Mangrove Forests Scattered in Indonesia – Indonesia is known for its wide variety of biodiversity and is spread throughout the archipelago. Having an area that is also wide and large makes Indonesia home to forests which are the source of oxygen or the world’s lungs. It’s no wonder why we as citizens of Indonesia must also start caring about the existence of forests so that they continue to be sustainable by caring for them and rejecting the mass burning of forests that often occurs in various regions.
One of the biodiversity that Indonesia currently has is the many mangrove forests that grow in various parts of Indonesia, especially coastal areas or swamps which are the natural habitat for the growth and development of the mangrove forests themselves.
The presence of the mangrove forest itself is a blessing because how can it not that its presence has various benefits not only for maintaining the balance of nature but also for being a source of sustenance for other living things. Humans can take advantage of natural resources in mangrove forests to find food sources and sources of livelihood. Then the animals can take advantage of the growing area of the mangrove forest as a place to live, be it water, land or air animals can live there.
However, do you all know where the distribution of mangrove forests is in Indonesia? If you don’t know, then in this discussion we have summarized various information about the distribution of mangrove forests throughout Indonesia that Sinaumed’s friends can see and know as additional insight regarding the geographical location of forests in Indonesia.
Mangrove Forests in Indonesia
Mangrove forests, or commonly called mangrove forests, grow on the coast, in estuaries, and some even grow on peatlands. Mangroves are of great benefit to Indonesians, up to 40 to 50 percent of whom live near the coast, by preventing erosion and intrusion by tsunamis and seawater. There are several mangrove forest areas in Indonesia which are quite beautiful and used as tourist attractions.
According to Steenis (1978), the definition of mangrove forest (mangrove) is forest vegetation that grows between tidal lines. Nybakken (1988) defines mangrove forest as a general term used to describe tropical coastal communities dominated by a few special species of trees or shrubs that have the ability to grow in salt water.
Mangrove forests according to Soerianegara (1990) are forests that grow in coastal areas, usually found in bays and river channels, which are characterized by: 1) not affected by climate; 2) influenced by tides; 3) land that is inundated by sea water; 4) coastal lowlands; 5) no canopy structure in the forest; 6) the type of wood is usually shaped like flames.
Distribution of Mangrove Forests in Indonesia
There is no doubt about the existence of mangrove forests in Indonesia. In addition, Indonesia is an archipelago with millions of kilometers of coastline that is vulnerable to seawater erosion. The existence of mangrove forests in Indonesia can be found in almost all islands in Indonesia, both large and small. Indonesia’s mangrove forests alone have an area of 3,716,000 hectares. The following islands are the distribution of mangrove forests in Indonesia.
West and East Side of Sumatra Island
Sumatra Island has many mangrove forests. As a large island, Sumatra has some mangrove forests, which are only on the west and east coasts. The area of mangrove forests on the island of Sumatra itself reaches 417,000 hectares.
Several Points on the Island of Java
Java Island is not too wide compared to Sumatra Island, and its coastline is not too long either. However, the existence of mangrove forests on the island of Java cannot be denied. There are not so many mangrove forests on the island of Java, only a few places, namely on the north coast of West Java. The area of mangrove forests on the island of Java alone reaches 34,400 hectares.
On the Coast of Borneo Island
Kalimantan Island is the largest island in Indonesia. Kalimantan Island is also known as a forested island. but as we know mangroves are only found on the coast. Therefore, even on the island of Borneo, mangrove forests are only found on the coast. However, the existence of mangrove forests in Kalimantan is quite evenly distributed, namely almost along the coast of Kalimantan. Kalimantan’s mangroves cover an area of 165,000 hectares.
On the Coast of Sulawesi Island
Apart from Kalimantan, Sulawesi has mangrove forests. Sulawesi’s mangrove forests cover an area of 53,000 hectares.
West Papua Island
Did you know that the richest mangrove forests in Indonesia are on the island of Papua. Papua’s mangroves cover millions of hectares. The area of mangrove forests in Papua is 2,943,000 hectares. Wow, that’s a pretty big number, Sinaumed’s friends.
Bali and Nusa Tenggara
Mangrove forests are also found in Bali and Nusa Tenggara. The area of mangrove forest in this area is 3,700 hectares.
Mangrove Forest Tourist Attractions in Indonesia
Muara Gembong Bekasi Mangrove Forest
This mangrove forest in the Gembong Bekasi area offers Mangrove Ecotourism tours with the beauty of mangroves along 200 meters and panoramic sunsets. This area also has rare animals such as Javan langurs, migratory birds and others. There are also good spots or places to take pictures. This tourist area also has places to eat such as cafes or other food stalls.
Angke Kapuk Nature Tourism Park (TWA).
Jakarta is not only about traffic jams. There are also cool places in Jakarta full of mangroves. TWA Angke Kapuk is a nature reserve with a mangrove ecosystem. In this place the area of the Angke Kapuk TWA area is 99.82 hectares. Visiting TWA Angke Kapuk feels different. No jams or suffocating smoke. When passing through the gate, guests will be greeted by beautiful trees. Walking even further, visitors can already see the typical TWA Angke Kapuk tree, namely the mangrove forest. There are dozens of campsites in this area. This place was indeed offered by the TWA management to Angke Kapuk to spend the night or camp.
Karimunjawa Mangrove Forest
Karimunjawa does not only have beautiful beaches and abundant underwater. Karimunjawa also has a mangrove forest where tourists can enjoy the coolness of nature. In the Karimunjawa mangrove forest, visitors can walk along a 1.3 km wooden path. Then, after walking about 700 meters, visitors will find a tall watchtower from where they can see the extent of the Karimunjawa mangrove forest. From the height of this observation tower, tourists can see Cemara Besar Island, Cemara Kecil Island, and Menyawakan Island.
Mangrove Forest in Maerokoco Park Semarang
Maerokoco Park is better known as Taman Mini Central Java because of the variety of typical houses in regions and cities in Central Java. Here tourists can also take a walk around the mangrove forest, play duck boats and eat at a cafe while watching the sunset.
Ecomarine Mangrove Forest
Eco Marine Mangrove Forest is located in Muara Angke, North Jakarta. It used to be a mangrove forest area full of trash both from land and sea. The debris is then cleaned and replaced with mangrove seedlings. From about 200 seedlings, now you can find quite a lot of mangrove trees. Not only resistant to abrasion, mangrove forests are also a tourist destination. In the Ecomarine mangrove forest, visitors can try mangrove cultivation by the local community and see ponds where fish are kept.
Yogyakarta’s Kulonprogo Mangrove Forest
Kulonprogo in Yogyakarta also has mangrove forests. This mangrove forest tourism area stretches from east to west, neighboring a river that empties into the Bogowonto River at Congot Beach. In the mangrove forest of Kulon Progo, visitors can enjoy a trip on a bamboo bridge built by the management so that tourists can walk on it without touching the water. This place also has several photo spots. Some bamboo structures consist of bridges and towers. The structure of the bridge becomes so large that its towers soar, making it the perfect photo backdrop.
There are about four bridges over the river. All bridges are unique and majestic. This mangrove forest is located only 10 kilometers from downtown Balikpapan, to be precise at the end of the Graha Indah Balikpapan housing complex. Even though it’s not far from the city center, visitors can still see hundreds of hectares of green mangrove forests split by rivers. Walking about 50 meters along the iron plank bridge, visitors arrive at a small pier where several outboard motor boats and wooden boats rest. After that, visitors can go down the river by boat and witness the original inhabitants of the place, the monkeys. Arriving at the Balikpapan Mangrove Center, visitors can also relax by the river, sit on iron cotton or climb up to 12 meters without getting off the river.
Mangrove Forest Habitat
Mangrove forest plants are diverse because they respond to fluctuations (changes) in the physical environment above, resulting in specific vegetation zones. Some of the physical environment factors are:
As a place of deposition, the beach substrate can vary greatly. The most common are mangroves, which grow in clay mud mixed with organic matter. In some places, however, the proportion of this organic matter is high; there are even mangrove forests growing on peatlands.
Another substrate is silt from the beach adjacent to the coral reef, where there is a lot of sand or even crushed coral.
Exposure to Sea Waves
The outermost or front part of the mangrove forest towards the open sea is often exposed to strong waves and currents. In contrast to the quieter inside.
Somewhat similar is the part of the forest that is directly opposite the river, that is, which is located on the bank of the river. The difference is, the salinity in this section is not that high, especially in parts that are quite far from the mouth. Mangrove forests are also a natural barrier that slows down large waves.
The outer section also has the longest tidal inundation of any other section; sometimes even permanently underwater. In contrast, parts of the inner forest may only be submerged in seawater once or twice a month during high tide.
Facing these differences in environmental conditions, a mangrove vegetation zone is formed naturally; which are usually layered, starting from the outermost exposed ocean waves to the relatively dry interior.
Mangrove species (Rhizophora spp.) usually grow on the outer surface (often hit by waves). Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata mangroves grow in the mudflats. While the mangroves R. stylosa and perepat (Sonneratia alba) grow on muddy sand. In calmer parts of the ocean, the black firefly (Avicennia alba) lives in the outer zone, or pilot zone.
In the deeper parts, which are still under water at high tide, a mixture of R. mucronata mangroves with kendeka (Bruguiera spp.), kaboa (Aegiceras corniculata) and others is often found. While nipa (Nypa fruticans), pida (Sonneratia caseolaris) and bintaro (Cerbera spp.) are found along river banks where the water is fresher.
Iris (Xylocarpus spp.), teruntum (Lumnitzera racemosa), hillock (Heritiera littoralis) and darkwood (Excoecaria agallocha) are found in the drier interior parts of the forest.
Condition of Mangrove Forests in Indonesia
Indonesia has the largest mangrove forest area in the world. According to FAO data for 2007, the area of mangrove forests in Indonesia is 3,062,300 hectares or 19% of the total forests in the world. This number exceeds Australia by about 10 percent and Brazil by about 7 percent.
According to Arobaya and Wanma, Indonesia has 27% of the world’s mangrove forests or around 4.25 million hectares. Similarities are also shown by national data, namely 4.3 million hectares (Ministry of Forestry, 2006).
However, the destruction of mangrove forests in Indonesia is getting worse every year. Deforestation in mangroves is 42% in severely damaged condition, 29% in damaged condition, less than 23% of mangroves in good condition, and 6% in very good condition.
That’s all for a brief discussion of mangrove forests that are scattered in Indonesia. Not only discussing mangrove forests, but also discussing their distribution area in various islands in Indonesia, tourist attractions of mangrove forests in Indonesia, their natural habitat, and the current condition of mangrove forests in Indonesia.
Knowing various information about the condition and distribution area of mangrove forests in Indonesia gives us valuable lessons on how important it is to protect and care for nature and its ecosystem because it is very beneficial for the life of every living thing and not only humans who receive the positive impact but all living things both animals and plants. also feel the positive impact of caring for mangrove forests.