Temporal Conjunction : Definition, Types, and Examples

Temporal Conjunctions – A written work requires good linguistic rules by paying attention to various aspects, including the use of conjunctions. Conjunctions are connecting words for words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and paragraphs. The use of conjunctions is intended so that the order of words and sentences have coherence or connection. Conjunctions can usually be found when learning a language and can be used for everyday conversation.

Conjunctions or connecting words are certain lexemes that are responsible for connecting words with words, phrases with phrases, clauses with clauses, and sentences with sentences in a coordinative or subordinating way. The relationship between the two clauses is marked by the presence of a conjunction that begins one of the clauses.

Conjunctions in the science of syntax can be used as an intermediary to expand a range of syntactic units that are found in equal or even unequal levels. stated that the science of syntax is a science that focuses its studies on words, groups of words (phrases), clauses, and studies related to types of sentences. Conjunctions are needed in writing a discourse. A good discourse is a discourse that should pay attention to the relationship between sentences, so that it can preserve the connection and sequence between sentences.

Conjunctions are divided into five types when viewed from their syntactic behavior in sentences, namely coordinative conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, temporal conjunctions, and intersentential conjunctions. The five conjunctions are further divided into sub-types and have different characters.

The use of the right conjunction will affect the accuracy of the information. Ideas in the same sentence can bring up different information because of the difference in the use of conjunctions. Although they both aim to connect, conjunctions have different types according to their purpose. One of them is temporal conjunction.

Temporal conjunctions are conjunctions related to time. There are two types of temporal conjunctions, namely equal temporal conjunctions and unequal temporal conjunctions.

To know more about temporal conjunction, can understand the examples. There are many examples of temporal conjunctions that can be understood.

Definition of Temporal Conjunction

Before knowing the meaning of temporal conjunction, it would be better if we know what the term conjunction is. So, a conjunction in general is a useful word to connect between sentences or between paragraphs. This conjunction is used so that the sentences have a connection. So, what is a temporal conjunction?

Temporal conjunction is one of many types of conjunction So, a temporal conjunction is a linking word related to time. The meaning is that conjunctions are useful to connect one event with another event so that they are related to each other. Sentences that use temporal conjunction sentences are sentences that explain time, events, or occurrences.

This temporal conjunction is generally used when explaining the time of an event to help the reader understand the meaning of the sentence. The use of this connecting sentence is important in order to give the chronology of an event in sequence. This type of conjunction is usually used in articles or texts for news.

In addition, temporal conjunctions are also widely used for procedural text writing. Procedural text is writing about tips or tutorials that explain the steps to do something. This conjunction is said to be a conjunction that is widely used because it fits the pattern of paragraph development. Therefore, temporal conjunctions without realizing it may often be encountered by readers every day.

A temporal conjunction is a linking word that is an extension of a sequence step by step. Temporal conjunctions are also commonly used in procedural text rules, such as how to turn on a device, how to clean a carpet, how to turn on a motorcycle, turn on a laptop, bathe a cat and others.

The use of temporal conjunctions (eg since, then, initially, finally) is also a special feature in the linguistic aspects of news texts. The functions of time description, direct sentences and standard Indonesian language should be used so that the news delivered does not have ambiguous and double meaning.

Historical narratives or historical stories also often use temporal conjunctions. Because, temporal conjunction provides information about the relationship between two different events. In simple terms, temporal identification of historical texts is an attempt to interpret historical texts based on the time in the text.

The chronology of an event will be easily known by determining the time limit of the historical story. If successful in determining the time limit, the chronology of a historical event will be easy to understand.

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Through the opinion of some experts, conjunctions can be interpreted simply as words that play a role in connecting between words, between sentences, and between paragraphs as briefly explained above.

Its use is of course important, because it helps the reader to understand a writing or essay well. Without connecting words, a sentence and a paragraph can be unclear or even difficult to understand.

In addition, the selection of conjunctions must also be correct, it is unusual to use conjunctions because they will influence and change the meaning of a sentence or text. This property then makes conjunctions more developed into several types.

Based on its syntactic behavior, conjunctions or conjunctions are then divided into four types, namely temporal conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and causality conjunctions.

Temporal Conjunction

The Function of Temporal Conjunctions

According to its definition, the main purpose of temporal conjunction is to connect sentences related to time. With the existence of this temporal conjunction, two sentences which are actually different events, can still be united with the temporal conjunction and will feel interconnected with each other.

In addition, the function of temporal conjunctions is to ensure that readers are not confused when reading a sentence or paragraph because there is no connecting word. With the temporal conjunction, the reader will most likely understand the meaning of the writing better.

Characteristics of Temporal Conjunctions

1. Functions as a Subjunctive

Subjunctive meaning is a mode that expresses an objective possibility. That is, the use of a sentence has a complete, coherent meaning, and is easily understood by the reader.

2. Flexible

The meaning is flexible, that is, the temporal conjunction can be placed either at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the sentence. The placement adjusts to the meaning and purpose of the sentence.

3. Connecting the Main Sentence with the Main Sentence

Another characteristic of this conjunction is that it can be a link between the parent sentence and the main sentence or clause. A link means a link between one sentence and another sentence. Thus, the reader can be helped to understand the relationship between the two sentences.

4. Connecting Sentences Related to Time Elements

This characteristic is certainly the main characteristic of temporal conjunction. This character is also a differentiator between this conjunction and the others. This temporal conjunction cannot be used in sentences that do not have a time element

Types of Temporal Conjunctions

Based on its nature, this conjunction is further divided into two types, namely:

1. Equal Temporal Conjunctions

Equivalent temporal conjunctions are conjunctions of the same or equivalent nature. The meaning is that this conjunction becomes an equivalent compound sentence. This type of conjunction can only be placed in the middle of the sentence and cannot be placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.

Because, if it is placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence, the meaning of the sentence will be difficult for the reader to understand or even the sentence will become messy. In fact, it is possible to put the equivalent type at the beginning or at the end, but it is necessary to use other conjunctions at the beginning so that the sentence can be understood. Usually, to separate between sentences is to add a comma.

Examples of equal temporal conjunctions are:

  • Then.
  • Then.
  • Further on.
  • After that.
  • Previously.
  • After that.
  • Before that.
  • After that

2. Unequal Temporal Conjunctions

The unequal temporal conjunction is the opposite of the equal, so it is a conjunction used to connect sentences that are not equal or have a degree. Non-equal temporal conjunctions tend to be more flexible than equals. Because this type of conjunction can be placed at the beginning, middle, and end of a sentence. Even if it is placed anywhere, the sentence will still be understandable.

Examples of unequal temporal conjunctions are:

  • Temporary.
  • When.
  • Since.
  • When.
  • Since.
  • Aware.
  • When.
  • When.
  • Moments.
  • Until

Examples of Temporal Conjunction Sentences

Through the explanation of the two types of temporal conjunctions above, you can certainly know that there are many forms of conjunctions. Each conjunction has its own rules in terms of placement as well as in its use in sentence types. Therefore, knowing conjunctions is very important so as not to go wrong, especially if you plan or have a dream to become a writer, both a book writer and a journalist.

Therefore, understanding right up to the top of your head about what conjunctions are and their types is a must. So that it is easier to determine the placement of the two types of temporal conjunctions.

The following is an example of a temporal conjunction sentence based on its type in general, so that it can be easier to distinguish between the two:

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1. Examples of Equal Temporal Conjunction Sentences

  • After the computer is turned off, then also turn off the monitor screen.
  • Cristiano Ronaldo was injured, so he had to be absent for 6 months.
  • The weather in the Jakarta region has started to improve, and the regional government will carry out flood control.
  • Roni attends extracurricular music in the afternoon, after which he will perform directly on the school’s art stage.
  • The flood conditions in Semarang have not yet improved, even though previously the regional government had tried to deal with them by using water pumps.
  • This afternoon we studied mathematics and then studied English at Dina’s house.
  • To go to the nearest mosque from the intersection, you turn left for about 50 meters, then you turn right.
  • My mother and I went to the market to buy vegetables, then came home and cooked them.
  • Andita went to her grandmother’s house to deliver her sister’s birthday cake, then headed to her uncle’s house.
  • On Tuesday, the first subject is mathematics, then continued with English.
  • Adrian ran to his grandmother’s house, then stopped at a stall.
  • Merisa persuaded her father to accompany her to the minimarket, then went to her grandmother’s house.
  • Habib was washing the dishes, before he had swept the yard.
  • In the second subject, Rizky fell asleep in class, even though he had previously slept when the first lesson was empty.
  • When I returned home, my mother bought me a new uniform, where before I told my mother that my school uniform was too small.
  • To make fried rice, you have to prepare the rice, then prepare the spices.
  • Before going to bed, Rio played games, even though he had been playing games until he didn’t take a shower.
  • Mother cooks rice that has been washed before.
  • Aminah is now the backbone of the family, whereas before she was just a housewife.
  • My plan in 2022 is to buy my father and mother a new house, then I want to send them on the Hajj.
  • After cleaning the house, then Fitri took a bath.
  • Father took ablution water and prayed in congregation in the mosque.
  • Dina changed clothes, then had dinner with her family.
  • Aisah went to her mother’s room, then gave her a gift.
  • Fero was riding a motorcycle but not wearing a helmet, so he was pulled over by the police.
  • Grandfather is being examined in the Emergency Department (EDU), then will be transferred to the dormitory room.
  • Bibi washed the peeled vegetables and then boiled them and added salt.
  • In the SEA Games competition in the sport of football, after defeating the Philippines, Indonesia will next face Malaysia.
  • Before eating, the mango should be peeled first, then cut into small pieces.
  • My father fished in the river, then the fish my father caught was cooked by my mother.

2. Examples of Inequivalent Temporal Conjunction Sentences

  • Sandy came home, when Nana had just left for the office.
  • While Juventus has only won 3 titles, Real Madrid has won 14 times.
  • When the weather starts to warm, the stadium cover will be automatically closed.
  • Seli felt very awkward, since her boss’s arrival at the office.
  • When the audience started to get out of control, the police started moving to secure the situation.
  • When Reni was at school, her younger brother came to see her.
  • Mathematics class did not finish until the Maghrib call to prayer had already resounded.
  • The hotel on Jalan Diponegoro has been closed since the pandemic two years ago.
  • As long as the weather is still hot, the rice fields in the region will always be dry.
  • Bobi met Sasa, when he was still in high school.
  • My mother called my father, while cooking breakfast for me and my sister.
  • Riana cleans the front yard while watering the plants.
  • Doni teaches his younger sister to do homework while studying for school tests.
  • While watching TV, Andina helped her mother make a braid for a ketupat.
  • Fahmi makes a steamed sponge while watching a tutorial on YouTube.
  • While waiting for my mother to finish cooking, my sister and I cleaned the house.
  • Raisa looks like she has a fuller body since giving birth to her first child.
  • Rian liked Anisa since he became a member of Anisa’s group.
  • Fahri’s hobby is playing soccer, since he often accompanies his sister to soccer practice.
  • Ariana loves math subjects since she got a 50 on her test.
  • The person works from morning until late at night to support his family.
  • Merisa works on the side to be able to pay for her younger sister’s school.