3. Obligatory Bathing Prayer After Menstruation

The following is a mandatory bath prayer after menstruation that needs to be read:

“Bismillahirahmanirahim, nawaitul ghusla liraf’il hadatsil Akbari minal haidi fardlo lillahi ta’ala”.

It means:

” By mentioning the name of Allah SWT, I intend to take a bath to remove large hadas from menstruation, fardhu because of Allah Ta’ala “.

After reading the obligatory bathing prayer above, the next step is to start bathing according to the good and correct procedures for taking a junub bath.

Mandatory Bathing Procedures

Prayers and procedures for bathing are obligatory according to sunnah, not like regular bathing, but there are rules according to hadith. Every Muslim who has reached puberty  must know fully the correct prayers and procedures for obligatory bathing in order to be lawful to perform worship.

Junub bath or obligatory bath must be done perfectly as exemplified by Rasulullah SAW. Quoting the Fiqh book for Class VII MTs by Hasbiyallah, here are the mandatory bathing procedures that you can see:

  1. Before taking a bath, first wash your hands three times.
  2. Followed by washing the genitals.
  3. Then perform complete ablution, before sprinkling water all over the body.
  4. Pouring water on your head three times, insert your fingers through your hair to wet your scalp.
  5. Finally, splash water all over the body starting from the right side before the left side, while rubbing the areas that are difficult for water to enter, such as the inside of the ears, navel, under the arms, between the toes and other indentations of the body.

Especially for women who take a junub bath to purify themselves from menstruation or childbirth, it is recommended to use cotton that is slightly perfumed, where the blood has been coming out. The point is to remove the remnants of the smell if it is still there.


Prohibited Things When in Junub Condition

Before purifying himself with a large bath, a Muslim who is still in a junub state is prohibited from performing certain rituals. Quoting the book Fiqh of Purification and Prayer According to the Guidance of the Prophet by Abu Usman Kharisman, these prohibitions include:

  1. Salat.
  2. Tawaf in Baitullah.
  3. Holding the Koran.
  4. Read the Qur’an even without touching the Mushaf.
  5. Live or remain silent in the mosque.

Benefits of Mandatory Bathing

After knowing the prayers and procedures for obligatory bathing according to the syara ‘ above, then we discuss the benefits of carrying out obligatory bathing.

Quoting from  Sharia Discussion , Sheikh Muhyiddin writes in his book Ibadatul Islam: Fiqhuha, Asroruha, wa Ta’allumu Kaifiyyatiha  in the chapter on the benefits of bathing ( fawaidul ghusli ) about the benefits of obligatory bathing, namely:

  • When a Muslim performs the obligatory ghusl, he has carried out the command of Allah SWT and gets a great reward, happiness, serenity and joy.
  • Having sex between husband and wife will cause fatigue and laziness. Mandatory bathing will restore lost body strength after intercourse.
  • Bathing is one of the efforts to maintain cleanliness and health of the body.
  • The benefits of taking a big bath also make the body more enthusiastic about activities, and drive away laziness.

That is the explanation of junub, which is a condition when a Muslim, both men and women have hadas and it is obligatory for them to take junub bath as an effort to purify themselves. That way, someone who has done a junub bath can perform worship again in a holy condition.

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