Inventor of the Camera – Has Sinaumed’s ever thought, who invented the camera? Then, how about the appearance of the world’s first camera? To get all the answers to these questions, let’s see the full explanation below.
So, the discovery of the camera for the first time is a very long process. This process begins when scientists and philosophers become aware of the existence of natural optical phenomena in human life. Where technology also participates in playing a fairly important role both in terms of practical knowledge or the equipment used. These days, almost everyone has a camera.
Whether it’s a camera on a smartphone or the latest DSLR camera. That means, the world of photography has now begun to penetrate into every layer of people’s lives. Not only that, the impact of owning the camera has also given birth to various cultures and new jobs. For example, the work of photographers, models, selfies, and so on.
Although actually, this trend would not have emerged if people like Andrea Gursky and Cindy Sherman had not provided an understanding of the keys to the world of photography. That the field of photography is an art that aims to create, produce, and also create an image from light.
Apart from that, the art is also formed from a small tool which is hereinafter referred to as the “camera”. This is because this tool became one of the pioneers of all modern culture, which is quite narcissistic. With that said, everyone who has a camera seems to have to thank those who created the camera.
But, before we thank you, it would be better if we first got to know the person who invented the camera and its developments up to now. If Sinaumed’s is curious about the discussion this time, don’t forget to watch and read the article until it’s finished.
Principles and How the Camera Works
There are lots of issues about who invented the camera. In this discussion, the author will divide it into two parts of the invention, namely the inventor of the principles and workings of the camera and the inventor of the modern camera. There are several sources who say that the principle and workings of the camera were first discovered by Al-Bayt Al-Muzlim.
One of the leading media in England, namely, The Independent, in 2006 had made a special report on this matter to refute the camera inventor who had previously appeared. Meanwhile, other sources say otherwise. Then, who actually invented the camera? To discuss this, let’s discuss the discovery of the principle and also how the camera works first.
1. Pinhole Camera
Camera technology would never have been created if the pinhole had never been found. This discovery has actually existed since the time of the Greeks and also Ancient China. Where the philosopher from China, Mozi who was still alive during the Han Dynasty, which is around 391 BC, was the first to write about the principle of the pinhole camera. Apart from that, the philosopher from Ancient Greece, Aristotle, also wrote about the principle of the pinhole camera in his reflections on phenomena in the book Problema. In this reflection, Aristotle asked why the sun looks round even though it is projected through a rectangular hole.
Then, what is the principle of this pinhole camera? So, the principle of the pinhole camera takes the form of a natural optical phenomenon that exists in this world. Where the image on one side or screen is projected through a hole onto the surface opposite the opening. The projection will basically produce an image upside down. Meanwhile, the camera obscura, which is a term that first appeared in the 16th century, also refers to this principle. However, the camera obscura has used other additional materials such as a special box that has the image projected upside down.
2. Camera Obscura
One of the differences between a pinhole camera and a camera obscura lies in the use of the lens. Where simply put, a pinhole camera is just a similar device that leaves its aperture open. Obscura technology began to develop in the 17th and 18th centuries when artists used the device to paint objects. This is because the use of such devices by artists is considered plagiarism or plagiarism. This happens because they are considered to be painting an object that already exists. While the workings of the camera obscura, as written by Bradley Steffans in his book entitled Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, is a projection of all images originating from outside the room.
The Origins of the Camera Inventor
From the brief historical explanation above, through the principles and workings of the camera, many people started writing and also put forward their ideas about cameras. Here are some of them:
1. Johann Zahn
In the 17th century, the use of the camera has led to the portable. This principle is of course very different from the camera obscura which must be taken from indoors. In other words, within this principle there is an improvement in the use of the camera. Although the camera still has a lot of weaknesses. Starting from the duration of taking pictures that are quite long, the device used, to the prints that are not neat. Johann Zahn, a light expert from Germany, once wrote unequivocally about camera obscura, telescopes, magic lanterns, and lenses. In 1685, he presented his idea, namely a design to architects intended to design a handheld reflex camera. However, it turned out that this proposal was never realized until 131 years ago, when the first reflex camera was invented.
2. Joseph Nicephore Niepce
Until now, almost everyone and even the world admits that Joseph Nicephore Niepce was the inventor of the camera for the first time. Niepce used a camera he made himself to make his first successful photograph captured by a camera in 1816. Then the photo was printed on paper which had been coated with silver chloride. Even though the photo is no longer there, the letter from Niepce addressed to his sister is one of the proofs that he managed to create a camera that can make a rough photo.
As for one of the physical evidence of Niepce’s work that is still stored today is a photograph of a view of the building that he took from the window of Ie Graz, France in 1827. The photo is stored at the University of Texas-Austin and is one of the permanent collections of the campus. From the results of these photos, Niepce is considered the inventor of the world’s first functional camera.
Niepce uses a technique called heligraphy. So that he managed to create a photo first in the world that can not be replicated. The formation of heliography is carried out on a glass or metal surface that has been coated with Bitumen of Judea. It is natural asphalt and can only harden in certain areas. Meanwhile, asphalt that cannot harden will leave photographic marks. This discovery is also one of the first steps to create a permanent photo in the future.
3. Louis Daguerre and Daguerreotype
In 1829, Niepce joined Louis Daguerre, an artist and photographer from France. Both of them conducted experiments to simplify the process of taking photos from the camera. So that the use of the camera will be easier. At that time, to produce just one photo, it required exposure to light for several days. It aims to develop asphalt-soaked slabs based on ideas from Niepce. The two people got the idea to change the way the camera works into a reflex that can work in a short time. But after Niepce’s death in 1833, Daguerre continued his experiments until he finally succeeded in creating the Daguerreotype.
The tool was named after the name of the inventor and became a standard formula of today’s photographic equipment. The process was first introduced to the public in 1839. Basically the Daguerreotype required a silver plated copper sheet which would later be polished onto a mirror surface. Not only that, the plate also requires iodine vapor to be sensitive to light. Then after being exposed to light, the disc will be exposed to mercury vapor and then repaired again using sodium chloride. Using this method, Daguerre managed to make the first photograph that captures humans.
Daguerre’s discovery then spread very quickly. In 1840, Alexander Wolcott granted the first photographic patent for the Daguerreotype camera in America. Even though at that time the camera had been invented, the process of taking photos at that time was still very expensive. In addition, only experienced photographers could take photos with customers from the nobility and the elite.
The Development of Cameras in the World
The following are some camera developments in the world from ancient times to modern times like today:
1. Camera Obscura
The camera obscura is a box-shaped camera with a dark or light-tight chamber inside. This type of camera can reflect light through two convex lenses. Then the camera will place the image on film or paper at the focal point of the camera lens. While the device of the camera obscura consists of a tent, a box, and a room that has a small hole on one side. The light coming from the external view passed through the hole and hit the surface that was inside. Where the scene is produced, best and best left to right, but still with the colors and also the perspective is maintained.
Images can be projected onto paper and afterwards traced to produce a very accurate representation. To be able to produce a fairly accurate projected image, the number of apertures must be around 1/100 the distance to the screen or less. Many types of camera obscura use lenses instead of pinholes. Because, it allows a larger aperture. That way, the camera will produce brightness and can also maintain focus.
Because the pinhole is made smaller, the resulting image will also be sharper. But the projected image becomes dimmer. By using a pinhole that is too small, it can make the sharpness of the image worse due to diffraction. Whereas using a mirror as in the overhead version in the 18th century, it would allow the camera to project the image above. There is another type that is more portable, namely a box with an angled mirror that is projected onto paper placed on top of the glass.
2. Kodak Brownies
In the early 1900’s, camera technology has begun to be developed again into two types. The first is a type of folding camera and the second is a type of box camera. For example, the Kodak brownie camera created by Ansco Buster Brown.
3. Corona View Camera
This type of camera is made by Gundlach in Rochester, New York. Corona View Camera is usually used for field photography matters.
4. Nodak or North Dakota
In the 1930s, Kodak made a camera that was quite innovative. Where the camera can be folded. So it’s very easy to carry everywhere. In addition, this type of camera has a design that has proven to be very popular. For example, Brownie 620 and Bantam.
5. Mercury Univex
The Mercury Univex camera was officially released in 1938. This type of camera has a distinctive design, which is a half-moon shape at the top of the camera shutter. The material used to make this camera is metal and is supported by a unique rotation system. This gives you a variety of shutter speed options that you can choose according to your needs.
6. Focusing Lens Extension
Then comes another new camera design which is displayed with a bellows-type concept. This type of camera uses a Focusing Lens Extension, which was then widely used by journalists in the 1950s. The concept continued to be developed until it became a Polaroid camera in the late 1960s.
7. Imperial Camera
This type of imperial camera is a major product of George Herbert Co. in Chicago. This is the official camera of Scouting and also the first camera made using bright colors.
8. Zeiss Icon
In 1926, the Zeiss Icon camera appeared, which was formed from four different camera makers. The name Icon itself is a combination of two companies, namely I as CA and Con as Tessa-Nettel.
9. Digital Cameras
Until the end of 1999, Nikon released the D1 type digital camera with lens specifications of 2.7 megapixels and 4.5 fps. Where most of these types of cameras are used by professional photographers.
10. Mirrorless Camera
Mirrorless is a digital camera that is almost the same as a DSLR camera. However, this camera has a lighter and smaller design. Mirrorless camera was first launched in 2004 which was named Epson R-D1.
This is an explanation of the history of camera inventors and the development of cameras from the past until now. Knowing who invented the camera for the first time and who were the people involved in pioneering the working principles of the camera are the most important things to understand before you enter the world of photography. If there weren’t these people, then we would never be able to create a self-image through a photograph and use the camera freely. Hopefully this article can be useful for those of you who are interested in entering the world of photography.