America is known as a free nation. The people have the freedom to be themselves. They can explore themselves. How to dress is not regulated or bound by state rules. Simply put, the state does not interfere with the affairs of its people.
Every place in the world has a long history. Also the uniqueness of each. Likewise with America. To get to know the Americas better, Sinaumed’s can listen to the following explanation which has been summarized from various pages on the internet.
Astronomical Location of the Americas
The astronomical location of the Americas is at 83°N–55°S and 10°W–170°W. The determination of the astronomical position is obtained based on the location of the region in longitude and latitude. This location means that the American continent stretches from 83 0 north latitude to 55 0 south latitude. Also, longitude 10 0 west to 170 0 east.
The area of the American continent is approximately 42,330,000 km 2 . The area of the Americas is approximately 28.5% of the total surface area of the earth. The majority of the Americas are in the western hemisphere. However, vertically the American continent is located in the northern and southern regions of the earth. Therefore, its territory stretches from north latitude to south latitude.
The continent of America is bordered by water. To the north it is bordered by the Arctic Ocean. It is bordered on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
From the astronomical location of the Americas, it influences several things. Launching from the Tata Ruang.id page, following is the influence of the astronomical position of the American continent.
The climate on the American continent is not uniform. Some regions have different variations. Here are some climates that occur in the Americas.
- Wet tropical climate, covering Central America and parts of northern South America.
- Continental climate, covering the eastern part of the United States.
- Steppe climate, covering the eastern mountains of North America.
- The climate is arctic (cold), covering parts of Alaska and northern Canada.
- Desert climate, covering the western part of America.
- The climate is temperate, covering the coastal areas of Alaska and California.
The American continent has biodiversity both in flora and fauna groups. Especially in the South America region. There are several natural varieties such as tropical rain forests, deserts and tundra which are formed due to their astronomical and geographical location.
3. Time Zone
In America there are several different time zones. The following is the division of time zones in the Americas.
- UTC-12, covers the outer islands of the United States.
- UTC-11, covers the territory of American Samoa, the outer islands of the United States.
- UTC-10, covers the territory of Hawaii (US) (Hawaii Time Zone).
- UTC-9, covering the territory of Alaska (US) (Alaska Time Zone).
- UTC-8, covering Canada, Mexico & United States (Pacific Time Zone),
- UTC-7, covers Canada, Mexico & United States (Mountain Time Zone).
- UTC-6 includes Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Belize, Mexico, Canada & the United States (Central Time Zone).
- UTC-5, includes Colombia, Ecuador, Jamaica, Panama, Bahamas, Haiti, Peru, Cuba, Canada & United States (Eastern Time Zone).
- UTC-4.30, covering Venezuela.
- UTC-4, includes Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Chile, Barbados, Aruba, Bermuda, Dominica, Guyana, Guadaloupe, Antigua & Barbuda, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Trinidad & Tobago, Saint Lucia, Canada & the United States (Atlantic Time Zone) .
- UTC-3, includes Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Suriname.
- UTC-2, includes Brazil.
The Americas have native inhabitants, namely Eskimos and Indians. Then, came immigrants from countries in Europe, such as England, Italy, France, and Spain.
History of the Discovery of the Americas
Launching from the Kompas.com page, the recorded discoverer of the Americas was Christopher Columbus, an Italian sailor. However, in its development, this assumption was not proven. There has been speculation that Columbus was not the first person to discover America and interact with its native peoples.
Several Africans, Europeans, and Asians are believed to have reached the Americas before the exploration of Columbus in 1492. However, not all theories are accepted by scientists and historians.
Here are two versions of the theory of the discovery of the Americas.
1. The Vikings
The discoverers of the Americas before Columbus, who are recognized by historians, were the Vikings. The Vikings themselves are a term for Scandinavian people who once explored and plundered Europe and parts of North America around the end of the 8th century.
According to Icelandic history, the leader of the Vikings, Leif Eriksson, became the first person to discover America in around 1000. Long before Christopher Columbus’ voyage. It is suspected that he founded a settlement in L’Anse aux Meadows, located in Newfoundland and Labdaror, Canada.
This opinion is supported by historical and archaeological evidence in the form of the remains of a Viking settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows discovered by Norwegian explorers in 1960. The site is the only evidence of transoceanic contact prior to Christopher Columbus. The site was also designated as a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1978.
2. Christopher Columbus
When Europeans entered the century of exploration, Christopher Columbus became one of the Spanish representatives who sailed the Atlantic Ocean. Initially, Columbus’ goal of making the voyage was to find a route from Europe to countries in the East, namely Asia.
However, during the voyage that began in 1942, it landed in San Salvador, the Bahamas. Not in the East Indies as many have assumed. Further expeditions underway in 1493, 1498, and 1502 took him to parts of South America and Central America.
For his achievements, Columbus was named the discoverer of the Americas. However, in its development, this claim is considered wrong by most people. Columbus is more suitable to be named as the figure who introduced and paved the way for Europeans to America. This is also supported by the notion that Columbus never reached North America during his voyage.
Characteristics of the Americas
Every continent in the world has its own characteristics, America is no exception. Launching from the Idntimes.com page, here are the characteristics of the Americas.
1. Physical Characteristics
In general, the American continent is divided into two regions, namely North America and South America. Although both are located in the Americas. However, both have different climates.
In North America it has a subarctic climate, whereas, the southern region looks slightly tropical. The South American region has two climates, namely the northern part has a tropical climate, while the rest has a cold climate.
This climate division also affects the distribution of flora and fauna. This is due to the existence of diverse landscapes. Brazil has tropical rain forests and the Amazon River so that it is inhabited by a variety of plants and animals. Meanwhile, North America has grasslands that can be used as agriculture.
2. Socio-Cultural Characteristics
When Columbus discovered the Americas and called it the “New World”. Which indicates a narrow understanding in looking at the world, “this world is not only limited to the European continent”.
Increasingly, America is not only inhabited by Europeans. But also Asian and African people also came to America. Thus, there are encounters between various tribes, races, ethnicities, and religions in every region of the American continent.
These meetings created an increasingly diverse American population. This certainly has an impact on social and cultural life. A person or group who comes from outside the Americas does not only come with a body, but also with different social and cultural backgrounds.
This has made America have diverse social and cultural positions that have survived to this day. In socio-cultural development, the American continent also experienced assimilation which gave birth to a new culture.
The variations take the form of religion, language, art, and so on. Language, for example, in North America the predominance is English. However, in South America they use Portuguese or Spanish.
3. Economic Characteristics
The Americas have a distinctive economic pattern seen from the size of the area, the variety of landscapes, and geopolitical influences. The economy in the Americas has an advantage, namely in the field of trade. This is due to several countries with the largest economies in the world—including those in the G20—becoming part of the American continent.
On the American continent alone there are five countries that are officially listed on the G20 website. Among them are Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. Economic activity in the Americas is also supported by the strength of the United States as the most influential country in the world.
Countries in the Americas do not only rely on trade. But also mining. Countries in Latin America such as the United States, Venezuela, and others make petroleum a mainstay. There are also several countries that utilize mineral mining as an economic driver.
Like other countries in the world, America also has natural potential. The following is the natural potential possessed by America which has been summarized from various sources.
America also has potential in the mining sector in the form of new coal, silver, gold, oil and natural gas. A coal-producing region in the Appalachian Mountains of Chile. Meanwhile, the gold and silver producing countries are Mexico and Missouri. The producers of natural gas and oil are in Mexico and Venezuela.
2. Agriculture and Agriculture
Agriculture in America produces rice, cotton, sugar, and coffee. Which agricultural products are scattered in various countries in the Americas. The rice producing countries are Georgia, Texas, California, Carolina and Louisiana.
Meanwhile, sugar-producing countries are Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi and Cuba. Coffee producing countries are Guatemala, Argentina, Columbia, and El Salvador. The cotton producing states are Arkansas, Georgia, Nevada, Alabama, Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma.
Based on FAO data in 2005, America is the fifth largest producer in the world’s fisheries sector after China, Peru, India and Indonesia. In Canada it is a producer of salmon and herring. Herring, sardines and mackerel are produced in Peru. Meanwhile, mackerel is also produced in Chile.
Countries in the Americas have different climates. This is because the American continent has four climates, namely polar climate, subtropical climate, tropical climate, and desert climate. The following is an explanation of the four which have been summarized from the Tata Ruang.id page.
1. Polar climate
Polar climates are characterized by longer periods of cold air. Meanwhile, the summer time period is shorter. The polar climate is in the northernmost and southernmost areas of the Americas, around the west coast of the island of Api-api.
2. Subtropical climate
The subtropical climate can be recognized by the presence of four seasons, namely winter, spring, summer and autumn. The country on the American continent which has 4 seasons is located in the southern part of the northernmost region.
3. Tropical climate
The tropical climate can be identified by high rainfall, humidity and long temperatures throughout the year. Countries on the American continent with tropical climates are located along the Equator, namely Central America and South America.
4. Desert Climate
Countries that have a desert climate usually experience sudden and very fast temperature changes and low rainfall. This climate usually occurs in mountainous areas.
The Americas are divided into three parts, namely North America, Central America and South America. All three have different characteristics of the landscape. The following is an explanation of the three which have been summarized from the Tata Ruang.id page.
1. North America
The area of North America stretches from Alaska in the north to Mexico in the south. The climate in this northern part is colder than the rest of the Americas.
In North America there are famous mountains, namely the Rocky Mountains. The mountain range consists of the Cascade, the Western Sierra Madre mountains, and the Sierra Madre Nevada. The North American region also has a wide and famous valley, namely the Grand Canyon.
This northern American continent has a number of long rivers that form the border between Mexico and the United States. These rivers include the Mississippi River, Colodaro River, Missouri River, Arkansas River, and Rio Grande River.
2. Central America
Central America’s landscape is made up of mountains and plains up to 2,500 meters above sea level. The southern part of the Central American region is the canal that connects the Pacific Ocean with the Atlantic Ocean.
3. South America
The landscape of South America consists of mountains, plateaus, lowlands and rivers. South America has the Andes mountains which are the highest mountains on the American continent, which are as high as 6,959 meters above sea level.
In the southern part of the American continent also flows a river which is included in the longest and largest river, namely the Amazon river. The river flows into a number of tributaries covered by the Amazon jungle.
Inside the Amazon forest grows a variety of flora and fauna because it is in a tropical climate. For example bison, bears, alligators, pumas, jaguars, lizards, monkeys, snakes, and so on.